Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

2014-ICT-in-education

ICT in more than just a tool -
Introduction into the research field of teaching, learning, digital media

  • Login to see the comments

2014-ICT-in-education

  1. 1. ICT in Education Teaching, Learning, Digital Media isa.jahnke@umu.se Isa Jahnke Umeå 7 Oct 2014
  2. 2. isa.jahnke@umu.se http://iml.edusci.umu.se/ictml/ Eva Mårell Post-doc Peter Bergström Post-doc Anders Norberg PhD student and Educational Technologist Lars Häll (1st Dec) Post-Doc & Educational Technologist
  3. 3. Twitter @isaja isa.jahnke@umu.se Road map for today Part 1 – Introduction Part 2 – Theoretical understandings Part 3 – Technological background and trends Part 4 – Examples from studies Learning Intentions • An overview • Inspiration • and “a wonderful confusion” (Karin Sporre)
  4. 4. Do we really need more research on digital media and learning? Why? Is there actually a problem? isa.jahnke@umu.se
  5. 5. isa.jahnke@umu.se TodaysMeet https://todaysmeet.com/isaja
  6. 6. What the cleaning person is seeing... SOURCE http://www.sycmu.com/2012/11/26/classroom-blackboard-teacher-sees-students/
  7. 7. isa.jahnke@umu.se A new situation…. P. Hinssen 2010 „The New Normal?“ Floridi 2012: “We are probably the last generation which differentiate in Online and Offline“ Access to information has changed – “omnipresent online presence” - we have the Internet always with us
  8. 8. Relation of “informal learning” to “formal learning” in the Internet era isa.jahnke@umu.se Formal learning Informa l learning Formal learning Informa l learning Universities 20 years ago Universities nowadays
  9. 9. isa.jahnke@umu.se Social + technical = socio-technical systems? We don’t live any longer in a social system but socio-technical construction of reality Social construction of reality Berger & Luckmann, 1966
  10. 10. Vygotsky 1978 Zone of Proximal Development isa.jahnke@umu.se Designing for teaching and learning in order to enable deeper learning more than surface learning - beyond surface levels Jahnke & Liebscher, 2013 International Journal ELiSS
  11. 11. Jahnke et al. 2010 isa.jahnke@umu.se Assumption Designing for teaching and learning needs a „constructive alingment“ of different elements A sociotechnical-didactical (educational- )Design*** “Constructive alignment” Biggs, 1999 & Biggs & Tang, 2007
  12. 12. isa.jahnke@umu.se A new “design thinking”? Rethinking designs for technology-enhanced learning environments
  13. 13. Jahnke, Terkowsky, Pleul, & Tekkaya, 2010, DeLFI isa.jahnke@umu.se Research question What digital didactical designs do universities apply in order to support deeper learning („conceptual change“)? • Which elements are designable, which are not (social processes, didactical concepts, techn. systems), how? • What kind of quality of learning is addressed? • What are process-based, formative forms of assessment & feedback? Kember, 1997 Burzan & Jahnke, 2011
  14. 14. Which aspects affect designs for teaching & designs for learning? Herrmann, Loser, Jahnke 2007 isa.jahnke@umu.se 1) Degree of structural coupling Interdependencies of the elements (co-evolution)  Technical systems, digital media  Organizational structures and social processes  Didactical concepts 2) Degree of quality alignment of the elements in what quality? 3) Success – for whom? different target groups in different roles Jahnke, et al. 2010, DELFI
  15. 15. isa.jahnke@umu.se Theoretical framework Inter-action Trans-formation (co-evolution) Jahnke, Bergström, et al., 2012
  16. 16. Teaching and Learning in sociotechnical environments isa.jahnke@umu.se • Sociotechn. Paradigm (CSCW) Technical Systems (HCI) are designable, social groups are not ! Social => sociotechnical actions! (CHI) (duality of structures, Giddens 2003; social systems, Luhmann 1995; Th. Herrmann, 2003) • Learning = „co-construction“ (CSCL, TEL) (Duffy & Cunningham, 1996, Stahl 2006) in Situated Learning (Lave & Wenger 1991) (D. Kolb 1984, Jenkins et al. 2002 „linking teaching with resarch“; Bruner 1961, „Scaffolding“) • Learning in Communities; „The Informal…“ (Communities of practice, Wenger & et al. 2002; Online communities, Preece et al., 2000) • Dynamics of social roles • e.g., Jahnke & Kommers 2009 Guest editors, IJWBC „Web 2.0 goes Academia“ • e.g., Jahnke 2009 // Jahnke, 2012 CSCL 2009, ECTEL2012 • e.g. Jahnke 2010, InPUD-Project GMW Conf., Zürich; Journal IJSKD 2011 „Informal communication space enhances traditiomal teaching“ =significant difference • e.g., Jahnke, 2006; Jahnke 2010, Journal “C in Human B”; (new book in prep!!)
