mobile-learning2012 at IADIS ML2012


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This conceptual paper describes challenges in the field of Interactive Media and Learning (IML), striving towards a research and teaching field for mobile learning. The theoretical background is provided and arguments are listed, specifically what challenges researchers, practitioners (e.g., teachers, employers, employees) and designers face today on the way to mobile learning. This will be done from an educational perspective, in particular from Educational Technology from a Scandinavian community. The leading issue is how to educate the Homo Interneticus? Is learning supported by mobile devices one option? Is there a need to rethink the learning spaces of today? The paper provides answers by illustrating challenges in research and teaching with regard to mobile learning.

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  • * We focus on FORMAL education , especially higher education
  • We focus today in our presentation on new technology IN formal education like schools and universities. Formal learning = task is given by a teacher or external person Palm Pilots in 2002 !
  • iPad is only 2 years young and we observe so many activities not only in the
  • Besides the mentioned sociotechnical approach, CSCW and CSCL – my approach also inlcudes socio-technical communities – as extended part of an official university . Please see in more detail, my results from workshops in France, in the IJWBC and my presentation at CSCL conference. And, I also add a new and differentiated view on roles. At universities, there exist both „communities AND formal learning structures of universities “ – revealing roles and role structures can help to understand and design knowledge management.
  • This approach is a good starting point to reflect on teaching and learning
  • That’s is only one approach to “approaching” to define what learning is..
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Social structues, sociological point of view
  • Notes here - Pilot study conducted in 2006, funded by the faculty of teacher education - Collaboration project between two departments within the faculty, Interactive Media and Learning (us) and Creative Studies - Student teachers in the Sloyd subject, i.e.metal and woodwork - 3 on-campus meetings per semester - We set out to broaden the students' physical learning environment - Increase time for individual tutoring during on-campus meetings - Support teacher trainers in their pedagogical work - Develop training material for Teacher Education
  • - Ipod Videos, first competent portable video player were released in fall 2005. - Instructional videos about wood carving techniques, how to adjust the gas welding equipment etc. - Videos added to the rss feed manually -
  • Then Unidirectional communication, teacher to student Anytime, anywhere learning, with restrictions. Media had to be transferred from computer to mobile device first. Now New generation of smartphones support pedagogical documentation, data sharing and communication, ie collaboration Multidirectional communication, collaborative opportunities, peer learning Students can easily record and publish multimedia content in a personal showcase portfolio 24/7, almost Usability improvments - manual operations taken care of by apps and services Offline access still an issue (Youtube --> YTPodcaster (Adobe AIR app) --> Youtube podcasts for offline access)
  • We think that it is importent to spread the knowledge that informal learning could be used in formal learning scenarion
  • Summary We wanted to highlight the potentials and challenges of mobile learning today. What already exists in daily life (Twitter and Facebook via smartphones around the clock) affects the school, university and formal education of tomorrow. The question is do we respond to this and how? What is an appropriate answer? More research on designing mobile learning together with teachers and students, and study/learn from them…. to find appropriate didactical solutions to enhance learning in forms of “learning to be creative
  • mobile-learning2012 at IADIS ML2012

    1. 1. Isa Jahnke, Peter Bergström, Krister Lindwall, Eva Mårell-Olsson, Andreas Olsson, Fredrik Paulsson, Peter Vinnervik Interactive Media and Learning (IML) Department of Applied Educational Science Umeå University SwedenUnderstanding, reflecting, designinglearning spaces of tomorrowIADIS International ConferenceMobile Learning 2012Berlin, Germany11-13 March 2012
    2. 2. isa.jahnke@edusci.umu.se2
    3. 3. Some te achers enthusia are veiPads, th stic to ge ry ey expec t t ”creativ classroo e ndle ms” ow to ha ge know h rs don’t ion: usa Some teache rooms => react rses eir class ms/cou ICT in th classroo owed in i s not all ds as not real understa nd virtual worl are Many people condLife etc. => Wrong! Facebook, Se chnology- a social-c onstructed Te examples for atters for peop le who ty . Social media mternet. mediated reali municate via the In com 3
