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Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016

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The first lecture of the Smart City Summer Course at AUST (2016) presents the main world challenges concerning the environment, the economy and the society as well as the role of the city in these challenges. It aims at introducing why we have to focus on the city and on the role of the Smart City Concept to meet the city challenges, the world challenges.

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Smart City AUST Summer Course_Lecture1 World Challenges_summer2016

  1. 1. Smart City Solution and Implementation AUST Summer Course 2016 Chapter 1 : World challenges & Role of the City Professor Isam SHAHROUR Isam.shahrour@univ-lille1.fr
  2. 2. Q1 : Major world challenges? Q2 : Role of the City ? 2 Questions
  3. 3. 1. World population growth 2. Natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  4. 4. 1. World Population Growth UN High UN Medium UN Low 10 Billions 16 Billions 6 Billions
  5. 5. World Population Growth
  6. 6. Consequences of the population growth Increase demand for: • Natural resources (Energy, water, raw materials…) • Food • Constructions (housing, services, industry,…) • Infrastructures (roads, energy, water, communication, municipal wastes,..)
  7. 7. Increase demand for services: - Education, - Health, - Transportation - Culture, Entertainment, - Customized services (old people,..) Consequences of the population growth
  8. 8. 1. World population growth 2. Natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  9. 9. Resources : • Water • Energy • Air • Raw materials 2. Natural resources
  10. 10. Availability to consumers • Quantity • Quality • Transport / Logistic • Accessibility (poverty) 2. Natural resources
  11. 11. Major menaces • World population growth • Limited resources • Over exploitation 2. Protection of natural resources • Pollution • Provision security
  12. 12. Energy challenges OECD : Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
  13. 13. OECD 35 members
  14. 14. Energy supply Security Other blackout : • Italy (2003): $ 55 billions • Indonesia (2005) $ 100 billions US Blackout (2003) • 50 Million people • 24 hours for full recovery • Cost: $6 to $10 billion
  15. 15. http://www.forbes.com/sites/williampentland/2013/08/30/blackout-risk-tool-puts-price-tag-on-power-reliability/ “Our grids are old and our equipment is aging,” said Robin Luo, vice president and blackout model project manager at Hartford Steam Boiler. US, the yearly cost of electrical outages = $ 150B
  16. 16. Water Challenges stress evolution Source: Le Monde diplomatique (% Water withdrawal of the total available water) Water stress
  17. 17. Lack of infrastructures: 1 billion of the world population do not have access to drinking water service (health risk,..) Water Chalenges
  18. 18. Water Chalenges Lack of infrastructures: 2.4 billion of the world population do not have access to sewage water service (health and flood risks,..)
  19. 19. Water leakage : • 20% of the water supply • in some cities about 40%
  20. 20. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  21. 21. Pollution - Air - Water - Soils 3. Pollution Origin: - Buildings - Transport - Industry - Agriculture
  22. 22. 3. Pollution Menaces: • Health • Life quality • Biodiversity • Climate change/Global Warming
  23. 23. Air pollution Buildings, Transport, industry Air pollution map Population concentration map
  24. 24. Source: USGCRP (2009) Greenhouse gas emission
  25. 25. Air pollution impact Kills 7 millions / year Economic cost: Europe (2009) : € 170 billion
  26. 26. Soil and water pollution Industrial activity - Brownfields
  27. 27. France : Brownfield repartition
  28. 28. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  29. 29. 4. Urbanisation Urban planning - City Design (spatial organization) - Infrastructures - Public space - Housing Consequences : - Quality of Life Attractiveness - Social stability - Economic activity - Slums
  30. 30. 4. Urbanisation Challenges : • Population Growth (huge metropolis) • Increase demand for quality of life (services, public space,..) • Transport congestion (new urban and social models) • Opportunities offered by the digital and social innovations
  31. 31. Slums issue Mumbai’s Slum More than one million Neza-Chalco-Itza, Mexico City, 4 Million
  32. 32. Slums issue The slum population is projected to increase from 780 million (in 2000)to somewhere between 900 and 1, 500 million (in 2020). What to do ?
  33. 33. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  34. 34. United Nation
  35. 35. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_issues_in_Germany#The_Hood
  36. 36. Absolute poverty (World Bank): People living with less than $1.25 per day. Measured in international dollars, adjusted for: • Price level in the country (PPP adjustment) • Price changes over time. Poverty
  37. 37. Absolute poverty evolution Poverty
  38. 38. % of the world population by level of income
  39. 39. Globalization, the free market Unemployment
  40. 40. Labor costs : operator Hour 25$ 1 $