  17. 17. An attempt to give an overview; a lot of STEREOTYP ES - not the whole story, just little pieces! isa.jahnke@umu.se …cont… Different Understandings Different Theories Different Study Settings Quantitative M., Interventions, Lab.-experiments Implementation in the real world, Action- / Design-based R (DBR), Evaluation studies Qualitative methods, case studies; in the „wild“ Psychology cognitive Domain (e.g., Gagne, 1965) Pedagogy/Education Education Learning is Bildung Knowledge≠ Bildung (values) Sociology Institutional Research; University as Organization; Scholarhip of Teaching and Learning Informatik / CS new technologies, HCI, OER, TEL (Technology-Enhanced Learning) Testing learning outcomes (items) and interventions CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning); exploring protoypes What is learning? Can we measure it? (D. Kolb; ”Quality of Learning” Biggs/Tang) Information delivery - conceptual change (D. Kember) Competencies/skills (Wildt) Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl) – 6 rubrics Didaktik (Teaching/Learning: what/how/why/when/purpose); professional development; subject-oriented vs. interdisciplinary didactics (Wildt & Jahnke) Learning Design (G. Conole) Learning Studio (Yishay Mor), Designs for teaching & Designs for learning (Lund/Hauge) Teaching and Learning in formal settings Small groups, communities Learning in different places Social constructivsm (Vygotsky, Dewey, Bruner) Instructional Design & Educational Technologie (USA), =accepted discipline in USA! Activity Theory (Engeström); ANT (Latour) Connectivism (Siemens et al.) Social system theory (Luhmann) Different methods
  18. 18. isa.jahnke@umu.se Quantitative M., Interventions, Lab.-experiments Implementation in the real world, Action- / Design-based R (DBR), Evaluation studies Qualitative methods, case studies; in the „wild“ Psychology cognitive Domain (e.g., Gagne, 1965) Pedagogy/Education Education Learning is Bildung Knowledge≠ Bildung (values) Sociology Institutional Research; University as Organization; Scholarhip of Teaching and Learning Informatik / CS new technologies, HCI, OER, TEL (Technology-Enhanced Learning) Testing learning outcomes (items) and interventions CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning); exploring protoypes What is learning? Can we measure it? (D. Kolb; ”Quality of Learning” Biggs/Tang) Information delivery - conceptual change (D. Kember) Competencies/skills (Wildt) Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl) – 6 rubrics Didaktik (Teaching/Learning: what/how/why/when/purpose); professional development; subject-oriented vs. interdisciplinary didactics (Wildt & Jahnke) Learning Design (G. Conole) Learning Studio (Yishay Mor), Designs for teaching & Designs for learning (Lund/Hauge) Teaching and Learning in formal settings Small groups, communities Learning in different places Social constructivsm (Vygotsky, Dewey, Bruner) Instructional Design & Educational Technologie (USA), =accepted discipline in USA! Activity Theory (Engeström); ANT (Latour) Connectivism (Siemens et al.) Social system theory (Luhmann)
  19. 19. Ho-listic-TEL map learning theories in an overview (not all but many) • http://blog.richardmillwood.ne t/2013/05/10/learning-theory/ isa.jahnke@umu.se
  20. 20. isa.jahnke@umu.se Poll every where . com https://www.polleverywhere.com/isaja
  21. 21. isa.jahnke@umu.se Some technological trends and more
  22. 22. isa.jahnke@umu.se Overview (technological developments) E-Learning WBT 80er CSCL 90er OER 2010 CBT 70er Wearables (2013) Mobile devices (media tablets 2010) Social Web Web2.0 2004 Communities CoPs 2000 MOOCs (2011)
