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isajahnke ictml umea 2011-05-v1


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educational innovations in a sociotechnical world, projects, results, outlook

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isajahnke ictml umea 2011-05-v1

  1. 1. Creative Learning Cultures educational innovations in a Web2.0-world Isa Jahnke [email_address] May 2011 Umeå Universitet
  2. 2. Outline
  3. 3. <ul><li>Millions of users in Wikipedia (collaboration; ProSumers = consumers+producers) </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of online discussion boards (e.g., marathon training, health, movies…) </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook (e.g., volcano ash cloud: people provided private accommodations organized carpools via Facebook) </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter (e.g., information about protests during Iran election, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing * (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk, Innocentive = Internet services, new form of knowledge generating processes) </li></ul>Web 1.0 = download only Web 2.0 = communication *Jahnke & Prilla, 2008 (Eds. Back, Gronau, Tochtermann) 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  4. 4. … and problems <ul><li>Wikipedia: ‘opinion-maker/-leader’ for many people; true information? </li></ul><ul><li>Data privacy: marketing companies make profiles about user’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Stalking with GPS tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating in universities: students use Wikipedia and other easy-to-find Internet-sources without cite them correctly </li></ul><ul><li>People using Web2.0 without knowing about the data problems, OR they know however they still use it (how to teach “reflection”?) * </li></ul><ul><li>New “socio-technical relationships” ** with emergent properties ( socio-technically constructed ) </li></ul>**Jahnke 2009 (Handbook Whitworth, about socio-technical systems) *Member of excellent research network Global Young Faculty (GYF), Tech group, survey about Internet behavior „Being 3.0“ 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  5. 5. Social Media in higher education Jury member RCO: Courses Campus Online Teaching/ learning processes New Technologies 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  6. 6. <ul><li>How to solve these problems regarding learning with new technologies ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on the DESIGN – </li></ul><ul><li>socio-technical & educational design </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  7. 7. Overview “ Designing the interdependencies ” Inter-dependencies Use of Technology (Social Media) Teaching and Learning Cultures (different faculties, disciplines, subjects) Didactical approaches (e.g., fostering creativity, PBL) Design-Based Research 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  8. 8. Research question How to design (develop & evaluate) Technology-enhanced learning successfully ? Wasson (2007): Design and Use of Technology Enhanced Learning Environments What does “ successful ” mean? What elements can be designed? What are appropriate methods? Jahnke et al. 2010, GMW Zurich; REV Stockholm 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  9. 9. What does “successful” mean? (regarding computer-enhanced learning) <ul><li>1) Degree of structural coupling (degree of interdependency) how close/loose are the three elements connected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-organizational Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational, didactical Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Degree of quality </li></ul><ul><li>how good the three elements play together </li></ul><ul><li>The better the unit,… … the better they share knowledge … the better they learn … the more the users (teachers/students/university managers,…) are satisfied (with the “embeddedness”) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Successful for which people? </li></ul><ul><li>different target groups and different roles (dynamical changes!) (students, professors, teachers, lifelong learners, newbies, experts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in different situations (e.g., courses), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in different systems (universities, faculties, different cultures) </li></ul></ul>Jahnke, Pleul, Terkowsky, Tekkaya 2010 Suchman 1987/ 2007 Orlikowski, 1996 Coakes, 2002 Herrmann/Loser/Jahnke 2007 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  10. 10. Socio-technical paradigm – what we already know <ul><li>Coakes (2002), knowledge management; Emery & Trist (1964), Mumford (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the relationships and interrelationships between the social and technical parts of any systems / equal weight to social and technical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Suchman (1987), workplace studies STS research = how people use ICT in social interactions/actions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Situated action ” = focusing on concrete situations where people use technology (technology development without regarding social context tend to fail) </li></ul><ul><li>Orlikowski (1996) Metamorphoses of technology usage over time (duality of technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Herrmann, Loser, Jahnke (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication (in “situated action”) generates new structures and regulations... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which form (coin) the technical system/structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which are partially determined by the technical system </li></ul></ul>duality of structures Giddens 1984 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  11. 