Energy Management - Biomass Based Cogeneration


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a look on Biomass based Cogeneration in the field of Energy Management

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  • Increased energy efficiency: Depending on the technology used, CHP plants operate at 65–80 per cent efficiency. Producing the same amount of electricity and heat conventionally through separate power plants and boilers would require about 50 per cent more units of fuel because it operates at around 50 per cent efficiency. On-site electricity production further increases efficiency by eliminating transmission losses.Lower energy costs possible: In many cases, fuel savings leads to cost savings. However, the costs of CHP need to be analysed because it will not lead to cost savings in all cases, especially if the cost of grid electricity is subsidized or otherwise very low.Lower emissions: By combusting around two thirds of the fuel used by conventional systems to generate the same amount of heat and electricity, CHP systems increase eco-efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy production. And because many CHP plants rely on natural gas, the energy produced in them has further efficiency gains over the fuel mixes for electricity and heat production in many countries that rely heavily on coal.Fuel-switching flexibility: CHP systems can be configured to accept an array of feedstocks, which can help the system’s users hedge against fuel cost volatility.Opportunity for development of decentralized energy supply system: Because CHP plants need to be located near end users of heat generation, the development of such plants encourages the decentralization of the energy supply system, putting the supply plants closer to users.Important vehicle for promoting energy market diversification: By encouraging the involvement of more diverse actors in energy production, CHP can be a driver for energy market reform.
  • Capital costs: High capital costs of new CHP plant are a significant hurdle to development in the region.Geographical limits: Heat can only be transported over very short distances, limiting the use of the heat generated to areas adjacent to the plant. There is also a limited need for heating in much of the region. Use of waste heat for cooling requires additional infrastructure.Infrastructural limits: Pipelines needed to distribute district heating or cooling from CHP plants are under developed or have limited access in many cities. City planning and investment to make these pipeline resources more accessible is required.Operations and maintenance costs: High maintenance costs can cut into cost savings by up to 30 per cent.Reliance on thermal energy conversion: Most CHP plants rely on conventional electricity production technologies. Although they increase the overall system’s efficiency by harnessing waste heat for use, they do still burn fossil fuels and create greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Install CHP when the existing system needs to be upgraded: To reduce the barrier of high additional capital costs, CHP systems can be installed when existing boilers or other heating or cooling equipment needs to be replaced or upgraded.Use biomass resources, including waste: Because CHP plants need to be distributed and are often placed at large commercial or medium-sized industrial facilities, using co-firing or biomass-powered plants could be a viable option and help the facilities manage their wastes.Sell the emissions reductions: Avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions can qualify CHP facilities for national or international incentives, such as the certified emissions reductions (CERs) through the Clean Development Mechanism. Sale of CERs can provide an additional revenue stream.Optimize CHP in solar thermal and geothermal development: Developers of renewable thermal energy technologies should be cognizant of increased efficiency of CHP when heating or cooling demand centres are nearby.
  • Energy and Environment Integration:The first ever captivecogen plant in India to provide a comprehensive watertreatment and recycling facility.Flexibility:The plant is configured to provide for a number of variations in plant fluctuations in power, steam and water loads with a high degree of availability.Inlet air cooling:The plant incorporates an inlet air cooling system to optimise turbine operation throughout the year, including peak summer, high humidity conditions. The source of inlet airis waste steam from the extraction port.Availability: Plant design, philosophy and equipment selection has ensured plant availability above 90%.
  • Plant requires – Continuos Power Supply & Steam
  • Advantages –Rice husk would be used as fuel in the project activityThe usage of a carbon neutral fuel (rice husk) in the project activity will result in reduction of GHG emissions.
  • Advantages –Rice husk would be used as fuel in the project activityThe usage of a carbon neutral fuel (rice husk) in the project activity will result in reduction of GHG emissions.
