In the age of Web 2.0 and social media, a constantly ubiquitous online presence is available - the ubiquitous access to information is quickly and easily. The teachers present theories, models and results, and some students "google" at the same time whether that is true what is being said. For the"Homo Interneticus" it is normal to search for facts. Discussions and learning cultures are changing.
What are appropriate didactical teaching-learning scenarios nowadays?
To what extent can Educational Apps/Technology be integrated to strengthen active learning (student engagement) and collaborative learning?
((What are the right conditions?))
The talk gives answers in form of case studies and theses which illustrate changes towards digital didactical designs in universities and schools.
Digital media enable learning in unexpected places online through established boundaries. If this is the case, then we face the challenge to understand teaching, learning and didactics in a new way – instead of a ‘text book learning’ only, that represents receptive, consumer-oriented teaching, we need creativity-focused didactical designs to enhance a meaningful learning experience.
In the age of Web 2.0 and social media, a constantly ubiquitous online presence is available - the ubiquitous access to information is quickly and easily. The teachers present theories, models and results, and some students "google" at the same time whether that is true what is being said. For the"Homo Interneticus" it is normal to search for facts. Discussions and learning cultures are changing. What are appropriate didactical teaching-learning scenarios nowadays? To what extent can Educational Apps/Technology be integrated to strengthen active learning (student engagement) and collaborative learning? ((What are the right conditions?)) The talk gives answers in form of case studies and theses which illustrate changes towards digital didactical designs in universities and schools. Digital media enable learning in unexpected places online through established boundaries. If this is the case, then we face the challenge to understand teaching, learning and didactics in a new way – instead of a ‘text book learning’ only, that represents receptive, consumer-oriented teaching, we need creativity-focused didactical designs to enhance a meaningful learning experience.
Umeå – Oslo = ca. 900 km
Here you see 2 photos from Umeå University build in 1965 according to an American university Campus role model. It is a relax atmosphere , nice location outside, in the summer .
Umeå is also known as the city of the birches Because of a big fire Downtown in the 19 century where a lot of houses burnt down, birches are trees which have a lot of waTER inside And so, to prevent a big fire storm again, you can see birches everywhere
When I moved in 2011 to Umeå , one year ago, I started with a project called “taking a photo whenever I see something special what is different from “my” old cultures in Germany” Here I give you 2 examples This photo shows a chair in Umeå Downtown near by the opera house where 2 people have a seat. The special thing is that FIRST it is heated in the winter, so you also can sit there when there is snow around you. SECOND, you have free wireless access to the internet. This kind of “social installation” has been made in 2002 by Mikael Richter, 10 years ago!
This is my favorite photo. My best argument for eLearning ? Without using any new technologies you don ’t have access to public toilettes or restrooms. On this picutre, you see how to use your cell phone, You call an operator, s/he sends an SMS with a code to your cellphone and with that code you enter the door. This service costs 5 swedish krones
--USA: viele iPads in CA --Studie KNO 90% zufriedenheit mit APP gegenueber 70% Zufriedenheit der Studierenden ohne APP --TAZ: LehrerInnen sehr optimisch, offen gegenueber solchen iPads / Touchpads Implementationen --
… .and the question is: To what extent can we connect the Homo Interneticus and the Homo Didacticus ?
Coming back to the questions: “how to design a combination of formal teaching and informal learning”
These concepts might be true for their specific contexts! However, what is creativity in higher education from the university teachers points of view?
