Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms


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Living things, the cell and the 5 kingdoms

  1. 1. Living Things By Isabel Madero Aguado
  2. 2. How do we know if something is ‘living’?   M R S N E R G All living things are characterised as being able to do seven things These are usually remembered by the mnemonic MRS NERG Can you guess what these letters stand for?
  3. 3. The 7 characteristics of Living Things Movement – Animals move to find food and keep away from predators, plants move to face the light Reproduction – the ability to produce offspring to keep the species in existence Sensitivity – responding and reacting to the environment Nutrition – Animals need food for respiration, plants need minerals from the soil Excretion – Getting rid of waste Respiration – Turning food into energy Growth – Growing larger and stronger  becoming adult size
  4. 4. Description of the characteristics:       They are born: all living things come form other living things. They eat: all living things need food They grow: all living things increase in size during their lifetime. Sometimes they change in appearance They react: living things can perceive what is going around them, and they react to what they perceive They reproduce: living things can create offspring similar to themselves They die: at some time, all living things stop
  5. 5. Internal organisation of living things Living things are made up of a large number of very small units called cells. A cell is the smallest living unit which make up a living thing The number of cells in a living thing varies. Some living things are made up of one single cell. They are called unicellular. Other living things are made up of many cells. They are called multicellular.
  6. 6. Parts of a cell The membrane is a covering which sorrounds the cell, and separates it from the exterior. 2. The nucleus is the part which controls the function of the cell. 3. Cytoplasm is the space between the nucleus and the membrane Plant cells also have a hard cell wall around the membrane. This is why some plants stems are very hard 1.
  7. 7. The parts of a cell Plant cell Animal cell
  8. 8. How are living things organised? Levels of organisation:  Cells: group together to form tissues  Tissues: are made up of similar cells that carry out a common function. Muscle tissue  Tissues form organs. Organs are made up of a group of tissues that work together to carry out a common function. Lungs, heart, stomach.  Organs form systems. Systems are made up of a group of organs that work together to carry out a common function. Skeleton  When all the systems work together, they form an organism
  9. 9. Levels of organisation I cells tissues organs
  10. 10. Levels of organisation II organs systems organism
  11. 11. Ideas to make cells Cells Cells
  12. 12. Classification of Living Things Bacteria Kingdom Algae Kingdom Everything that is living can be sorted into these 5 kingdoms Animal Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plant Kingdom
  13. 13. Animal Kingdom     Animals are Multicellular – made up of may specialised cells They eat other living things They can move from one place to another They have a nervous system and sense organs. They can react quickly to stimuli. Humans belong to the animal kingdom
  14. 14. Plant Kingdom    Plants are multicellular – made up of lots of cells They make their own food by photosynthesis Plants don’t have sense organs or nervous system, but they react slowly to some stumuli. Many plants grow toward the light, like the sunflowers
  15. 15. Fungi Kingdom     Fungi can be unicellular or multicellular Its body is made up of a network of threads called hyphae. They don’t make their own food. They depend on other organism. They are attached to something
  16. 16. Bacteria Kingdom    Bacteria are unicellular and can live in water, soil, air or inside other living things Bacteria don’t have a nucleus Some can only be seen with a microscope
  17. 17. Algae Kingdom   Many algae are formed by one cell but others are multicellular and can be as big as a tree Algae live in damp places of water
  18. 18. Task 1. Everyone   2. Make a list of the 7 characteristics of Living Things (MRS NERG) Make a list of the 5 Kingdoms of Living Things (try to write an example for each) Extension   Research one of the 5 Kingdoms in more detail Make a poster / fact page / fact file If you get stuck use the key word lists and information on your tables