AI Based Search Engine for Locating Desirable Open Educational Resources

1,252 views

Published on

Location of Desirable Open Educational Resources in the Commonwealth Connect Portal Directory of Open Educational Resources (DOER) using the OERScout Artificial Intelligence Based Search Engine.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,252
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

AI Based Search Engine for Locating Desirable Open Educational Resources

  1. 1. OERScout AI Based Search Engine for Locating Desirable Open Educational Resources Research Seminar (23rd May 2012, COL, Vancouver) Ishan Abeywardena MSc, MSc (Brunel), BSc (Bangalore), MIEEE, MBCS, MACM Senior Lecturer, School of Science and Technology Wawasan Open University Penang, Malaysia Currently pursuing PhD in Computer Science at University of Malaya, Malaysia
  2. 2. Acknowledgement This research project is funded by: The Grant (# 102791) generously made by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada through an umbrella study on Openness and Quality in Asian Distance Education Commonwealth of Learning (COL), Canada through an Executive Secondment (4th – 25th May 2012) Wawasan Open University, Penang, Malaysia
  3. 3. Talking Points… Open Educational Resources (OER) Searching for OER Usefulness of OER Desirability of OER Search mechanisms OERScout Moving Forward
  4. 4. OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES (OER) Overview
  5. 5. What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? “web-based materials, offered freely and openly for use and re-use in teaching, learning and research” (Joyce, 2007) “Just as the Linux operating system and other open source software has become a pervasive computer technology around the world, so too might OER materials become the basis for training the global masses” (Farber, 2009) Joyce, A. (2007). OECD Study of OER: Forum Report, OECD. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/forumsfiche.php?queryforumspages_id=33. Farber, R. (2009). Probing OER’s huge potential [Electronic Version]. Scientific Computing 26(1), 29-29. Mello, J. (2012). OER Global Logo. Retrived April 5, 2012 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and- information/access-to-knowledge/open-educational-resources/global-oer-logo/
  6. 6. Key Attributes of an OER Relevance Openness Access
  7. 7. Openness of OER The four R’s (Hilton, Wiley, Stein and Johnson, 2010) ◦ Reuse: the ability to use all or part of a work for ones own purposes; ◦ Redistribute: the ability to share ones work with others; ◦ Revise: the ability to adapt, modify, translate or change the form of a work; ◦ Remix: the ability to combine resources to make new resources. Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44.
  8. 8. Openness of OER The four R’s are governed by the license* http://creativecommons.org/ Attribution (CC BY) Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND) Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) *There are licensing schemes other than the Creative Commons used to govern the four R’s
  9. 9. Access to OER ALMS analysis (Hilton, Wiley, Stein and Johnson, 2010) ◦ Access to editing tools ◦ Level of expertise required to revise or remix ◦ Ability to Meaningfully edit ◦ Source-file access Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44.
  10. 10. Relevance of OER Metadata Standards ◦ GLOBE (Global Learning Objects Brokered Exchange) ◦ IEEE-LOM (Learning Object Metadata) ◦ Other Specific Standards
  11. 11. The Current Situation of OER With increased funding and advocacy by governmental/non- governmental organisations and generous philanthropy, many OER repositories have mushroomed over the years boasting a large volume of quality resources. (Abeywardena, Raviraja and Tham, 2012) These repositories have started to grow exponentially rich in knowledge. However, this has in turn given rise to the new challenge of locating resources suitable for use and reuse from the large number of disconnected and disparate repositories available across the globe (Geser, 2007). Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R. and Tham, C.Y. (2012). Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-index. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 104-121 Geser, G. (2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources - OLCOS Roadmap 2012. Open Learning Content Observatory Services. Salzburg, Austria. 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2011 from
  12. 12. SEARCHING FOR OER The Problem
  13. 13. “…the problem with open content is not the lack of available resources on the Internet but the inability to locate suitable resources for academic use” (Unwin, 2005). “...The problem is in finding the resources, and more correctly finding the “right” resources. Using a regular search engine like Google to find content is not always a viable option as it will generate too many answers. There is, hence, a need to easily find relevant content...” (Hatakka, 2009) . Searching for Suitable OER Unwin, T. (2005). Towards a Framework for the Use of ICT in Teacher Training in Africa. Open Learning 20, 113-130. Hatakka, M. (2009). Build It and They Will Come? – Inhibiting Factors for Reuse of Open Content in Developing Countries,
  14. 14. How Users Find OER Identify which material to look for e.g. integration, C++ programming) Identify the search queries (e.g. “undergraduate mathematics”) Locate repository(word of mouth, some link somewhere, go to the more popular repositories) Run multiple queries to find resources Read each resource to identify the usefulness (openness, access, relevance) Identify useful resources Repeat steps 3-6 on multiple repositories (hundreds to thousands…..)