    4. 4. “Hom o Intern in a social-constructed world eticus ” BUT we live in a socio-technical constructed society Did acticusWe do not live any longer H om oSocial construction of realityBerger & Luckmann, 1966 isa.jahnke@edusci.umu.seHomo Interneticus 4 andreas.olsson@edusci.umu.seAleks Krotoski, 2011
    5. 5. Guiding research questionsa) What are the understandings of teachers towards “iPad-Didactics”?  What do they expect?  What are their teaching practices supported by iPads?  What problems will occur?b) What are the understandings of pupils/students towards “iPad-Didactics”?c) What is the classroom of tomorrow (equipment, didactics, virtual…)? iPad-Dida ctics iDidactics 5
    6. 6. Design-based research perspective(action research) How to design (develop & evaluate) sociotechnical-didactical learning successfully? What does “successful” mean? What elements can be designed? What are appropriate methods? Jahnke et al. 2010, GMW Zurich; REV Stockholm Wasson (2007): Design and Use of Technology Enhanced Learning Environments 6
    7. 7. Theoretical background(social sciences)• Mediatization (e.g., Hjarvard 2008; Krotz 2007)• Media-constructed social awareness (Medialitätsbewusstsein)• Objective facticity (Berger & Luckmann 1966)• Complexity theory (e.g., Dugdale 2000)New media affects society (“media is integrated into the operations of social institutions”,) but on the other hand society designs new forms of communication.Media is formed by society but also became an active agent which influences human interactions.People live in a media-constructed world where we have a difference between “reality” and “reality given by different media”. To know this and to handle this in the classroom is one aspect of media competency.Complex problem: technical, social and didactical developments are required simultaneously 7
    8. 8. CSCL & CSCWwhat we already know• Socio-technical approach (e.g., Suchman 1987, Orlikowski 1996, Coakes 2002; G. Fischer 2005).• CSCW: knowledge management (e.g., 1986 first conference; Gross & Prinz, 2003)• CSCL: collaborative learning = co-construction of (new) knowledge (e.g., CSCL conference started 20 years ago; Koschmann, Stahl, Suthers, Dillenbourg 2003)• Socio-technical Communities (e.g., Communities of practice, Wenger & et al. 2002; Online communities, Preece, 2000) 8
    9. 9. Different understandings of“mobile learning”• Focus on mobile learning in terms of devices and technologies• Focus on the mobility and flexibility of learners (anywhere, anytime,…)• Focus on mobility of learning• Focus on learners’ experience with mobile devices• Mix Traxler (2007) Sharples et al. (2005) Sharples (2006) Pachler (2007) 9
    10. 10. What is “learning”? To what extent can it be supported?Kolb’s learning cycle (1984)•concrete experience (ideas)•reflective observation (reflecting)•abstract conceptualization (generalizing)•active experimentation (applying)To what extent does the “design of mobile learning”motivate and enable students to….. Laurillard, 2007,•Access theories, ideas or concepts? pp.163-164•Ask questions to (a) the teacher, (b) their peers?•Offer their own ideas to (a) the teacher or (b) their peers?•Use their understanding to achieve the task goal by adapting their actions?•Repeat the practice using feedback that enables them to improve performance?•Share their practice outputs with peers for comparison and comment?•Reflect on the experience of the goal-action-feedback cycle?•Debate their ideas with other learners?•Reflect on their experience by presenting their own ideas, report designs (productions)to peers and to teachers? 10
    11. 11. Teaching objectivesBloom’s taxonomy 1956; Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001 • Remembering • Understanding What lev el( • Applying address; s) do a teacher to what e xtent? • Analyzing What is her/his d • Evaluating achieve esi this leve gn to l? • Creating
    12. 12. Designing the Interdependencies Didactical a (e.g pproaches ., learning to be creative) Trans-formations Inter- Inter-actions dependencies U se o f Technology( S Teaching an ocial Media) d LearningCu ltur faculties, dis es (different ciplines, sub jects) 12
    13. 13. Research activities1) University course with iPads (spring 2012) • “Applied IT in schools” (Krister Lindwall, Peter Vinnervik) • Ca. 15 student teachers (teacher education program), • blended learning2) University course with iPads • 55 student teachers (teacher education) • preschool study program (Kenneth Ekström, Eva Mårell-Olsson)3) Odder municipality (Denmark) • 200 teachers, 2,000 pupils – iPads for all – started in Dec 20114) ”CSCL@Work” – learning at work • Sean Goggins (USA), Isa Jahnke (SWE), Volker Wulf (GER) 13