  • Type I: Renewable energy projects
  • Energy Management - Biomass Based Cogeneration

    1. 1. Energy Management Biomass based cogeneration plants 1 Prepared By: Atharva Oswal #219 Aditya Cheema #304 Kushal Karamchandani #309 Nachiket Kulkarni #311 Ishan Parekh #315
    2. 2. Biomass based Cogen / CHP Plants “Combined heat and power (CHP / co-generation) refers to energy systems that concurrently generate electricity and heat from the same fuel source. In conventional power plants, about two thirds of the primary energy that is converted to produce electricity is lost as waste heat.” 2
    3. 3. How it works 3
    4. 4. Opportunity for India • Building CHP plants in industrial facilities reduces the challenge of high overall capital costs • India has cogen as 5% of its electricity production. • India has the potential to produce more than 25% of its total electricity by CHP by 2030. 4
    5. 5. Strengths in using CHP Increased energy efficiency Lower energy costs possible Lower emissions Fuel switching flexibility Opportunity for development of decentralized energy supply system Important vehicle for promoting energy market diversification 5
    6. 6. Challenges in using CHP Capital costs Geographical limits Infrastructural limits Operations & maintenance costs Reliance on thermal energy conversion 6
    7. 7. Implementing Strategies Install CHP when existing system needs to be upgraded Use biomass resources, including waste Sell the emissions reduction Optimize CHP in solar, thermal & geothermal development 7
    9. 9. Features Innovative CHP plant 27MW plant Meets the company requirement of power, heating & cooling Incorporates a “Zero Liquid Discharge Effluent Treatment” technology that decreases fresh water requirements by 85% 9
    10. 10. Investment & Payback Total investment in 1996 - $50 million Project completion time – 18 months Payback period – 4 years 10
    11. 11. Critical Requirements Generate steam and power competitively to reduce energy costs Ensure reliable supply of high- quality steam and power for uninterrupted production and superior product quality Guarantee an efficient and flexible management of steam and power to meet the fluctuating process demands 11
    12. 12. Fuel Procurement • 2 biogas fired plants • Biogas is made from biomass which includes various substances such as: 12 Rice husk from rice mills Bagasse from sugar plants Jute waste from jute mills Casuarinas trees from Agro-Farming Cotton and red gram stalks from farmers Woody biomass from farmers Groundnut shell from oil mills
    13. 13. The CHP plant • 90 tonnes per hour (TPH) of steam • 27.5 MW of power 13
    14. 14. Unique Features Energy & Environment Integration Flexibility Inlet Air Cooling Availability 14
    15. 15. DSL, HIMACHAL PRADESH Case Analysis 15
    16. 16. Description of Activity • DSL is engaged in the energy intensive business of textile manufacturing. • Plant requires – Continuous Power Supply (3.7MW) & Steam (5tph) • To ensure reliable, cost effective & clean power & steam for the plant, DSL has opted for 5MW biomass based cogeneration route. 16
    17. 17. • Pre – Project Scenario • Post – Case Scenario The purpose of the project activity is to install a combined heat and power generation (Cogeneration) plant to meet the steam and power requirements The Cogeneration unit would comprise of a -: • high pressure boiler (30 tph, 67 Kg/cm2, 4850C) and • an extraction cum condensing turbine (5.0MW, 64 Kg/cm2, 4850C). 17
    18. 18. Projects Benefits to the Sustainable Development • Advantages as a cogeneration plant ? • Socio - Economic well being • Environmental well being • Technological well being 18
    19. 19. Geographical Location 19
    20. 20. Technology of Project • The project consists of a • high pressure, • high temperature boiler feeding steam to a multistage, • bleed cum condensing impulse turbine. 20
    21. 21. Description of Project Boundary 21
    22. 22. Biomass CHP Energy Diagram 22
    23. 23. Barriers • Barriers due to prevailing practice • Technological Barrier • Other Barriers 23
    24. 24. CDM Executive Board 24
    25. 25. KOTHARA,GUJARAT Case Analysis 25
    26. 26. The demonstration project • GEDA energy plantation programmes in Kachchh since early 1980s • Multidimensional programmes with linkages to energy supply, food and fodder, soil regeneration, ecological development and local employment generation 26
    27. 27. Tree species • Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Acacia tortillas, Eucalyptus, Subabul and Casurina • Specimens that can survive in harsh climates, poor soils and minimal water conditions; also able to regenerate the soil • they are grown for cyclical harvesting; cropped or coppiced periodically for their biomass, a sustainable resource • Biomass yields from energy plantations usually range from 4-8 tonnes per ha per year 27
    28. 28. Cost break up • Project cost: Rs.2.07 crore; plant & machinery: Rs.1.6 crore and civil work: Rs.30 lakhs • Objective: to feed 500kW electric power into grid at Kothara sub station 28 Installed capacity 2*400 KVA Net power fed into grid 500kW Consumption of diesel 97ml/kWh Consumption of biomass/kWh 1.2kg Fuel cost Rs.1.5/kWh Operation hours 16hrs/day Power generation potential 300 lakh units/annum GERB purchase price Rs.2.25/unit
    29. 29. Location • Kothara; biomass feedstock comes from Kachchh energy plantation sites • Closeness to gridline; grid connectivity costs eliminated • Kothara located at a distance avg. 20km from each of GEDA energy plantation sites • load at the GEB Sub-station at Kothara was the minimum amongst the other sub-stations in the taluka, and it allowed easy and more viable grid connectivity • reduced the cost of the transmission line installation for the project 29
