Underwater Tunnels


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a presentation on the proposed Transatlantic Tunnel

Published in: Technology, Business

Underwater Tunnels

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  2. 2. 8/5/2013Underwater tunnels 2 MBA(tech.)-Manufacturing Chirag Chauhan #303 Ishan Parekh #315 Ankit Shah #317
  3. 3.  Paths of transport which are partly or wholly constructed under a body of water  A few of the prominent undersea tunnels are: Sydney HarbourTunnel SeikanTunnel Cross-HarbourTunnel ChannelTunnel Eiksundtunnelen 3
  4. 4. Soft GroundTunnel • Tunnels which are dug up below the ocean bed ImmersedTunnel • Tunnels which are made on the ocean floor Floating SubmergedTunnel • Tunnels which are submerged & floating due to tethers attached 4
  5. 5. The heavy, wet ground pushes the tunnel on all sides plus the additional pressure which acts from above. Water pushes from above tunnel, while the tunnel's walls are squeezed by the soft ground. Water exerts tremendous pressure on all sides of the tunnel, specially from up above. 5
  6. 6. 6 Outer Shell made up of STAINLESS STEEL Next comes up a thick layer of SUPERBUOYANT FOAM Then follows up another hub of STAINLESS STEEL Then comes the main structure whose frame is designed using STAINLESS STEEL which is packed with CONCRETE Underwater viewing if needed is made up with ACRYLIC PANELS
  7. 7.  A specific challenge or problem like a roadway or railway, bodies of water, mountains or other transportation routes.  Depends heavily on the material through which it must pass.  Planning is so important to a successful tunnel project.  Some of the factors which are considered: Soil and rock types Weak beds and zones, including faults and shear zones Groundwater, including flow pattern and pressure Special hazards, such as heat, gas and fault lines, ventilations 7
  8. 8. Different Tools Traditional Fire Setting HandTools Explosives Modern Tunnel Boring Machine Compressed Water Drills Section Pre- Construction 8
  9. 9. 9 Soft Rock Tunnels TBMs Immersed Tunnels Cut & Cover Immersed Tube Floating Submerged Tunnels Partly Immersed Tethering
  10. 10. 10 Dredging a trench in the riverbed or ocean floor. Long, prefabricated tube sections, made of steel or concrete and sealed to keep out water Divers connect the sections and remove the seals
  11. 11. 11 The Chunnel connecting England & France is a type of soft ground tunnel. Unless the tunnel is short, control of the environment is essential to provide safe working conditions and to ensure the safety of passengers after the tunnel is operational. The solution was to add two additional layers above and below the main traffic tunnel. The upper layer clears exhaust fumes, while the lower layer pumps in fresh air.
  12. 12. 12 Floats in water Supported by its buoyancy Tube is placed underwater, deep enough to avoid water traffic and weather, But not so deep that high water pressure needs to be dealt with Cables either anchored to the Earth or to pontoons at the surface prevent it from floating to the surface
  13. 13. 13 Based on well-known technology applied to floating bridges & offshore structures The construction is mostly similar to that of immersed tunnels A submerged floating tunnel must be anchored to the ground or to the water surface to keep it in place
  14. 14. 14 A version of the cut and cover technique, is a cheap and easy way to construct a tunnel under water. Dredging machines cut a trench in the riverbed. Preassembled, watertight tubes are floated out and lowered into place over the trench. Segments are sealed together to form the complete tunnel. Then covered with a steel-and- concrete casing to prevent the tunnel from floating and to protect it from damage caused by passing ships.
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  16. 16. 16 • the most massive project to be ever undertaken • global resources on an unimaginable scale – total steel equivalent to the total output of all the steel mills of the world for more than a year i.e. 1 billion tonnes of steel –Staggering cost of over $12 trillion • unacceptable time to complete – will take over a century or more to complete –Some of the most extreme working conditions But, if completed, it would change people’s life like never before.
  17. 17. 17  Soft ground – immense pressure of about 800 times of that on the surface  Immersed – mid Atlantic ridge and the seismic region  Floating submerged – concept already used in submarines
  18. 18. Lets take a look at the design of the Transatlantic UnderwaterTunnel. The Ingenious Design: Click Here to view the design: 18
  19. 19. Problems Solutions / Alternatives Unimaginable Speed • Friction • Air Resistance G – Force Fires Collisions Abt 5000 miles/hr • Maglev • VacuumTubes Controlled Gradual Accln. Pivoting Rotating Suits Massive Fire Suppression Systems SlackenedTethers, Concrete & Steel Walls, Unimaginable Speeds 19
  20. 20. 20 It seems to be our collective destiny to convert today’s impossibilities into tomorrow’s realities.
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