Design-based Research (DBR)
4 Bereiche Items mit Bezug Experiment (s. nächste Folie) technisches Design (???) Didaktisches, pädagogisches Konzept (???) Soziales Konzept (Community, Kommunikation)
Digital Didactics The theory of designingteaching and learning in a Social Media world Isa Jahnke Umeå University Presentation at InterMedia, University of Oslo 15 Jan 2013
Umeå European Capital of Culture 2014Datum Sidfot 2
Research group“ICTML: Digital Didactics”• Professor Dr. Isa Jahnke, Dep Applied Educational Science -- background: Social scientist in Computer Science (CSCL and CSCW) -- Dynamics of social roles in socio-technical systems -- Didactics (German Didaktik)• 4 PhD students • Andreas Olsson: Mobile Learning • Lars Norqvist: Creative Learning • Leif Marklund: Game-based learning • Anders Norberg: Blended learning• 1 Post-Doc (Visby Program): Nataliia Sharkova (Ukraine)• 2 Post-Docs (50%) to be announced• Our Website: https://iml.edusci.umu.se/ictml/ firstname.lastname@example.org 3
Road map …today Not the access to knowledge only -- an approach to encourage collaborative creativity (study 2), examples of PeTEX A theoretical and teacher ed framework of Digital Didactics, useful to understand the newA new situationsituation inteachingdue to mobile A case study (1) showsdevices the use of mobile device. It did fail…! 9
New situations…. , or No pro blem, a question blem! You have a pro ue?google it. Pos Go to the Int an unsolved iss ask yo t it to o ernet nline f an Linked ur per sonal orums d In, Fa netwo and ceboo rks Slides k, Twi in hare, tter, etc. s of nge in dis cussion culture We observe a cha stance, when facts are s. For in daily-life group takes her a st one person discussed at le rmation nd ‘go ogles’ the info smartphone a Jahnke, Bergström, et al., 2012 10
A new person emerged…the “Homo Interneticus” “A bunch of my friends are coming over this evening to play on their Phones” (Your e-Cards) 11
Relation of “informal learning” to“formal learning” in a Web 2.0 world Schools Schools 50 years ago nowadays Formal Formal learning learning Informal learning Informal learning 12
We don’t live any longerin a social constructed reality Homo I nterne BUT ticus ? we live in a idakticus socio-technically Homo D constructed society The social construction of reality Berger & Luckmann, 1967 Homo Interneticus Aleks Krotoski, 2011 13
Challenges for Teaching and Learning RQ 1. What are appropriate didactical approaches for teaching-learning scenarios nowadays? RQ 2. To what extent can Educational Technology be integrated to strengthen active learning, student engagement and collaborative creativity?Th. Herrmann, 2009: collaborative creativityG. Fischer, 2010: learning when the answer is not knownLund & Hauge, 2011: designs for teaching; designs for learning 14
My research is influenced by...Sociology• Social Construction of Reality (Berger & Luckmann, 1967) - "Objective facticity"• Duality of social structures (Anthony Giddens)• Mediatization (Hjarvard 2008)Central concept• Society designs new forms of media and communication• New media affects society - media is integrated into the operations of social institutions. Media becomes an active agent• People live in a media-constructed world where we have a difference between reality and reality given by different media 16
My research is influenced by...CSCW, CSCL, Didaktik• Suchman, 1987, workplace studies, situated actions• Orlikowski, 1996, metamorphoses of technology usage over time• Coakes, 2002, socio-technical knowledge management• Herrmann, Loser, Jahnke, 2007, STWT• Lave & Wenger, 1998, situated learning, communities of practices• Herrmann, Jahnke, Loser, 2004, dynamics of social roles in online learning communities• Stahl, 2009, co-construction of knowledge, group cognition• Wang & Hannafin, 2005, Design-based research, action research• Wildt, Jahnke, 2010, Hochschul-Didaktik, Didactics 17
From a broader perspective –Designing the interdependencies Didactics (challenge-ba sed learning) Trans-formations Inter-actions Inter- dependency Us e o f Technology (Social Media Teaching an , iPads) d Learning Cultures (different disc different subje iplines, cts)Jahnke, Terkowsky, Pleul, Tekkaya 2010:PeTEX project 18
Academic staff Digital development Didactics The theory of designing* teaching and learning in a Social Media World National institutions (municipality) Teaching School / aims University Classroom / Course Teacher Learning Student Content Assessment/Feed activities ICT/Pads ICT/iPads back ICT/iPadsCourse Curriculumdevelopment development
Learning approach by David Kember Deeper learning takes place in a community of reflecting peers •Teacher-centered • Student-centered •content-oriented • learning-oriented surface learning • collaborative learning deeper learning I II III IV VInformation Delivery of Teacher Delivery ofDelivery Structured Structured Student Facilitation Facilitation Supporting Supporting Knowledge Interaction of Under- Knowledge of Under- Conceptual Conceptual standing standing Change and Change and Intellectual Intellectual Development Development ((behaviorchange)) behavior change David Kember, 1997 Johannes Wildt, 2012 20
