jornada Biocombustibles (29nov10)


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jornada Biocombustibles (29nov10)

  1. 1. Impact of Bio-fuels on Human Development: A Case Study of Bagamoyo and Kisarawe Districts in Tanzania Presenter: Dr. Japhet J. Kashaigili (PhD) [email_address] Sokoine University of Agriculture, TANZANIA
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Study objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the case study </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Case study findings </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the study findings </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria and indicators to assess bio-fuels impact on human development </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Crude petroleum oil is becoming more and more scarce, whereas due to the economic development of all countries in this world, its demand & consumption is continually increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, the Earth planet is becoming warmer due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil is becoming more expensive and thus jeopardizing energy security of those developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The continuously rising price of petroleum, the progressive diminishing of fossil fuel reserves including a need for reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases,  search for sustainable alternative energy sources such as bio-fuels . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The founding premise is that, bio-fuels, if harnessed well, present an alternative that can combat GHG emissions, improve balance of payments, create employment opportunities in rural areas, bring energy to less privileged households and ultimately, mitigate mass poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore for Developed countries considered as: </li></ul><ul><li> Greenhouse (CO 2 ) gas emission abatement, </li></ul><ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>For Developing countries : </li></ul><ul><li>Energy security </li></ul><ul><li>Improving balance of payment. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty alleviation. </li></ul>Introduction
  5. 5. Study Objectives <ul><li>The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of energy crops for bio-fuels on poor population and its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, the study analyzed the impact of bio-fuels within the vulnerable population in Tanzania, and whereby establish criteria and proposals for improvement. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Description of the case study <ul><li>The study was conducted in the five selected villages </li></ul><ul><li>3 villages in Bagamoyo District; and </li></ul><ul><li>2 villages in Kisarawe District) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Characteristics of the case study </li></ul><ul><li>Bagamoyo District </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-fuels companies (SEKAB BioEnergy Tanzania, Trinity Consultants Bio-energy, Tanzania) have acquired land but not yet started the real production. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kisarawe District </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUN BIOFUELS Tanzania was established in 2005, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired 8,000 ha of land at a lease of 99 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commenced clearing of land in June 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planted the first 600ha of jatropha in November 2009 </li></ul></ul>Description of the case study ( cont.)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bagamoyo and Kisarawe Districts are among the six districts in the Coastal Region. </li></ul><ul><li>Bagamoyo District </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located between 37 o and 39 o east and between 6 o and 7 o south of the equator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District area coverage  9,847 km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population  228,967 people (URT, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kisarawe District </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located between 38 o and 40 o east and between 6 o and 8 o south of the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District area coverage  5335 km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population  95,614 people (URT, 2002) </li></ul></ul>Description of the case study ( cont.)
  9. 9. Methods used by the Study <ul><li>Literature review ( analysis of national and local information: reports, statistics, studies, legislation, human development situation, energy crops situation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire administration </li></ul><ul><li>Key informants interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data  Content and structural-functional analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data  Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Case study findings <ul><li>Land ownership, access and compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Category of Land ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land owned by individuals (customary arrangement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land owned by the village government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land owned by the state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land under individual (customary), and the land under the control of village government was first transformed into general land before being given to bio-fuels investors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The access mechanism was either voluntary or involuntary ( the process was facilitated by some government officials at different levels (village, district and national ) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>in some village giving-up of the land to a bio-fuels investor was not an individual wish but rather being instigated by some pressure from different levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of pressure include: good promise from the investors (i.e. improvement in peoples’ livelihood and assurance of jobs), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>threats if resisting to surrender the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the Village Land Act  Prior to transferring land from Village to General Land and extinguishing communities’ customary land rights, the villages and the Commissioner of Lands must agree on a fair level of compensation which the communities must be paid. </li></ul></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Act provision neglected by the districts, raising concerns on the land valuation process to establish the compensation value. </li></ul><ul><li>The compensation value - too small and not reflecting on the value of the land,  only considered the crops, trees and some few properties on the land </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the people have not been