  41. 41. Unemployment rate in Europe (2013)
  42. 42. Unemployment rate in Europe (2015) Eurostat for September 2015 – http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2015/11/09/investing-in-a-zero-carbon-economy-could-help-the-eu-escape-secular-stagnation/
  43. 43. Unemployment Consequences on • Economy • Social cohesion • prosperity • Political stability
  44. 44. Age dependency ratio (%) = Population ageing Lebanon : ? People older than 64 or less than 15 years old People between 15-64
  45. 45. http://www.indexmundi.com/lebanon/demographics_profile.html
  46. 46. Population ageing Challenges • Retirement funding • Health and social care • Customized services
  47. 47. 1. World population growth 2. Protection of natural resources 3. Pollution 4. Urbanisation 5. Socio-economic challenges 6. Sustainability Major world challenges
  48. 48. • Spatial and time scales • Environmental, social and economic interaction 6. Sustainability issue
  49. 49. Spatial scale Household World Interaction
  50. 50. Life Quality Time Future generation Time scale 1 2 3
  51. 51. Sustainability: Environmental, social and economic interaction
  52. 52. Video : A1 Urbanization and the evolution of cities across 10,000 years - Vance Kite A2 Human Role in Climate Change A3 NASA | A Year in the Life of Earth s CO2
  53. 53. Q& : Major world challenges? Q2 : Role of the City ? 2 Questions
  54. 54. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  55. 55. Concentration of the world population • 55% of the World population • France ( > 80%) •Lebanon 85% •2050 : 70 of the World population
  56. 56. By 2030 : • 400,000 km2 will be constructed for urban use (doubling the world’s built urban area) • Nearly 2 billion new urban residents Developing countries : center of urban transformation
  57. 57. Cities with more than 1 millions inhabitants Concentration in large cities
  58. 58. The light Map
  59. 59. Concentration in large cities
  60. 60. In the close future, cites with more than 50 millions inhabitants
  61. 61. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Role of the City ?
  62. 62. The City : • 70% of the world GDP … • 600 metropolis generate 60% of the world GDP • 95% of the population growth in the developing countries Concentration of the economic activity
  63. 63. GDP of major Cities (billion $)
  64. 64. Lebanon GDP
  65. 65. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  66. 66. The City : • 70% of the total energy consumption • 75% of the electrical energy consumption Energy consumption
  67. 67. Etats Unis New York Buildings : 41 % Transport : 30% Industry : 29% Buildings : 76 % Transport : 24 %
  68. 68. Transport Industry Buildings Tokyo (2005) Mexico (2006) London (1999) Shanghai (2007)
  69. 69. Urban Transport Time lost at rush hour (minutes /hour)
  70. 70. Transport Challenges • Urbanization • Population growth • Lack of infrastructures • Lack of public transportation • Management • Lack of innovation
  71. 71. Energy consumption - urban densification
  72. 72. Smart Stockholm: Reduce Transport Congestion 2005 – 2006: Traffic reduction : 18% CO2 Reduction : 14-18 %
  73. 73. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • High risk to disasters Place of the City ?
  74. 74. The City : 80% of the greenhouse emission Pollution emission London
  75. 75. Paris Buildings : 50% Transport 32%
  76. 76. North of France : 48% from the industry, 17% transport France : 20% from the industry, 26% from transport Huge variation in countries
  77. 77. Targets 2030 : • Cut greenhouse gases by at least 40% (reference 1990) • Renewable energy 27% • Energy efficiency improvement by 27% Europe : Targets 2020 (Reference 1990): Strategies to reduce the Greenhouse Gas Emission
  78. 78. • High concentration of the world population • Concentration of the economic activity • High energy consumption • High pollution emission • Disasters risk Place of the City ?
  79. 79. High risk to disasters Urban population subjected to natural disasters : • Flood : 379 millions • Earthquakes : 283 Millions • Storms : 157 Millions
  80. 80. Flood Risk (380 millions)
  81. 81. Earthquake Risk (283 millions)
  82. 82. Storms Risk (157 millions)
  83. 83. Conclusion • Huge increase in the population, mainly in developing countries, in urban area • Increase pressure on natural resources • Increase demand for services and infrastructures • High environmental risk : – For the planet (Global Warming, Climate Change) – For public health
  84. 84. Conclusion In developed countries - Ageing infrastructures - Ageing population - “Economic crisis”
  85. 85. Conclusion Cities is the center of the world challenges, They should afford for the – Increase demand for services – Increase demand for jobs – Increase demand for comfort – Social tension,…. Context : Lack of funding (financial crisis)
  86. 86. Conclusion How to do ? Could the Smart City be a « the » Solution ? Response : Next chapters
  87. 87. VIDEOS B1 Why are cities so important in assessing global energy? B2 Mexico City's Urban Sprawl - copie B3 Sydney Scheme to Go Green and Cut Greenhouse Gases
  88. 88. Thank you

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