  23. 23. isa.jahnke@umu.se Web 1.0 (around 90s) Web 2.0 (starts 2001) Encyclopædia Britannica Wikipedia.de (2001) Personal websites Blogging (first Blogs ca. 1999) Publishing Partizipation (Social Bookmarking: del.icio.us 2003, YouTube 2005, Twitter 2006) Content Management Wikis Systeme (e.g., Wikis at universities ) Mailinglisten, Social Networking / Communities Newsgroups (LinkedIN, Facebook 2004,…) Information Download Communication (about information) (support of human-human-communication via Internet) Tim O'Reilly, 2005
  24. 24. Characteristics of Web 2.0, Social Media and Co. e.g., Jahnke & Koch, 2009 isa.jahnke@umu.se Beliefs  Partizipation  „Architecture of Participation“  „Everyone can be a publisher“  “Wisdom of the Crowds”  Software systems that support  human collaboration  finding other people – building of social relations and networks  Me-Centricity, Human interaction via human-computer-interaction (HCI; CHI)  Easy to use, Interactive systems  Fun and Flow experience  Degree of freedom to act: informal [less rules, only few roles, no standardized behavior, still not formal – but on the way to become more formal]
  25. 25. Web 2.0 works because many thousands of people use it Wikipedia.de: 1% of 80 Mio. people are still many: 800.000 0,1% of 80 Mio. 80.000 isa.jahnke@umu.se In our university courses: 1% of 100 stdents in a course are only 1 1% of 40 students in a course are only ? Technology does not solve it all… -- how to use digital media that it supports teaching and learning meaningful? ATTENTION of the crowd
  26. 26. isa.jahnke@umu.se Technological trends (Horizon Report 2013) • MOOCs • Tablets, ipads and co. • Games, gamification • Learning analytics • 3D printing • Wearable technologies
  27. 27. isa.jahnke@umu.se „Anytime/Anyplace-Matrix“  Telephone conferencing  Two-way-video  Remote screen sharing  Data conferences on linked electronic boards  E-mail  Voice-mail  Computer conferencing  Fax / Express-mail  Shared data base  Workstations  Bulletin boards  Kiosks  Team rooms Anytime Anyplac e  Face-to-face  Whiteboards  Flip charts  Computer projectors  Video  Large graphic displays O’Hara-Deveraux & Johansen 1994
  28. 28. isa.jahnke@umu.se 3C-Modell Communication Forum, IM, Skype,... Notification / Awareness Organized Documents Shared working space Workflow-management Shared / Group-calender Coordination Cooperation Jahnke & Koch, 2009
  29. 29. Mind-meister Communication (“express“) isa.jahnke@umu.se Sharing-Connect-Express Information Podcasts (Vorlesungsaufzeichn ung mit Adobe connect, ....) Networking („Connect“) Cooperation/ Collaboration „Sharing“ Wikis (Wikipedia, Openstreet map, …) Blogs (Wordpress,…) Microblogging YouTube Social Tagging (z.B. Twitter) Services (del.icio.us, bibsonomy) Forums Where to put traditional LMS ? Social Networking Tools (Ning, Facebook,…), Crowdsourcing (NASA Clickworker, Amazon Mechanical Turk,...) Chats, IM Document-mana-gementsystems M. Meckel, 2008 St. Gallen
  30. 30. McLuhan 1967 “We shape our tools and then our tools shape us” isa.jahnke@umu.se
  31. 31. isa.jahnke@umu.se Didactical designs Digital Media Digital Didactical Designs ?
  32. 32. • A process+time model (instead of focusing on places)? isa.jahnke@umu.se Alternative approaches? Isa Jahnke & Anders Norberg (2013). • Teachers as process designers? • … Digital Didactics - Scaffolding a new Normality of Learning. In: Visionary paper for http://blogs.ec.europa.eu/openeducation2030/ Online. Anders Norberg & Isa Jahnke (2014): Learning expeditions? Are you Working in the Kitchen? European Perspectives on Blended Learning. In: Charles Dziuban, Charles Graham, Anthony G. Picciano (Eds.), International Research Perspectives in Blended Learning (tentative title). Taylor and Francis.