  15. 15. Existing Search Mechanisms Generic engines (Google, Yahoo!, Bing etc.) Repository specific engines (Wikieducator, Connexions etc.) Custom engines (issuelab.org etc.)
  16. 16. How “They” Find OER Metadata ◦ Title ◦ Description ◦ Keywords ◦ Others (license, author etc.) To facilitate accurate searching of OER, each resource must be tagged using a specific set of metadata defined by a global standard.
  17. 17. How “They” Find OER Who will tag the resources? The authors of the content (Humans) = Inconsistent, Irrelevant, Non-uniform metadata
  18. 18. How “They” Find OER
  19. 19. The Problem There is no generic methodology available at present to enable search mechanisms to autonomously gauge the usefulness of an OER for ones teaching and learning needs. The use of diverse and disparate technology platforms in these projects further entails the inability to effectively trawl and located OER using generic search methodologies. …if one of the technological barriers towards wider adoption of OER is the inability of existing searching methods and techniques to effectively locate specific, relevant and quality OER then how can existing search techniques be improved or augmented to facilitate more effective location of specific, relevant and quality OER over the
  20. 20. Possible Solution OERScout
  21. 21. What is OERScout? An Artificial Intelligence (AI) based text mining algorithm which performs unsupervised autonomous learning. Reads the actual content of a text based OER (webpage, .pdf, .doc, .docx) and understands what it is about. ◦ i.e. If it reads the content of an article on calculus, it will understand that the OER belongs to the domain of mathematics and sub-domain calculus. Creates a dynamic map of the resources called the Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM)
  22. 22. Suggested topics based on query Most desirable resources based on the D-index Related topics for drilling down
  23. 23. DESIRABILITY OF OER Finding Resources
  24. 24. The Usefulness of an OER The usefulness of an OER for a particular teaching or learning need can only be accurately assessed by reading through the content. However, there are other aspects that can be parametrically measured by a software based mechanism: • Whether a resource is relevant to a user’s needs; • Whether the resource is open enough for using, reusing, remixing and redistributing; • Whether the resource is accessible with respect to technology.
  25. 25. The Desirability of an OER Within the requirement of being able to use and reuse a particular OER, the three parameters of Desirability (Abeywardena, Raviraja and Tham, 2012) can be defined as: ◦ level of openness: the permission to use and reuse the resource; ◦ level of access: the technical keys required to unlock the resource; ◦ relevance: the level of match between the resource and the needs of the user. Less useful resources are less desirable for teaching and learning needs….
  26. 26. Measuring the Desirability D-index = (level of access x level of openness x relevance) / 256 Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R. and Tham, C.Y. (2012). Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-index. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 104-121 (ISI-cited journal)
  27. 27. Openness Permission Value Reuse 1 Redistribute 2 Revise 3 Remix 4 The level of openness based on the four R’s of openness Mapping the CC licenses to the 4 R’s Permission Creative Commons (CC) licence Value Reuse None 1 Redistribute Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND) 2 Revise Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) 3 Remix Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) Attribution (CC BY) 4
  28. 28. Access Access to editing tools Level of expertise required to revise or remix Meaningfully editable Source-file access Value LOW HIGH NO NO 01 LOW HIGH NO YES 02 LOW HIGH YES NO 03 LOW HIGH YES YES 04 LOW LOW NO NO 05 LOW LOW NO YES 06 LOW LOW YES NO 07 LOW LOW YES YES 08 HIGH HIGH NO NO 09 HIGH HIGH NO YES 10 HIGH HIGH YES NO 11 HIGH HIGH YES YES 12 HIGH LOW NO NO 13 HIGH LOW NO YES 14 HIGH LOW YES NO 15 The level of access based on the ALMS analysis
  29. 29. Relevance Search rank Value Below the top 30 ranks of the search results 1 Within the top 21-30 ranks of the search results 2 Within the top 11-20 ranks of the search results 3 Within the top 10 ranks of the search results 4 The level of relevance based on search rank (Vaughan, 2004) • Users will only consider the top ten ranked results for a particular search as the most relevant; • Users will ignore the results below the top 30 ranks. Vaughan, L. (2004). New measurements for search engine evaluation proposed and tested. Information Processing and Management 40, 677–691.
  30. 30. Calculation Original search results (OER Commons example) Calculation of D-index After application of D-index
  31. 31. Sample Search Search Rank Title CC Lisence File Type 1 18.01 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC- SA PDF 2 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC- SA HTML/Text 3 18.01 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC- SA PDF 4 18.013A Calculus with Applications CC BY-NC- SA HTML/Text 5 18.02 Multivariable Calculus CC BY-NC- SA PDF 6 Single Variable Calculus CC BY-NC- SA PDF 7 Calculus Online Textbook CC BY-NC- SA PDF CC BY-NC- Top 10 search results returned by MERLOT for the keyword “calculus”