    30. 30. Capacity details • Single unit of 500 kW gasifier • State-of the art electricals including control panels transformer, synchronizing equipment with complete safety systems for grid paralleling • Equipped with extensive instrumentation, data logging and laboratory materials 30
    31. 31. Constraints • Due to several reasons, the project did not sustain: • Poor quality of the local grid, • Constrains due to dual-fuel mode, particularly 30% of the diesel cost and certain logical problems of organizing it to the site • Miss-match of the existing load and installed capacity. • Project was implemented based on the non-existent plantation and unavailable input material. 31
    32. 32. IISC., BANGALORE Sustainable Technologies 32
    33. 33. Planning for implementation • Discussion with the local village communities explaining the technology, roles, responsibilities and benefits of the project • Establishment and protection of energy forest to ensure sustainable biomass availability • The first system of the capacity of 3.7 kWe was installed in 1988 and later • upgraded to 20 kWe in 1997 • The second system was installed at Hanumantha Nagara in 1996 of 20 kWe capacity • Local youth were trained to operate and maintain the systems • Village community is engaged in management, operation, supervision, & protection. 33
    34. 34. Specs 34
    35. 35. System performance 35
    36. 36. Performance…contd. Fuel mode Number of days in percentange Dual fuel mode 70% Diesel only 25% *5% down time for operations and maintenance Total power generated varied from 12 to 22 MWh per year 36
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    41. 41. Cost of power generated 41
    42. 42. Economics • The cost of power generation per kWh was varying between Rs.3.44 to Rs.5.85 depending upon the PLF corresponding to 30% on full capacity. This was arrived at based on the following input parameters: • With the current rate of over 30% escalation in cost, the power production cost will be worked out to Rs.4.55 to Rs.6.75 per kWh produced. Parameter Cost Fuel wood Rs.0.75/kg Diesel + transport Rs.23.45/kg Engine maintenance Rs.5.42/h Operation cost Rs.6.25/h 42
    43. 43. Tariff recovery • Fee for service model • Lighting tariff was fixed at Rs.5/bulb point/month and Rs.10/- per household for piped water supply. • The applications covered in services are: Lighting Drinking water Flour mill, and Irrigation • Recovery rate for year 2001 to 2003 was 94% to99% 43
    44. 44. Problems 44
    45. 45. Problems • Technical problems • Fuel supply • Non availability of power • Social problems 45
    46. 46. Benefits • Social benefits: • Water supply to the household at door-step • Women can spend 2.6 h/day in productively instead of spending the time in collecting water. • Electricity for lighting in all houses, help school-going children in their studies. • Locally available flour mill facility. • Economic benefits: • Employment/income generation. • Increased crop production through irrigation. • Establishment of energy forest. • Increased vegetable and mulberry growth – thus engage more labour. • Environmental impact: • Raising energy forest. • Low or insignificant ash producing fuel (in comparison with coal) growth • Biomass combustion leads to insignificant sulfur emission. • Fossil fuel cogeneration and carbon mitigation. 46
    47. 47. JEMARA, ODHISHA. Case Analysis 47
    48. 48. Introduction • The project is to provide electricity to a remote village Jemara in Orissa • The Energy and Resources Institute, commonly known as TERI works on design and development of biomass gasifier system for thermal and power generation purposes. • Gasifiers with various capacities ranging from 10 kg/hr to 300 kg/h, working in the field. 48
    49. 49. Location details •Name of the village : Jemara •Distance from nearest city: 80 km from Bilaspur •Population of the village:above 500 •No. of households:12 49
    50. 50. Project details • Capacity of the Gasifier System :20 kg/h • Capacity of the Genset :15 kVa • Peak load :9 kW • Minimum load: 6 kW • Duration of operation: 4 hours • Fuel used :80 – 90 kg/day • Power produced • Specific Fuel Consumption: 1.7 – 1.8 kg/kWh • Date of commissioning :13th February, 2005 • Budget layout: Rs.9 lakhs 50
    51. 51. Operation details : •Number of households electrified : 115 •Lighting : 1600 hrs to 2200 hrs •Average load : 6 to 7 kW •Other requirements : Rice huller and Oil expeller 51
    52. 52. Village Committee • A village energy security committee is formed. • It consists 21 members from the village. • The committee maintains a record on tariff collections and expenditure. • There are two people employed for system operation and maintenance. • The committee manages operation and maintenance of the system through the tariff collected from the villagers. 52
    53. 53. Tariff rating and collection mechanism • Every house hold using electricity pays twenty five Rupees per month. • Addition to the money paid every house holds contributes biomass of 30 to 40 kg per month. • The biomass collected is used to feed the gasifier. • The money collected is used to pay the operators and to meet the expense on O&M of the engine 53
    54. 54. Quality aspects • Each and every system is tested for its quality and performance before despatching it to the site. • Very essential to avoid any unforeseen troubleshooting and rectification at the site. • Since the villages are situated in the remote area where it is difficult to access the location and to get any major rectification work done. • Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the system is perfect before despatching it. 54
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