11. Socio-technical paradigm what we already know <ul><li>Socio-technical approach / CSCW (e.g., Data/information/Knowledge, Willke 2001; knowledge management systems, Coakes 2002; G. Fischer 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>CSCL: co-construction of knowledge (e.g., Koschmann, Stahl, Suthers, Dillenbourg 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>+ Socio-technical Communities/STC (e.g., Communities of practice, Wenger & et al. 2002; Online communities, Preece, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>+ New view on roles - position, -actor ’s activities/tasks, -implicit/explicit expectations, -role-making </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop organization, France, COOP 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Guest editor IJWBC 2009 with Piet Kommers/NL </li></ul><ul><li>Jahnke & Koch 2009, E-CSCW, Web 2.0 goes academia </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop with G. Fischer, Boulder (Co), GROUP 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>CSCL 2009, Greece; Jahnke 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation in York/UK 2006; </li></ul><ul><li>Jahnke 2010, GMW; </li></ul><ul><li>Guest Editor IJSKD (Coakes, UK) with Ulbrich/Canada & Mårtensson/Sweden ( “Knowledge Development and the Net Generation in HE”), IJSKD 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation in Washington DC, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Jahnke 2006, Dissertation </li></ul><ul><li>EARLI Budapest 2007, with Jan-W. Strijbos/NL; </li></ul><ul><li>Jahnke 2010, Journal “Computers in Human Behavior” </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  12. 12. Methodology: Design-Based Research Reeves, Herrington & Oliver 2005 Wang & Hannafin, 2005 Analysis (Evaluation,…) Design (Development,…) <ul><li>Data collection / - analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>login files </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Changing practice 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  13. 13. Research projects <ul><li>DaVINCI, BMBF, 2008-2011 creativity </li></ul><ul><li>PeTEX, EU, 2009-2010 online learning </li></ul><ul><li>InPUD, TUD 2001-2009 community cultures </li></ul><ul><li>MARIS, BMBF, 2005-2008 --- case studies, knowledge management, production processes </li></ul><ul><li>eGOV, 2006-2007 Informationsbüro d-NRW --- study about electronic government trends, actors, topics </li></ul><ul><li>WINK, BMWI, 2005-2007 --- formative evaluation of 7 knowledge media projects </li></ul><ul><li>EVAL, BMBF, 2005-2006 --- “knowledge loops” of BMBF research programs and –projects, summative and formative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>LearnDO, BMBF,2002-2004 --- learning region Dortmund, knowledge sharing with BSCW </li></ul><ul><li>Werk-Stadt Dortmund, SFS-KOWA, 2002 --- socio-technical web design of regional networks; Dortmund, study of participatory design via Internet </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  14. 14. DaVINCI “What is a creative effort given by your students?” <ul><li>Title Creativity in (Technology-Enhanced) learning cultures; BMBF 2008-2011, together with IMTM/Bochum U </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews with experts (20 outstanding & ”normal” teachers, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online survey about creativity-stages (2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating ‘creative learning scenarios‘ (2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating ‘trainings/modules for teachers’ (2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of intervention / redesign (2010-2011) </li></ul></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  15. 15. 6-facets-model: fostering creativity in higher education Jahnke &Haertel, 2010 ournal “Das Hochschulwesen” 2011-05-04 [email_address] 50% 62% 42% 47% 55% 56% n =587
  16. 16. 2011-05-04 [email_address] Creativity in HE Description (Enabling students to do…) Examples „What is a creative effort of students? “ 6. Original, entirely new ideas The production of many ideas can be encouraged through creativity techniques and appropriate environment: ‘enable the possibility of arrival’; Allowing and encouraging mistakes. <ul><li>Showing, using new ways of solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Students create new relations (between existing topics) </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual, original topics for presentations etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A new „story “ about a research topic </li></ul>5. Fostering a new culture of thinking Change of perspective, break through routines and patterns of habit, take a different attitude, reduce prejudice, integrate provocations, dealing with ambiguities, reflection on one's own creativity and thought-structure, knowledge about the inner-workings of the brain. <ul><li>Several perspectives on one topic (multiple perspect.) </li></ul><ul><li>Deviances from standards and routines </li></ul><ul><li>Relations to different disciplines </li></ul>4. Fostering constructive learning … where students create something; creation of, for example, interconnections in theses, research-mode learning projects, aid and outreach projects; planning a conference. <ul><li>Students create something (e.g., conference planning/-conduction; e-Infrastructure-concept; podcasts; students design a lesson for other students) instead of doing a traditional presentation </li></ul>3. Fostering fascination / increasing motivation to learn Enabling situated learning, use experiences of students, developing interesting ways to pose questions or problems; richness/variety; establish a link to practice; use of metaphors, humor <ul><li>Students use their own experiences (e.g., experiences as student worker, from school etc.)… </li></ul><ul><li>… and integrate these into lectures, courses </li></ul><ul><li>Students are fascinated from the topics </li></ul>2. Fostering the ability to work autonomously Enabling the individual student to set the acquisition of knowledge in motion; Enabling students to learn that they are responsible for steering the processes of learning; enabling to make one's own decisions. <ul><li>Students develop own research questions and choose a topic autonomously </li></ul><ul><li>Students work on the topic and organize the learning process self-controlled and autonomously </li></ul><ul><li>They create own learning outcomes </li></ul>1. Fostering independent, self-reflective learning Learner ‘constructs’ knowledge oneself rather than adopting it; enabling students to hold an internal dialog, breaking out of a receptive posture, supporting lateral and critical thinking. <ul><li>critical thinking, when students think about (quality of discussion contributions) </li></ul><ul><li>not repetitive </li></ul><ul><li>Students identify stereotypes, assumption </li></ul><ul><li>They do more than task is given </li></ul>