Social Roles - the Forgotten Theory Teachers and Learners roles Teachers and Learners roles 100 years ago nowadays = balanced = not balancedPositionPosition Purpose PurposePurpose Purpose Position (tasks) Position (tasks) Purpose Purpose(tasks) (tasks) (tasks) (tasks) Role-playing Role-playing Expectations ExpectationsExpectationsExpectations Role- Role- playing playingRole-playingRole-playing Position Position Expectations Expectations Social roles published in Jahnke, 2010 Herrmann, Jahnke, Loser, 2004 21
Digital Didactics as method to analyze the current situation, to design and develop teaching and learning Teaching objectives/aims (problem) so s ole cia lr l ro cia les so ICT (social media) Learning social roles activities Process-based (Co-constructing Assessment/Fee knowledge) dback (self-, peer-, teacher-)Lund & Hauge 2001Fink 2003Bergströ 2012 mJahnke & Kumar, 2012 23
Case study 1 Course „Industrial project management“ (IPM2): • Summer 2011 • 23 students in engineering education • Aim: To apply what they have learnt in IPM 1 • Assignment: the students got a task by a real firm • iPods for supporting cooperation/communication • Participant observation and interviews Results • Students did not use iPods (or just very little use) • Students prefered to meet face-to-face.Liebscher & Jahnke, 2012GMW 24
What the students said...Why the students did not use the iPods• Mobile devices were too small• WIFI were not available on the road• Students said, no difficulties to coordinate their group work.However, the students said, it was difficult to figure out...a)What was the problem of the firm? ,b)How to proceed to develop a solution?Students said, support were needed when to develop a solution to the firm‘s problem – here, the iPods could be useful to support creative thinking, collaborative creativity! 25
The problem.... • Students missed support for a)Collaborative creativity => How to support collaboration; to develop collaboratively a solution to a problem when there exist no correct answer? a)Problem-solving processes Planning and conducting a project, needs professional knowledge and creativity but the latter was not part of the didactical design. • Other problems – It was not clear for the students when to use the different technical platforms (what to use when for what purposes?)Collaborative creativity,Thomas Herrmann 2009 26
Creativity was not planned – was not mirrored in the didactical design New 7. Collaborative Didactical Design IPM creativity (what it should be, 6. Creating but not was) 5. Evaluating 4. Analyzing Didactical Design IPM 3. Applying (what it was) 2. Understanding 1. RememberingBloom’s TaxonomyAnderson & Krathwohl, 2001) 27
The change of designing teaching How do students construct new knowledge… ….when the answer to a particular problem is not known? => creativity is required! Research questions a)What is creativity in formal education (schools, HE)? b)To what extent support ICT/iPads different forms of creativity? c)What didactical designs for teaching/learning do universities need to foster creativity?Th. Herrmann, 2009: collaborative creativityG. Fischer, 2010: learning when the answer is not knownLund & Haug, 2011: designs for teaching; designs for learning 28
What is creativity?Different contradictory understandings… ew New i deas e o f n h a t? for w p tanc accept w Acce – who hom is w h at ne w? s idea Systemic understandings Grea t Mind Creat iv Creat e person l iv y Creat e process idua abilit iv Creat e product div tive In ni ive e nviro nmen co g Colla t borat ive cr eativ ityGuilford, 1956Gardner, 1993Csikszentmihalyi, 1996Amabile et al., 2002Jahnke, Haertel, Wildt, submitted 28 email@example.com
Study 2 – DaVINCI - What is creativity? Creativity is a social construction It can’t be measured in general But it can be contextualized by asking the involved people …in that way, the construction becomes visible.DaVINCI projectHaertel, Terkowsky, Jahnke (2012)Jahnke & Haertel (2010) 30
DaVINCI methodcreativity in higher education DaVINCI – Fostering creativity in higher education (2008-2011) empirical study 1.10 interviews with outstanding teachers, award winners etc. 2.10 interviews with teachers in pedagogy and computer science =First Framework about creativity in higher education 6 Facets of Creativity in HE 3. Online survey, university teachers (to proof the framework) 4. Online survey, students (how they perceive creativity) =Confirmed framework about creativity in higher education 6 Facets of Creativity in HEHaertel & Jahnke, 2010Jahnke, 2011 31
“What is a creative effortgiven by your students?”(open question, coded later => 6 facets) Facet 1 - self-reflections, self-reflective learning Facet 2 – independent learning (making decisions) Facet 3 - curiosity, motivation to learn Facet 4 – learning by creating something Facet 5 - multi-perspective thinking Facet 6 – reaching for original, entirely new ideasHaertel & Jahnke, 2010Jahnke, 2011 32
