GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATIONELASH – • Number of Official contact hours: Exit Test 648assessing I12 • Target : B2students. CEFR
CEFR – B2 LEVELB2 - Upper-Intermediate levelIndependent User• Can understand the main ideas of complex texts on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialization. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
CEFR – B2 Level OVERALL READING COMPREHENSION Can read with a large degree of independence,B adapting2 style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes , and using appropriate reference sources selectively. Has a broad active reading vocabulary, but may experience some difficulty with low-frequency idioms.
OVERVIEW Diagnosis of the problem Analysis of existing data Preliminary conclusions & Hypotheses Suggestions
What is the problem? ELASH II LISTENING SCORE (Target score: 107) ELASH LISTENING SCORE 133.55 130.76 130.45 128.39 127.77 127.13 125.47 124.41107 Target
What is the problem? ELASH II LANGUAGE USE SCORE (TARGET SCORE: 126) ELASH LANGUAGE USE SCORE 128.45 127.13 126.92 126.95 126.91 126.59 125.17126 123.75 Target
What is the problem? ELASH II READING SCORE (Target Score: 126)126 ELASH READING SCORE Target 120.5 119.65 119.37 119.42 119.35 118.89 117.43 116.58FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER
Why can’t our students reach the target for the Reading Section? The test level of difficulty is way above the average I12 students’ comprehension level? The I12 students’ current vocabulary size and level do not suffice for successfully dealing with the ELASH reading section? The I12 students lack specific reading abilities/strategies to get the specific information required in the task?
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Test This test rates text on a U.S. school grade level. For example, a score of 8.0 means that an eighth grader can understand the document. For most documents, aim for a score of approximately 7.0 to 8.0.Flesch Reading Ease Test This test rates text on a 100-point scale. The higher the score, the easier it is to understand the document. For most standard files, you want the score to be between 60 and 70. Score Description (EFL students) 90-100 Easily understandable by an average 11-year-old student. 60-70 Easily understandable by 13- to 15-year-old students. 0-30 Best understood by university graduates
ELASH/WP : CONTRAST CHART (Readability)70605040 ELASH 2 WORLD PASS302010 0 FK GRADE LEVEL FK READING EASE
ANALYSIS OF OUR STUDENTS’ WORDLEVEL/SIZE & READING STRATEGIES
The Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, P.) 2nd One Thousand Word List Target : I05 n=139 SCORE Number of Students Percentage16/30 535 words 16 ss 11.50%17/30 568 words 11ss 7.90%18/30 601 words 19 ss 13.60%19/30 634 words 10 ss 7.10%20/30 667 words 12 ss 8.60%21/30 700 words 15 ss 10.70%22/30 733 words 09 ss 6.40%23/30 766 words 13 ss 9.30%24/30 832 words 06 ss 4.30%25/30 832 words 04 ss 2.80%
I05 STUDENTS WORD LEVEL 2nd 1000 WORD LIST14.00%12.00%10.00% 8.00% SCORE (in word families) 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 533 567 600 633 667 SCORE (in word families) 700 733 767 800 833 683.3 wf
Analysis of ReadingStrategies Required in ELASH Texts
ANALYSIS OF READING STRATEGIES REQUIRED BY ELASH 2 TESTS
ANALYSIS OF READING STRATEGIES REQUIRED BY ELASH 2 TESTSO Inferences: Readers must draw conclusions about what is meant based on clues in the text (“reading between lines”).O ScanningO Skimming
Taking the Test: Steps to the Inferential Strategy O Test-takers are required to… O …read the target questions or statements carefully. O …identify relevant information related to the questions or statements in the text. O …evaluate how logical the link is between the identified relevant information and the target statements. O …double check their line of reasoning, provided there is enough time.