  33. 33. isa.jahnke@umu.se An alternative perspective – ICT is more than just a tool The physical classroom and web-enabled mobile devices merge into multi co-located spaces – the expansion of communication spaces Co-located communication spaces
  34. 34. isa.jahnke@umu.se Classroom Separation between learning spaces outside schools and…
  35. 35. isa.jahnke@umu.se Classroom ….Co-located communication spaces Classroom and learning spaces outside schools merge together…
  36. 36. isa.jahnke@umu.se Purpose In co-located communication spaces, we wanted to know, how the teachers design teaching-in-practice to enable student learning
  37. 37. isa.jahnke@umu.se Theoretical lens Design is the act of giving a form to the teaching practice; it is the act of modeling the teaching processes (sociotechnical-pedagogical) to enable student learning
  38. 38. 3 Didactical Conditions 2 Digital Didactical Design isa.jahnke@umu.se Digital Didaktik 3 layers affect each other Teaching ICT ICT ICT aims (ILO) Teacher ICT Student Content P.- Assessment/Fee dback Learning activities Academic staff development Curriculum (+examination) development Institutional strategies 1 Didactical Interactions
  39. 39. Digital Didactical Design: 5 elements and their relations in a constructive alignment! isa.jahnke@umu.se Teaching aims (learning intentions) Digital Media Learning activities Process-based Assessment/Feed back (self-, peer-, teacher-) social relations Jahnke & Kumar, 2012 Jahnke et al., 2014 Klafki, 1963 Fink, 2003 “Course design” Reeves 2006 “how do you know they learn?” B. Hudson 2008 Bergström, 2012 “Designing for the unknown” Hauge & Dolonen, 2012 “activity designs for learning” Biggs 2003 “Constructive alignment”
  40. 40. isa.jahnke@umu.se Teaching aims ICT/ media tablets Teaching activities Process-b. reflections (guided by the teacher) Learning aims ICT/ media tablets social relations/roles Learning activities Process-b. reflections (guided by the students) social relations/roles
  41. 41. TO enhanced by iPads social relations LA A-F isa.jahnke@umu.se When all the elements fit together, then learning takes place A Digital Didactical Design (DDD) is like a good house, • all elements aligned together makes a building, a strong home, where learning takes place • When some elements of the DDD do not fit, then they are just building blocks, no home at all, no learning or only by coincidence = students do learn = students don’t learn
  42. 42. I II III IV V isa.jahnke@umu.se Information Delivery Delivery of Structured Knowledge David Kember, 1997 Johannes Wildt, 2012 Anderson & Krathwohl 2001 Teacher Student Interaction Facilitation of Under-standing Supporting Conceptual Change and Intellectual Development (behavior change) Quality of learning? David Kember 1997 •collaborative reflections •going beyond the horizon •Being critical, creating sth. new deeper learning •Teacher-centered •content-oriented •Remembering facts surface levels
  43. 43. isa.jahnke@umu.se Teaching aims (learning intentions) Digital Media Learning activities Process-based Assessment/Feed back (self-, peer-, teacher-) DDD= 5 components social relations
  44. 44. From teacher-led classrooms (inner circle) to learner-centric learning situations (outer circle) Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles isa.jahnke@umu.se Learning activities (mainly deep learning) Teaching aims clear and visible Outer circle=5 Inner circle=1 Mobile Technology multimodal integration isa.jahnke@umu.s e Process-based Assessment (guided reflections)
  45. 45. isa.jahnke@umu.se Learning activities (mainly deep learning) Process-based Assessment Mobile Technology multimodal integration Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles ID 11 Physics class Teaching aims clear and visible
  46. 46. isa.jahnke@umu.se Learning activities (mainly deep learning) ID 8 Danish writing (Fb) Process-based Assessment Teaching aims clear and visible Mobile Technology multimodal integration Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles
  47. 47. isa.jahnke@umu.se Process-based assessment Teaching aims clear and visible ID 12 creating a digital pres (geography) Mobile Technology multimodal integration Learning activities (mainly deep learning) Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles
  48. 48. isa.jahnke@umu.se Process-based assessment ID 14 writing a story Mobile Technology multimodal integration Teaching aims clear and visible Learning activities (mainly deep learning) Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles
  49. 49. isa.jahnke@umu.se Process-based assessment ID 9 creating a mindmap (biology f) Mobile Technology multimodal integration Teaching aims clear and visible Learning activities (mainly deep learning) Fostering Social Relations and Multiply Roles