Online survey“What is a creative effortby your students?” Haertel & Jahnke, 2010 Jahnke, 2011 33
6 Facets...by supporting the ability to learn autonomously (F2) ...by enabling to get original, entirely new ideas (F6) ...by supporting a new thinking; enabling multi-perspectives (F5) ...by reflecting & srcutinizing established „things“ (F1) ...by constructing something (F4) ...by supporting curiosity, motivation (F3) It doesn‘t match n=587, multiple answers in percent Jahnke, Haertel, Wildt, submitted 34
Next steps We did design methods how to evaluate the 6 facets: A questionnaire, informal feedback, and product analysis We created different courses for the different creativity facets
ExamplesSupporting collaborative creativitytogether with experts we designed learning • The case of PETEX in engineering education and learning at work – remote labs (Stockholm, Dortmund, Palermo) • The case of teacher education – blended learning supported by Wikis • The case of computer science in higher education, the course called “Informatics and Society” 36 firstname.lastname@example.org
example 1PeTEX - platform for elearning and telemetricexperiments 37
PeTEXPeTEXEU project 2008-2010 (Dortmund, Stockholm, Palermo)How to integrate remote laboratories and live experiments in online-learning regardinga)Human-computer interaction?b) sociotechnical-didactical approach? Tobias Haertel, Claudius Terkowsky, Isa Jahnke (2012). Where have all the inventors gone? ICL-IGIP 2012. 38 1 email@example.com
PeTEX – overviewTerkowsky, Pleul, Jahnke & Tekkaya (2011):Platform for E-Learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX). 42Conference “EDUCON” Amman/Jordan 5 firstname.lastname@example.org
PeTEX, three learning levelsLearning Didactics Blooms taxonomy Creativity typeLevel1. Scripted Remembering, Self-reflectiveBeginner learning paths Understanding learning2. Real world Applying; Analyzing Learning byIntermediate Scenarios creating3. Research- Evaluating, Reach forAdvanced based Creating original ideas learning Terkowsky, Pleul, Jahnke & Tekkaya (2011): Platform for E-Learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX). Conference “EDUCON” Amman/Jordan 43 8 email@example.com
example 2Blended learning in teacher educationWiki for „research-based learning“ http://ews.tu-dortmund.de37 44
Organization of the course– example summer 2009PresenceIntroduction(20. Apr 2009) Online An scientific paper WIKI-EWS Coaching including three feedback meetings) Presence Students conduct a 90 mins school lesson5 courses2008-2011 4 days in Aug 2009 45
„Planning and Doing Research“= foundation for the learning approach3-5 students per group: They together generate a scientific paper • 1. Find a topic and formulate a research question • 2. Finding References ! • 3. Changing of the research question back • 4. Developing the Approach Feed • 5. Planning and conducting an empiral study • 6. Analyzing and writing resultsExercising an empirical study, e.g. InterviewsStudents do a peer-review (Teacher provided a review guide ! )Students conduct a 90-mins interactive session about what they have learnt (Teacher provided a guideline !) 46
Timeline Apr. Mai Juni Juli Aug.Introduction 20.4. Literature (Basics) 11.5. Feed 17. 5 WIKI- paper ready 22.06. Presence incl. Interview - Fr 26.June, G1-5 Reviews 3.07. - Fr 03.July, G6-10 Session plan 13.07 Fee20.07 31.07- 01.08.200 9 47
Evaluation results++• Facet 4 – learning by constructing was successful• Facet 6 – the course triggered the students to deveop new ideas+• Facet 1 – Students were able to reflect their learning activities, however, a deeper critical self-reflection was missing.neutral• Facet 2 – Students had a range of making own decisions, students made positive comments--• Facet 3 – no change in motivation• Facet 5 – no multi-perspective thinking 48
Digital Didactics as tool fordesigning and analyzing – lack in… Teaching objectives/aims so s ole cia lr l ro cia les so ICT (social media) Learning social roles activities Process-based Often surface learning Assessment/Fee Lack of collaborative creativity dback (self-, peer-, teacher-)Lund & Hauge 2001Fink 2003Bergströ 2012 mJahnke & Kumar, 2012 49
Conclusion Do not focus on the learnin (anytime-any g infrastructu where didac res tics) - it is a ll there! C olla b ora t iv e c re a tiv in the didacti i t y , a nd h ow cal designs, to integrate it needs our att ention. For this, the s oc ia l re la p ro ce ss - b a tio ns h ip s/ r s e d fe e db a o l e s and designed - c k activities need to be better than it is today! 50
Thanks a lot!Professor Dr. Isa JahnkeICT, media and learningUmeå UniversityDep of Applied Educational Scienceisa.firstname.lastname@example.org://www.isa-jahnke.comhttp://www.facebook.com/isajahnkehttp://iml.edusci.umu.se/ictml email@example.com 44