Diagnosis of Teaching StrategiesO Class Observation O Level: Intermediate O Formative basis O Goal: Determine level of effectiveness in the teaching of reading strategies during textbook activitiesO Outcome: O Listening and speaking skills are mostly integrated. O Very good application of “stretching the task” notion. O Teachers are primarily task-resolution oriented O Reading strategies are taught neither explicitly nor consistently
Analysis of Students’Perception on Reading Strategies
SURVEY OF READING STRATEGIES (SORS)Kouider Mokhtari and Ravi Sheorey, 2002The purpose of this survey is to collect information about the various strategiesyou use when you read school-related academic materials in ENGLISH (e.g.,reading textbooks for homework or examinations; reading journal articles, etc.). KEY TO AVERAGES3.5 or higher = High 2.5 – 3.4 = Medium 2.4 or lower =Low INTERPRETING SCORES1) The overall average indicates how often you use reading strategies when reading academic materials.2) The average for each subscale shows which group of strategies (i.e., Global, Problem Solving, or support strategies) you use most often when reading. It is important to note, however, that the best possible use of these strategies depends on your reading ability in English, the type of material read, and your reading purpose.3) A low score on any of the subscales or parts of the inventory indicates that there may be some strategies in these parts that you might want to learn about and consider using when reading
Ss’ Use of Reading Strategies Actual “A learning experience (…) perceived Low* to be of high quality can facilitatePerceived High** learner self-actualization(…)”Learning* Based on ELASH scores, current teaching orientation,observation of classes.** Based on SORS results Mercado, L. (2012)
Preliminary ConclusionsVocabulary • 70% of ELASH vocabulary within the 1-500 wise, range (COCA) • ELASH texts demands knowledge of a lower ELASH percentage of academic word list than WP texts texts (5.7% vs. 22%) • Our I05 Ss’ word level is around 684 word appear to families (in the 2nd 1000 word list) • Vocabulary should not represent a major be less problem for I12 students taking the ELASH 2. Nevertheless, a minimum knowledge ofdemanding 2500 word families (I12) –ideally 3000- should be expected at the completion of the than WP Intermediate Phase. ones.
Preliminary Conclusions Flesch Reading Reading Ease score for ELASH texts (60) Ease is within the ideal range 60-70I12 students should be in a goodposition to understand the ELASHtexts
Preliminary Conclusions • …Ss’ lack of familiarity with question formulation in the reading section, especifically those related to making inferences. This weakness, in turn, is brought about by the factELASH low reading that reading strategies are notscores are primarily being explicitly and consistentlyaccounted for by… : taught in class* * Not ICPNA’s program major focus.
HypothesesStudents will improve their Performance in ELASH examsreading skills provided that is expected to improve thanks to proper reading strategy the exposure to typical ELASHinstruction is carried out in questions. class. Extensive reading is likely to be enhanced due to the incorporation of reading techniques that promote interaction with the text. (Thinking-Aloud Protocol, Questioning the Author).
