PARTS OF SPEECH &PARTS OF A SENTENCE(IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE)
Parts of speech •What is speech? • It refers to the act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of words. •What are the parts of speech? In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question.•Simply put-The parts of speech refers to the Classifications of words (used in speech) according to their relations to each other and to the things they represent.
8 parts of speech (in english language) Some grammar sources categorize English into 9 or 10 parts of speech. But mainly we use the traditional categorization of 8 parts of speech:1. NOUN2. PRONOUN3. VERB4. ADJECTIVE5. ADVERB6. PREPOSITIONS7. CONJUNCTIONS8. INTERJECTIONSExamples of other categorizations are:Verbs may be treated as two different parts of speech: Lexical Verbs (work, like, run) Auxiliary Verbs (be, have, must)Determiners may be treated as a separate part of speech, instead of being categorized underAdjectives
part of speech function or "job" example words example sentencesVerb action or state (to) WIKIPEDIA.com is a web be, have, do, like, work, s site. ing, can, must I like WIKIPEDIA.com.Noun thing or person pen, dog, work, music, to This is my dog. He lives wn, London, teacher, Joh in myhouse. We live n in London.Adjective describes a noun a/an, the, 69, some, My dog is big. I good, big, red, well, like big dogs. interestingAdverb describes a verb, quickly, silently, well, My dog eats quickly. adjective or adverb badly, very, really When he isvery hungry, he eats reallyquickly.Pronoun replaces a noun I, you, he, she, some Tara is Indian. She is beautiful.Preposition links a noun to another to, at, after, on, but We word went to school on Monda y.Conjunction joins clauses or and, but, when I like dogs and I like sentences or words cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but I dont like cats.Interjection short exclamation, oh!, ouch!, hi!, well Ouch! That hurts! Hi! sometimes inserted into How are you? Well, I a sentence dont know.
NEXT QUESTION ARISES HOW TO ARRANGE THESE WORDS BELONGING TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH INTO SENTENCES??There are many different ways of organizing words into sentences. (Or we mightsay, Words can be organized into sentences in many different ways.) For this reason,describing how to put a sentence together isnt as easy as explaining how to bake acake or assemble a model plane. There are no easy recipes, no step-by-stepinstructions. But that doesnt mean that crafting an effective sentence depends onmagic or good luck. So as we work to improve our writing, its important tounderstand what these basic structures are and how to use them effectively. . The Parts of the Sentence & the relation with parts of speechThe parts of the sentence are a set of terms for describing how peopleconstruct sentences from smaller pieces.There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of thesentence and the parts of speech -- the subject of a sentence, forexample, could be a noun, a pronoun, or even anentire phrase or clause. Like the parts of speech, however, the parts ofthe sentence form part of the basic vocabulary of grammar, and it isimportant that you take some time to learn and understand them.
WORDS CAN BE ARRANGED IN :1. A SENTENCE-IT is a group of words that expresses a complete thought/sense /meaning. A sentence is a group of words which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). A sentence contains or implies a predicate and a subject.2. A CLAUSE-a part of a sentence that contains its own subject and predicate.3. A PHRASE-a group of related words without a subject or predicate.4. A MODIFIER- a word or phrase that modifies or adds information to other parts of a sentence. Adjectives, adverbs, and many phrases and clauses are modifiers.CLAUSE,PHRASE AND MODIFIER ARE ALSO SENTENCES BUT HAVE UNIQUE FEATURES ,THEY CAN ALSO BE CALLED PARTS OF A SENTENCE.
PARTS OF A SENTENCE:1.SUBJECT-The noun or noun phrase that tells whom or what thesentence addresses.2.PREDICATE-a verb or verb phrase telling what the subject does or is.3.OBJECT-An object in grammar is part of a sentence, and often part ofthe predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in thesubjects "performance" of the verb. Basically, it is what or whom theverb is acting upon. As an example, the following sentence is given:In the sentence "Bobby kicked the ball", "ball" is the object.4.COMPLEMENT-A word or word group that completes the predicate ina sentence. The two kinds of complements are subjectcomplements (which follow the verb be and other linking verbs)and object complements(which follow a direct object). If it identifies thesubject, the complement is a noun or pronoun; if it describes thesubject, the complement is an adjective.Complements are requiredto complete the verb, in contrastto modifiers, which are optional.
TYPES OF SUBJECT• FULL OR COMPLETE• SIMPLE• COMPOUND
TYPES OF PREDICATE• FULL OR COMPLETE• SIMPLE• COMPOUND
TYPES OF COMPLEMENTS• 1.SUBJECT COMPLEMENT• 2.OBJECT ‘’• 3.VERB ‘’
CLASSIFICATION OF THE TYPES OF WORD FORMATIONS i.e. Sentence clause phrase modifier
TYPES OF SENTENCE CAN BE CATEGORIZED ON TWO BASIS:• ACCORDING TO • ACCORDING TO ITS CONTENT OF STRUCTURE: INTENTION: 1. SIMPLE1. DECLARATIVE 2. COMPOUND2. INTERROGATIVE 3. COMPLEX3. IMPERATIVE 4. COMPOUND -4. EXCLAMATORY COMPLEX
TYPES OF CLAUSE• 1.INDEPENDENT• 2.DEPENDENT• ELLIPTICAL