compensated, and can’t continue using the land for agricultural crop production once earmarked for biofuels even when not compensated. </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Relationship between bio-fuel investors and villages </li></ul><ul><li>Majority – see bad relationship resulting from land transformation to investors </li></ul><ul><li>Blame the village governments for not being transparent and siding with the investor </li></ul><ul><li>Poor adherence of the bio-fuels company to the agreements and a failure to effect compensation for the acquired land </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the whole process as land invasion by the bio-fuels investor,  reflecting on low level of community involvement in arriving at the fate of their lands </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Livelihood opportunities and income before and after bio-fuel interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Not all biofuels companies have started production, difficult to reveal the real income and the economic benefits. BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased household income as land owned by individual households was transformed to biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased crop yield as a result of reduced farms size </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits only limited to individuals employed by the biofuels companies, no spill over effect to communities </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in getting another land for crop production </li></ul><ul><li>Changed strategies for crop production from long term to short term crops </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  15. 15. <ul><li>Food insecurity and biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels investment impact negatively/ positively on the household food security </li></ul><ul><li>The affected groups include children, women, disabled and elders </li></ul><ul><li>The dependant group (elders, disabled and children) are comparatively more affected than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are required to walk long distances to look for water and firewood, which implies more time being used for non-productive works. </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Discernable impacts on social relations </li></ul><ul><li>Employed women becoming irresponsible to their husbands and family </li></ul><ul><li>Men utilizing part of the compensation funds to marry more women. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased foe between village government and the community </li></ul><ul><li>Break of marriage, men marrying more wives and many women divorced as a result of change in income </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Socio-economic impacts due to expansion of the bio-fuels industry </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  18. 18. <ul><li>Implications of bio-fuel activities on natural vegetation and biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel crop production destroys and replaces the natural vegetation (i.e. miombo and coastal forests) due to clearing to allow for monoculture cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Forests are recognized as a globally important conservation priority hotspot that contains endangered species and endemic plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing of such areas pose threat on the sustainability of such species </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  19. 19. Case study findings ( cont.) Table: Vegetation in areas earmarked for or under bio-fuels crop cultivation
  20. 20. <ul><li>Community views on dissatisfaction with bio-fuels investment </li></ul>Case study findings ( cont.)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Socio-economic and environmental context </li></ul><ul><li>Almost the all land requested for bio-fuels investment have been used by the surrounding communities for different purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>The community used the area as a source of firewood, food and feed for their cattle, and medicine including hunting and honey collection, as well as farming and grazing of cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>The forests and other open land used to provide a free grazing area and a source of firewood for the local community </li></ul><ul><li>With biofuels, these services are curtailed !! </li></ul>Implications of the study Findings
  22. 22. <ul><li>Majority of the investors indicated new job opportunities to the local community. </li></ul><ul><li>In the short term, this may sound feasible as many people will be involved in the preparation of land including clearing of the forest. </li></ul><ul><li>However, once the forest is cleared and the plantation is in place, there will be relatively few jobs, and the community will have lost their forest resource forever. </li></ul>Implications of the study Findings ( cont .)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Legal and Institutional Framework affecting bio-fuels in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>No policies or legislation yet exist that directly address bio-fuels production in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>However, there some policies and laws that are relevant to the many issues implicated by the growing bio-fuels industry (e.g. Energy policy, National Land Policy, Environmental policy, Agricultural and Livestock Policy, Land Act, Village Land Act, ......) </li></ul>Implications of the study Findings
  24. 24. Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania <ul><li>Impact of bio-fuel production on environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel crop farming involves replacement of the land cover through clear felling and burning. </li></ul><ul><li>The altering of existing natural ecosystems in quasi-equilibrium with the environment and replacing them with large expanses of low diversity monoculture crops and intensive management practices will have long-term negatively impacts on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local hydrology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accelerate soil degradation and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>could in severe cases lead to desertification </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Impact on water availability </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of water must be abstracted from rivers or underground sources to meet the high demand to grow bio-fuel crops and process liquid bio-fuels (e.g. 2000 - 3000 mmha -1 year -1 for sugarcane) </li></ul><ul><li>The high demand of water by bio-fuel plantations may reduce water availed to other users especially the environment and the downstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive use of water for bio-fuel crop production especially during the dry season may have implications in assuring the environmental flows for supporting aquatic ecosystem. </li></ul>Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania ( cont .)