  17. 17. DaVinci – more results…. <ul><li>4-field-matrix gives answers to: what, how to design? </li></ul><ul><li>4 scenarios to support creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research-based learning with wikis (blended learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive lectures by a discussion board/forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-generated Webtours (distance learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-located learning with i-clicker, mindmeister, twitter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 training modules ( “Web 2.0, eLearning & Co”, “Through the barricades”) for teachers (workshops also conducted at Uni Trier, Münster, FH Köln, Berlin) </li></ul>6 facets of creativity support 4 computer-enhanced learning scenarios 2 modules (train the teacher) 4-field-matrix 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  18. 18. PeTEX <ul><li>Platform for eLearning and Telemetric Experimentations Production Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU, 2008-2010, Partners: Stockholm KTH, Palermo DTMPIG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Labs: Tensile test, compression test (semi- and fully-automatic), Friction stir welding (semi-automatic); Milling process (semi-automatic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RQ: How to design live-experiments embedded into online learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing tele-operated experiments including video-supported, web-based interfaces to the labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded into a LMS (Moodle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with peer-reviewed feedback (Blogs, “reflective learning”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design-based research (DBR) with modeling method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midterm evaluation with experts (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final evaluation (2010) </li></ul></ul>Jahnke et al. 2009 DELFI conf 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  19. 19. 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  20. 20. 1. Learning Modules (interactive tasks) 3. Reflective learning (learners write a report, get reviews) 2. Preparing and doing an EXP 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  21. 21. Experts evaluation (June 2009) 32 Items, 4 Cluster <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>What is a successful EXP? (if the experiment „fails ” what will the learner learn then?) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical design </li></ul><ul><li>Booking system, schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Design </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized framework </li></ul><ul><li>Learning level of complexity </li></ul><ul><li>more active tasks than passive reading (every approx. 10 minutes, an active task is needed; it affects motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Design </li></ul><ul><li>Review process ( Who gives feedback to whom in the phases of writing a report?) </li></ul>Terkowsky, Jahnke et al. 2010 REV, Stockholm 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  22. 22. Final evaluation 2010 PeTEX Video “ Demo_Petex.avi ”
  23. 23. InPUD <ul><li>In formatics P ortal U niversity of D ortmund = InPUD, a socio-technical community (STC), launched 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>RQ: How to design knowledge management about study organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended interviews (with students and teachers, professors, study advisors) before the STC was initiated (2001-2002) -> reveal student ’ s problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized questionnaires before launching the STC ( 2002 ) and seven years later (2009) - online survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant observation supplemented with interviews (in particular 2002-2004) </li></ul></ul>Jahnke Diss 2006 Jahnke 2008, Krems & Journal CiHB, 2010 2011-05-04 [email_address] Designing designing, development continuing improvements
  24. 24. InPUD Portal Foren 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  25. 25. Study management (examples) Courses (examples) Discussion boards (Forum) 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  26. 26. Number of contributions 10-25 c. 51-100 c. 26-50 c. 1-9 c. 101-200 c. 201 and more c. (max. 500 per student) Core of community members (ca. 270) contribute regularly 0 contributions 21.1 % (=312) 16.2 % (=240) 8.2% (=121) 43.9 % (=649) 4.7 % (=70) 4.0% (=59) 1.8% (=27) n=1 478 (from 2 000 students) 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  27. 27. What community members do… Preparing for examinations Knowledge exchange with students Subject-specific questions about courses Asking sth. about exercises Learning to handle different opinions Solving exercises collaboratively Sharing information about lectures, tutorials Members’ activities (very often & often, Likert scale / n=182) Helping other students Asking organizational issues (courses) Communication with teachers Getting in contact with other people Getting in contact to companies 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  28. 28. Comparison 2002 and 2009 The information and communication supply at the Department is… … helpful, valuable … easily acessible … clear structured … Information easy to find … complete Before InPUD 2002 (n= 391) With InPUD 2009 (n=292) Mean; Scale 1-5 1 = highly agree to 5 = higly disagree * = significance; 95%- confidence interval Mean 2002: 3.0 Mean 2009: 2.0 Jahnke, 2010 Zürich 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  29. 29. <ul><li>Improvements by InPUD </li></ul><ul><li>When to attend what courses </li></ul><ul><li>How to combine lectures, tutorials, practical courses etc </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for what in the department </li></ul><ul><li>Getting in contact with other students </li></ul><ul><li>How many hours do I need to complete the course </li></ul><ul><li>When to expect problems </li></ul>Improvements & side-by effects <ul><li>No effects (no improvements by InPUD) </li></ul><ul><li>When and how to prepare for what examinations </li></ul><ul><li>How important a lecture/course is for the studies/job/competence development etc. </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  30. 