  32. 32. Original Search Results The original top ten search results only contain resources which are released under the CC BY-NC-SA license. 6/10 resources returned are in PDF format which make them difficult to reuse and remix. Resource ranked as number ten is a protected resource which requires a specific username and password to access.
  33. 33. Application of D-index Rank After Applying D-index Original Search Rank Title CC Lisence File Type D-index 1 2 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Tex t 0.75 2 4 18.013A Calculus with Applications CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Tex t 0.75 3 8 Calculus for Beginners and Artists CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Tex t 0.75 4 14 Multivariable Calculus CC BY HTML/Tex t 0.75 5 19 MATH 10250 - Elements of Calculus I, Fall 2008 CC BY-NC-SA HTML/Tex t 0.56 6 20 18.022 Calculus CC BY-NC-SA PDF 0.56 7 22 Single-Variable Calculus I CC BY HTML/Tex t 0.50 8 25 Single-Variable Calculus II CC BY HTML/Tex t 0.50 Top 10 results when D-index is applied to the results returned by MERLOT
  34. 34. Results After Applying D- index 8/10 resources are in HTML/Text formats which are the most accessible in terms of reuse. 4/10 resources are available under the CC BY licence which make them the most open resources in the list.
  35. 35. Benefits of the D-index The application of the D-index would greatly improve the effectiveness of the search with respect to locating the most suitable resources for use and reuse
  36. 36. OERSCOUT Possible Solution
  37. 37. The KDM Keyword 1 Keyword 2 ……… Keyword n Resource 1 Resource 2 ……….. Resource n The system needs a large organised CONTENT AND PORTAL REPOSITORY for the initial learning.
  38. 38. Work Performed at COL Process 2598 resources from DOER and create the KDM Optimise the KDM creation Autonomously identify the CC license and File type of resource Apply the D-index to the results Build OERScout Client Build searching mechanism for the KDM Setup OERScout.org for KDM hosting
  39. 39. How OERScout Works Web Server hosting OERScout KDMServer Tools creating KDM OERScout Web Service OERScout Client
  40. 40. Server Tools (Learning)
  41. 41. OERScout Client
  42. 42. SO WHY OERSCOUT? Benefits
  43. 43. Benefits of OERScout Content Creators: No need for metadata No need for manually defining content domains for categorisation (e.g. mathematics: calculus: integration) No need for publicising the availability of a repository No need for building custom search mechanisms More visibility of material to a wider audience
  44. 44. Benefits of OERScout Users: Provides a central location for finding resources scattered across the globe hidden in high volume repositories. Brings only the most Desirable resources using the D-index and omits the rest. Creates a complicated map of resources called the Keyword-Document Matrix (KDM) for easy more accurate searching.
  45. 45. Benefits of OERScout to DOER Provides a more accurate search mechanism Eliminates the need for manually categorising, cataloguing and tagging of resources Facilitates rapid expansion Promotes wider access
  46. 46. Ultimate Benefit of OERScout By using OERScout, both Content Creators and Users only need to concentrate on the actual content and not the searching and location of specific, relevant and desirable OER from the disconnected and disparate repositories scattered across the globe.
  47. 47. Future Work An OERScout web service will be made available via oerscout.org which will allow repositories to submit their resources for processing and also use the OERScout algorithm to processes search queries.
  48. 48. Further Acknowledgements I acknowledge the supervision provided by Dr Chan Chee Seng and Dr S. Raviraja of FCSIT, University of Malaya, Malaysia. A special vote of thanks to Tan Sri Dato’ Prof Gajaraj (Raj) Dhanarajan, Prof Dato’ Wong Tat Meng and Prof Tham Choy Yoong for allowing me to take time off of work at WOU and be here. I express my gratitude to Sir John Daniel and Professor Asha Kanwar for supporting this secondment and also to all the colleagues at COL for welcoming me into the COL family. Last but not the least, I must express my gratitude to Dr Balaji for the support provided both professionally as a great mentor and personally as a gracious host.
  49. 49. References Abeywardena, I.S., Raviraja, R. and Tham, C.Y. (2012). Conceptual Framework for Parametrically Measuring the Desirability of Open Educational Resources using D-index. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(2), 104-121. Geser, G. (2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources - OLCOS Roadmap 2012. Open Learning Content Observatory Services. Salzburg, Austria. 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2011 from http://www.olcos.org/cms/upload/docs/olcos_roadmap.pdf. Hatakka, M. (2009). Build It and They Will Come? – Inhibiting Factors for Reuse of Open Content in Developing Countries, EJISDC 37(5), 1-16. Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. Farber, R. (2009). Probing OER’s huge potential [Electronic Version]. Scientific Computing 26(1), 29-29. Joyce, A. (2007). OECD Study of OER: Forum Report, OECD. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/forumsfiche.php?queryforumspages_id =33. Mello, J. (2012). OER Global Logo. Retrived April 5, 2012 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to- knowledge/open-educational-resources/global-oer-logo/ . Unwin, T. (2005). Towards a Framework for the Use of ICT in Teacher Training in Africa. Open Learning 20, 113-130.

×