  26. 26. <ul><li>Impact on biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>The land requested or allocated to bio-fuel investors include areas with high levels of biodiversity and natural habitats such as; miombo woodlands, coastal forests, wetlands and riverine forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania’s miombo vegetation, belongs to the Global 200 WWF list of important biodiversity eco-regions. Also, the coastal forests are recognized as a globally important conservation priority hotspot rich in endemic taxa. </li></ul><ul><li>Some biofuels fields are breeding and migration routes for wildlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat fragmentation by bio-fuel feed-stock cultivation will prevent or minimize genetic exchange between various organisms, and will affect pollinators’ movements </li></ul>Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania ( cont .)
  27. 27. <ul><li>Impact on food security </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of the population in Tanzania live in the rural areas and depend on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion of suitable land for food crops to produce bio-fuel crops may compromise food security. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the bio-fuel investors are planning to grow/ growing bio-fuel crops in monoculture form, which inhibit plant biodiversity and provoke pest epidemics </li></ul>Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania ( cont .)
  28. 28. <ul><li>Effect on rights and land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Securing rights to land is a central issue in rural parts of Tanzania, with respect to livelihoods, food security, economic growth, and human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure insecurity in rural parts of Tanzania remains a widespread social problem and source of political tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Villagers are not given adequate compensation for their lands, and there is no clear compensation procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>There is hardly any consultation between the TIC and village governments prior to issuing land to foreigners/investors </li></ul>Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania ( cont .)
  29. 29. <ul><li>Impact on greenhouse gases </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale clearing of land and especially use of fire to facilitate site preparation will increase greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning causes air pollution (elevated levels of CO 2 , CO, NOx, and O 3 ) around sugarcane fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Both pre-harvest and post-harvest burning in sugarcane plantations contribute to GHG emissions and air pollution, with serious consequences on the health of local inhabitants. </li></ul>Analysis of the potential impact of bio-fuels crops in Tanzania ( cont .)
  30. 30. Criteria and indicators to assess bio-fuels impact on human development <ul><li>C over aspects of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>land acquisition, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land use plan, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human rights, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ecological and biodiversity aspects, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food security, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio-economic development, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soil and water conservation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health and safety of workers and government supervision of bio-fuels investments and the resultant activities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>The findings are still preliminary and subject to a wide range of rapidly changing variables and trends. Despite the limited evidence base from which to draw concrete conclusions, it is worth noting a number of key issues that have emerged from experiences hitherto. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The altering of existing natural ecosystems and replacing them with low diversity monoculture crops and intensive management practices will have long-term negative impacts on local hydrology; accelerate soil degradation that could lead to desertification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insecurity to land rights, is posing threats to livelihood strategies, food security at household level, economic growth, and human rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bio-fuel crop farming include areas with high levels of biodiversity and natural habitats such as; miombo woodlands, coastal forests, wetlands and riverine forests. Much of these areas were being used for breeding and serving as migration routes for wildlife </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>The intensification of agricultural production, interfering with the hydrological cycle of the areas and the increased use of agro-chemicals and water resources will lead to severe biodiversity loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The high demand of water by bio-fuel plantations may reduce water availed to other users especially the environment and the downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is increased rivalry between village government and the community, increased conflict among household members, and change in social relationships. </li></ul></ul>Conclusions
  33. 33. Recommendations <ul><li>There is a need to: </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce the laws governing the environment, in particular the Environmental Management Act of 2004 for the sustainability of the environment and its resources such as rivers and wetlands including water source catchments. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure proper monitoring and control of agrochemical applications to minimize their effects on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure a rational balance of water supply and demand for the sustainability of the environment. Such a balance should be holistic, inclusive and comprehensive that includes demand projections of all sectors and ensures equitable allocation of available water in a rational manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish ecological reserve and enforce WRMA </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Establish proper land use plans and maps before the land is granted to an investor </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce laws and policies governing biodiversity conservation and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure availability of alternative productive land within the village before relocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce intercropping of bio-fuel crops with other crops and rotation cropping so as to maintain soil fertility and minimize pest epidemics. </li></ul><ul><li>Create awareness at all levels and empower communities on land and investment laws related to bio-fuel production and the environment as a whole for ensured sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and observe proper land use, land use plans and safeguard the countries resources and people to avoid superfluous conflicts and concerns from the communities. </li></ul>Recommendations