    14. 14. iDidactics RQ 1: a) Groups at the beginning? B) Changing over time? -Baromete r Group C Group A Group B “Tech-NO! teachers” “iDidactics teachers” “iPad-how? teachers” - + +/- They want to use iPads in their They are happy to get an iPad; They don’t want to use new1.) classrooms, but have no ideas how to have ideas for designing their do it, have some technical problems; technologies, iPads. They don’t see classrooms; have ideas of the the benefit. they would like to improve their outcomes; they redesign their teaching practice but without any teaching practices. more additional effort. RQ 2: To what extent are iPads2.) Ideas of useful for student’s learning Didactical learner’s based on special didactical Designs learning designs by the teachers? What skills are students able to (supported by iPads) develop over time? (aimed outcomes skills, additional skills) Math; Subject Bio-logy; Languag pupils X; 5 e; =16 n years years 11 years years 14
    15. 15. Two examples in detail• Scenario 1: GIS in School• Scenario 2: Sloyd Project - Podcasting in Teacher Education 15
    16. 16. GIS in SchoolPilot project 2004 (Pär Segerbrant, Leif Marklund, Fredrik Åslund)Didactical approaches•Co-construct knowledge together with other pupils•Increase the pupils involvement in the learning situation•Create a strong connection between the learning situation and thepupils immediate environment•An interdisciplinary approach 16
    17. 17. GIS in School iver R ec e GP S PDA 17
    18. 18. GIS in School 18
    19. 19. GIS in SchoolProblems from the Pilot project 2004Expensive maps•Manual registration of the map coordinates•(gps devices had no internet connection)The pupils could not document their findings•with multimediaNo technology for synchronous sharing of the findings among•the pupils 19
    20. 20. GIS in SchoolPossibilities in 2012•Inexpensive apps (GPS motion X)•The devices (ie. iPhone, iPad) often hasconstant Internet connection•The devices can be used to documentthe findings via multimedia•Pupils can share findings synchronouslyamong themselves and the rest of theworld. 20
    21. 21. Designing the Interdependencies Didactical a (e pproaches .g., learning to be creativ e) Inter- dependencies U se o f Technology( S Teaching an ocial Media) d LearningCu ltur faculties, dis es (different ciplines, sub jects) 21
    22. 22. Sloyd Project - Podcasting in T.E.Peter Vinnervik & Krister Lindwall • Pilot project 2006 • Funded by the Faculty of Teacher Education • In collaboration with Dept. of Creative Studies • Teacher programme in Sloyd (metal and woodwork) • Distance ; 3 on-campus meetings (per semester) • Project objectives o Offer a more flexible study environment o Increase time for individual tutoring during on-campus meetings o Promote the use of ICT in teacher education programmes o Support teacher trainers o Develop training material for Teacher Education 22
    23. 23. Sloyd Project - Podcasting in T.E. • Provided 20 students with Ipod Videos • Prepared instructional videos o Welding, wood carving etc. • Subscribe to videos via RSS • Use Ipod at home in personal workshop o anywhere, anytime learning 23
    24. 24. Sloyd Project - Podcasting in T.E. • Then • Now o Shift in technology o One-way o Collaborative opportunities communcation o Improved anytime, o Partial anytime, anywhere learning, 24/7 anywhere learning o Improved usability o Media player 24
    25. 25. What we learnt so farChallenge 1 -- informal learning influences formal educationWe can learn from the informal characteristics of knowledge construction:•The problem is often the trigger for learning•Take advantage of the curiosity that makes people use Internet forinformation retrieval.Place the problem at the centre. The tool which the learner uses to solvethis problem may varyThesis 1: Mobile learning bridges informal learning approaches to formaleducation and new flexible teaching methods -- where the problem andnot only the textbook is in the center of teaching. 25
    26. 26. What we learnt so farChallenge 2 -- Shift from “textbook knowledge” to “learning to be creative”c)How to teach/support learning“when the answer to a problem is not known”? (Gerhard Fischer, 2011)e)New understanding of learning-- learning what-- learning how,-- learning to be (e.g., learning to be a teacher, a researcher etc.),-- learning to be creativeThesis 2: Mobile learning supports ashift from “textbook learning” to “learning to be creative” Collins &Halverson 2009 26
    27. 27. What we learnt so farChallenge 3 – omnipresent online presencec)Change of daily-life discussion culture e.g., students “google” teacher’s talke)Smartphones, iPad, Androids, = Small Multitouch-devices :It’s different to the Laptop age! The devices are small,you can communicate in seconds, nobody can see it when the user doesn’t wantto; it doesn’t take time to reboot/startThesis 3: Mobile devices bring innovations from daily life into schoolsand universities, and are able to “crack” traditional teaching routines 27
    28. 28. Mobile devices… We n dida eed the ctica ed l des sociotec enabling learning unde ucation igns h for F nical- rstan to O ding foster a RMAL of ne across established boundaries crea “learning w tive” to be in unexpected online places 28
    29. 29. Thanks a lot!Professor Dr. Isa Jahnke•Professor in ICT, media and learning•Umeå University•Dep of Applied Educational Science•••• 29