30. InPUD… <ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge sharing is more effective with an STC than with Web 1.0 conditions only </li></ul><ul><li>An STC is an effective supplement to formal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STC supports flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anywhere, anytime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easier to engage users, integration of weakly coupled users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different access to information and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STC supports a better learning chance for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An STC provides flexible communication spaces with a specific quality of relationships (foster social proximity through ICT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>=> Knowledge management needs a balance of “static” information (Web 1.0) AND communication spaces (Web 2.0) (what balance? => depends on target groups, their needs) </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  31. 31. E-learning over time CBT 1980… CSCL 1990… Social Media (Web 2.0) 2004… … Educational mash-ups Creative lifelong learning cultures 2011... Jahnke 2009, STC in: Whitworth ‘ s Handbook Jahnke 2006, presentation in York, UK 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  32. 32. People Process embedded into institutional cultures Fostering creativity in learning cultures supported by social media Research plan 2011-05-04 [email_address] Skills, competencies (e.g., i-literacies, creative thinking/actions) Students (the reflective student; „Being 3.0 “ ) a Teachers (professional development ICTML!) b <ul><li>Designing new courses & scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>„ Master of ICTML in higher education “ (new program?) </li></ul>c Classroom Assessment Techniques e (Student ‘ s) Evaluation of teaching f Informal & formal learning (lifelong learning) d How to bring innovations into practice? g
  33. 33. Thanks for your attention! <ul><li>Publications? Please ask, I send it to you </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  34. 34. Backup
  35. 35. <ul><li>What media-/ i-literacies do students have? Study about „Being 3.0 “ and awareness (1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>What media competencies do teachers (in schools/Univ) have? Study about teachers and their competencies using new media in HE; how they use what Social Media in HE; attitudes and habitus; what learning outcomes do they enable (2 years) </li></ul><ul><li>How to design creative learning scenarios in disciplines successfully? What role plays new media? Based on DaVINCI results „Fostering creativity in HE cultures “ , developing/implementing creative teaching and learning arrangements (e.g., PeTEX); (2-3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>What potentials do informal learning have? Research about the connection of formal and informal learning supported by Social Media Lifelong learning; CSCL at the workplace, cf. InPUD; (3 years) </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  36. 36. e) What are sufficient assessments when implememting competence-/creativity-oriented learning processes? when teaching does foster creativity, examiniations also must include creativity aspects instead of traditional examinations (3 years) f) To what extent are (student ‘ s) evaluations of teaching useful for improving teaching/learning? Study about existing evaluation practices, and good practices regarding competence-oriented evaluation (e.g., Berlin „BevaKomp), developing design criteria (2 years) g) Visions, innovations, prototyps are required BUT bring it into practice: To what extend and how to transfer innovative TEL scenarios in practice? 2011-05-04 [email_address]
  37. 37. Transformation of higher education Creative lifelong learning cultures <ul><li>Universities today </li></ul><ul><li>Central learning locations </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on formal learning in classes </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on presence </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing individual learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching paradigm (teacher-centered courses) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on content </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher are experts </li></ul><ul><li>Professional knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Future tasks of universities (Education 2.0) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing different learning spaces (including material from Internet, access to social media) </li></ul><ul><li>Managing formal, non-formal and informal learning spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Specific integration of presence, blended, online learning, co-located learning (see BOLD, Michael Power ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of individual, collaborative, cooperative, community learning, and mobile learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning paradigm with appropriate instructions (e.g., research-based learning, Alan Jenkins ) </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting co-construction of knowledge, capability to perform/act (knowledge, skills, behavior = competences) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are experts BUT also moderators, coaches (depends on situation) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional knowledge sharing embedded into creative, inspiring learning cultures </li></ul>2011-05-04 [email_address]
  38. 38. Teaching and Learning …between instruction (teacher) and construction (learner) <ul><li>“ Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge – and instruction is a process of supporting that construction rather than communicating knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>(Duffy & Cunningham, 1996) </li></ul>April 2011 [email_address]
  39. 39. Situated learning needs… Lave & Wenger 1991 complex problems authenticity multiple perspectives articulation and reflection social exchange