  50. 50. 5 forms (16 of 24 classrooms towards learner-producing approaches) • Media-tablet didactics Alignment of all five elements towards learner-centric learning situations (11 classes) isa.jahnke@umu.se • Digital didactics (alignment but not as strong as in pattern A) (5 classes) • Benefit of tablet integration didactical design differs but learners’ benefit through ipad use (1 class) • Potential for Digital Didactical Designs alignment differs & medium/low extent of iPad-use (4 classes) • Re-Design - Applied designs limited learning experiences, considering of re-alignment; better without iPads? (3 classes)
  51. 51. isa.jahnke@umu.se Studies and examples
  52. 52. isa.jahnke@umu.se Research projects  Media tablets in Schools in Swedish schools (granted by VR.se) 2014-2016  Media tablets in Danish schools, 2012-2014  Media tablets in Preschool Teacher Education • DaVINCI, Creativity in Higher Education BMBF, 2008-2011 • PeTEX, Remote Controlled Experiments in Engineering Education EU, 2008-2010 • InPUD, Community Learning in Computer Science NRW, 2001-2004 & TUD 2005-2009 Isa Jahnke, Lars Norqvist & Andreas Olsson, 2014
  53. 53. Matrix for Different Forms of Learning isa.jahnke@umu.se
  54. 54. isa.jahnke@umu.se Preschool class // 5th grade • Students read a traditional book and write a book review; using Bookcreator to make that review, a collection of all reviews made by the students into one book (preschool class) • Creating a Booktrailer (5th grade)
  55. 55. isa.jahnke@umu.se Educreation in math 3rd grade Educreations app for applying different math strategies in small groups
  56. 56. isa.jahnke@umu.se "Explains everything" 4th graders Students got the task to explains the other students what a “verb” , “adjective” and “noun” is En kjole – kjolen – flere kjolen – alle kjolerene A dress – to dress – several dresses - all dresses • App “Explains everything” • Students created storyboard and showcase incl. sound and visualization (product is a brief animated video) • Small teams “outdoors”
  57. 57. isa.jahnke@umu.se Peer-Reflective Learning 7th grade Students write something from their childhood and reflect in peer-reviews their writing skills using FB; iPads deliver Internet-Access Discussion Forum FB here writing something
  58. 58. isa.jahnke@umu.se QR code “improving grammar skills” 7th grade • Pupils searched for QR codes, which lead them to a website to answer questions about grammar • Combining learning outdoors and learning in the trad. Classroom • Reflections about the process
  59. 59. isa.jahnke@umu.se Videos in physics, 9th grade collaborative producing of videos about experiments in physics
  60. 60. Findings - A shift in teaching practices? isa.jahnke@umu.se Teachers' designs for learning… • Focus on action: Teachers activate the pupils' engagement through "producing" • Process-oriented learning • Information seeking in classrooms via online spaces => bringing the world into the schools • Connecting the learning process to a real audience • Different places • Designs for Learning: more than one answer/strategy is possible • Supporting learners to make learning processes visible: documenting the learning steps ("pupils express themselves in different ways") • choices of learning activities: "different ways are possible to build a product” • Different apps that are not built for education and combining traditional resources (books,pen, whiteboard...) and different apps
  61. 61. From traditional course-based learning to learning expeditions?! Learning expeditions stand for rather open-ended, problem-based learning paths which include aims-oriented learning to master X, or explore and understand the implications of N, in which the learning methods and instruments are very open, that take place in sociotechnical co-located communication spaces with reflecting peers where process-based assessment supports the learning progress. isa.isa.jahnke@jahnke@umu.se se Learning does take place in loops with back and forths; it is not a straight ahead way, rather it has detours
  62. 62. The teacher’s role is still changing "require teachers to undertake more complex reasoning than before in their planning and practice" (Webb & Coxx, 2007) Teachers are becoming jongleurs of different elements; complexity increases through technical breakdowns which affect their pedagogical plan (Jahnke, Svendsen, Johannsen, Zander, 2014) For a long time, teaching has been understood as a routine activity, it is moving and turning into a design project in teacher teams isa.jahnke@umu.se Teachers are didactical and process designers Teachers are collaborative learners at the workplace
  63. 63. isa.jahnke@umu.se Do we need a new teaching theory? Digital Didactical Designs as a new design for forming the sociotechnical-pedagogical teaching processes with the aim to enable quality learning
  64. 64. Thanks a lot! isa.jahnke@umu.se Professor Dr. Isa Jahnke Umeå University, Sweden Dep of Applied Educational Science ICT, media and learning (IML) isa.jahnke@.umu.se http://www.isa-jahnke.com (personal website) http://iml.edusci.umu.se/ictml/ (Team website) http://www.facebook.com/isajahnke Twitter isaja Publications online
  65. 65. isa.jahnke@umu.se http://iml.edusci.umu.se/ictml

×