What Makes Microbiology Interesting ?


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MY presentation at GSBTM (Gujarat State Biotech Mission), Ahmedabad.

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What Makes Microbiology Interesting ?

  1. 1. What makes microbiology interesting ? - Ishan O. Trivedi
  2. 2. Organisms included in the study of Microbiology <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriology </li></ul><ul><li>Mycology </li></ul><ul><li>Phycology </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoology </li></ul><ul><li>Virology </li></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF MICROSCOPES <ul><li>Light microscope : </li></ul><ul><li>Bright field microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Dark field microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Phase contrast microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescence Microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Interference Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning electron microscope </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where do microorganisms live? <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>In & on the human body, Plant and animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Means they are omnipresent . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Microbes - what comes to mind? <ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Food Spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1% of all known bacteria cause human diseases </li></ul><ul><li>About 4% of all known bacteria cause plant diseases </li></ul><ul><li>95% of known bacteria are non-pathogens </li></ul>
  6. 6. SIZE <ul><li>Mycoplasma genitalium is the smallest bacteria 0.2 to 0.3 μm. </li></ul><ul><li>Thiomargarita namibiensis is the largest measuring spherical bacterium, between 100 to750 μm in diameter </li></ul>
  7. 7. SHAPE <ul><li>Bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Filamentous </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio </li></ul>Vibrio cholerae Spirillum volutans
  8. 8. Arrangements <ul><li>Bunch </li></ul><ul><li>Pair </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcinae </li></ul><ul><li>Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Rosette </li></ul>Roseobacter spp.
  9. 9. COLONY B.subtilis Streptomyces spp. Streptomyces spp. B.cereus K.pneumoniae
  10. 10. PIGMENTATION S.marcescens Rhodotorula spp. Rhodococcus spp. Staphylococcus aureus X.axonopodis
  11. 11. Staining techniques DAPI Staining
  12. 12. Biofilm stained by live-dead stain
  13. 13. Staining techniques Capsule stain Flagella stain Endospore stain Volutin granule stain
  14. 14. FUNGI <ul><li>Ascomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Basidiomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Zygomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Deuteromycota </li></ul>
  15. 15. ALGAE Brown algae Green algae Red algae
  16. 16. DIATOMS
  17. 17. PROTOZOA Amoeba spp Plasmodium spp Euglena spp Paramecium spp
  18. 18. VIRUS HIV Adeno virus Phage Rabies virus Influenza virus
  19. 19. EXTREMOPHILE <ul><li>Acidophile </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaliphile </li></ul><ul><li>Xerophile </li></ul><ul><li>Psychrophile/Cryophile </li></ul><ul><li>Thermophile </li></ul><ul><li>Piezophile/barophile </li></ul><ul><li>Radioresistant </li></ul>Microorganisms survive at places where the most intelligent species fail to survive.
  20. 20. Thus, microbiology is interesting as it involves the study of such organisms which are superior to human, at least in case of surviving the extreme conditions !! Humans cannot survive in xerophytic condition or UV rays or a temperature Of 60-80 °C or pH below 3 or above 9 or even pressure of 1000 Atmosphere !!
  21. 21. Of course !! Industrial Microbiology - Use of microbes to obtain a product or service of economic value constitutes industrial microbiology. Do those small bugs also have industrial importance ?
  22. 23. What are the challenges before Microbiology ? <ul><li>The two main challenges are </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Drug resistance and </li></ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism . </li></ul>
  23. 24. Multiple Drug resistance <ul><li>Many different bacteria now exhibit multidrug resistance. The chief ones include Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Gonococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Measures : </li></ul><ul><li>One should use antibiotics only for bacterial infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right antibiotic, do not rely on broad-range antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Not stop antibiotics as soon as symptoms improve; finish the full course. </li></ul><ul><li>Not use antibiotics for most colds, coughs, bronchitis, sinus infections, and eye infections, which are caused by viruses. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Bioterrorism <ul><li>It is an intentional release or dissemination of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or toxins); these may be in a naturally occurring or in a human-modified form. </li></ul><ul><li>1915-16 Livestock sabotage by Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1984 Rajneesh Salmonella attack </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Anthrax attack on USA </li></ul>
  25. 26. Latest developments…… <ul><li>Bioremediation is a natural process that uses microorganisms to transform harmful substances to an innocuous state, or to levels below concentration limits established by regulatory authorities (into non-toxic carbon dioxide, water, and fatty acids.) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Microbial fuel cell
  27. 28. Probiotics and Prebiotics <ul><li>According to the currently adopted definition </li></ul><ul><li>by FAO/WHO , Probiotics are: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host </li></ul><ul><li>Prebiotics are a category of functional food, defined as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Moreover …. <ul><li>Starter cultures of mixed microorganisms are available, which metabolize DDT and polychlorinated diphenols or phenols. </li></ul><ul><li>Starter cultures have also been used to deodorise animal excrements. </li></ul><ul><li>Trinitrotoluene (TNT) degraded in a soil slurry and soil box systems by an oil-degrading bacteria Vibrio fischeri. </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation of Machine Oil by Nocardioform Bacteria </li></ul>
  29. 30. This makes microbiology interesting.
  30. 31. REFERENCES <ul><li>Prescott, Harley & Klein Microbiology 6 th edition. </li></ul><ul><li>K.P.Talaro & Arthur Talaro Foundations in microbiology 4 th edition. </li></ul><ul><li>Elmer H. Marth & James S. Steele Applied dairy microbiology 2 nd edition </li></ul><ul><li>Web links : </li></ul><ul><li>www.asm.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.microbialfuelcells.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.futuredoctors.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.sciam.com </li></ul>
  31. 32. My contact details: <ul><li>My linkedin account: http://in.linkedin.com/pub/ishan-trivedi/26/948/aa3 </li></ul><ul><li>My e-mail account: ishan_trivedi2005@yahoo.com </li></ul><ul><li>My facebook account: http:// www.facebook.com/profile.php?id =100001411216125 </li></ul><ul><li>Please mention “your presentation” as subject when you contact me so that I can understand you better. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Thank you .