Anderson’s Guidelines on How to Teach Reading Strategies O Teach specific strategies explicitly. O Teach strategy clusters. O Integrate strategies consistently into your teaching. O Teach students a wide variety of strategiesFrom Neil Anderson Teaching ESL/EFL Reading
• Making inferences • Adjusting reading speed to match the materials difficulty • Guessing the meaning of unknown words • Having a purpose in mind for why youre reading • Highlighting or underlining • Keying in to your prior knowledge • Predicting meaning or direction READING • Previewing a text for length and organizationSTRATEGIES • Reading headings • Rereading the text • Scanning for specific information • Skimming for the general sense or main ideas • Taking notes • Using a dictionary • Using visual clues like tables, illustrations, and figures
Raising Awareness – Metacognitive Level • QUESTIONING THINK- THE AUTHOR ALOUD- • JUSTIFYINGPROTOCOL YOUR ANSWER
THINK-ALOUD PROTOCOL O I predict that … O I can picture … O A question I have is … O This reminds me of … O This is like … O I’m confused about … O The big idea here is … O I believe … O The author’s purpose seems to be…
STUDENT MATERIAL FOR APPLICATION (Samples) READING WORKSHEET I09 UNIT 3PART A: MAKING PREDICTIONS.What do you think the reading at page 16 will be about? Look at thepictures below and predict 5 words that might appear in the text. Justifyyour answer. Before… After …220.127.116.11.5.PART B: SKIMMINGAnswer the questions below. 1. The main idea of paragraph 2 is that June Diaz changed careers because: (A) she realized she had always wanted to be a teacher. (B) She majored in education. (C) she wasn’t successful in her business career. (D) She was offered a promotion. 2. According to the text, crossover teachers are not widely accepted because
READING WORKSHEET / I11PART A: (MAKING PREDICTIONS) Look at the two pictures below. In general, they reflect whatthe article is about. Make predictions about its content by reading the statements below andwriting either “I agree” or “I disagree”. 1. To learn better, it is a good idea to know how the brain works. (_________________) 2. There are two types of memory (___________________) 3. The structure of our brain changes physically as a result of studying. (_________________) 4. The brain can remember better when the information is organized. (_________________) 5. The best way to learn something is to teach it to someone else. (__________________)Now, read the article on page 40 in your workbook. If your prediction was correct, whisper, “Yes!”If your prediction was wrong, whisper, “Oops!!” Say, “Aha!” or “Wow!” if you are learningsomething new from the text. Additionally, write one piece of information that you learned out ofthis first reading:________________________________________________________________________________PART B: (GUESSING MEANING FROM CONTEXT) Mark the best answer to the following questions.Be ready to justify your answer by thinking aloud. 1. The word “resolve” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to …….. . a. work out c. make a firm decision b. avoid d. result 2. The word “key” in the first paragraph means …… . a. put information into a computer c. instrument b. unimportant d. deciding factor 3. The word “take in” in paragraph 2 is closes in meaning to ……. . a. perceive c. ignore b. misunderstand d. illusion 4. The expression “make up” in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to …. . a. construct c. reconcile b. accommodate d. memorize
SUGGESTION 1: IncorporateReading into the Evaluation System O Reading should be regarded as an objective grade O As of WHEN? O The sooner the better O How should it be evaluated?: O Multiple Choice Quiz? O Post-reading discussion in class?
Suggested Class Objectives OBJECTIVES S S R W W
Why would this change not drastically affect the current status (grading/ T’s workload, etc.) ?O Current 3rd Objective O Suggested 3rd Evaluation Objective O Speaking : Ss Evaluation orally report to O Reading : Ss teacher/class will orally report to teacher/class ANY GIVEN SOURCE SOURCE: TEXT
Why is this change necessary?Ss currently are not motivated enough todo intensive/extensive reading effectively. Making reading mandatory and graded will automatically increase the need for students to get involved in the initiative.
SUGGESTION 5: Promote the Reading Flow InitiativeO 40 novels (ADV)O 40 graded readers (INT)O 18 Reader’s Digest + MAGAZINES (INT)O 60 Forum magazines (MET)O Graded Readers available in the library O Basic : 150 titles* O Intermediate : 92 titles* O Advanced : 62 titles**In some cases up to 3 copies per title
Final RemarksO Crucial skillO Teaching of reading strategiesO MandatoryO Great opportunityO Now
SOURCESO Anderson, N. (2010) Teaching ESL/EFL Reading. Education to Go, a part of Cengage Learning.O Anderson, N. (1999) Exploring Second Language Reading. Heinle & HeinleO Mercado, L.(2012) English Language Technology. Cengage LearningO Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25 (3), pp. 2-10.O Phillips, D. ((2006) Preparation Course for the TOEFL TEST. LongmanO SORS: (Adapted from Oxford 1990, pp. 297-300).O http://www.readingrockets.org/article/21160/O http://www.readingquest.org/strat/qta.htmlO http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/graphic_organizers.htmO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgUbdzL7gmkO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHTwGsnQ710