REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT/REPORTED SPEECHPresent Past simpleShe said: “I´m hungry” She said she was hungryPast simple Past perfectShe said: “I missed my family” She said she had missed her familyPresent continuous Past continuousShe said: “I am walking” She said she was walking.Present perfect Past perfectShe said: “I have bought a new car” She said she had bought a new carWILL WOULDShe said:” I will wait” She said she would wait
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT/REPORTED SPEECHPast perfect Past perfectShe said: “ I had waited” She said she had waitedCAN COULD She said.”I can walk” She said she could walkMUST HAD TO She said: “I must walk” She said she had to walkMAY MIGHT She said: “It may be a good idea” She said it might be a good idea.
CHANGESADJECTIVES/ADVERBS IINDIRECT CHANGES He told her: “I like your He told her (that) he car” liked her new car She asked him: “Is this She asked him if that your car? was his car. She told us:” these are She told us those were my books” her books. He told me : “He doesn’t He told me he didn’t live here anymore” live there anymore
TIME EXPRESSIONSDIRECT INDIRECT1 NOW 1 THEN2 TODAY 2 THAT DAY3 YESTERDAY 3 THE DAY BEFORE4 THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY 4 TWO DAYS BEFORE 5 THE NEXT/FOLLOWING DAY5 TOMORROW 6 TWO DAYS LATER6 THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW 7 THE FOLLLOWING7 NEXT WEEK/MONTH/YEAR WEEK/MONTH/YEAR8 LAST WEEK/MONTH/YEAR 8 THE PREVIOUS9 TWO DAYS/THREE HOURS AGO WEEK/MONTH/YEAR 9 TWO DAYS/THREE HOURS BEFORE
REPORTED QUESTIONSYES/NO QUESTIONS WH- QUESTION Sandra Henry wondered: asked:”Are you “Why is Andrew going out?” so late?” Sandra asked Henry wondered if/whether I was why Andrew was going out. so late.
REPORTED COMMANDSDIRECT INDIRECT “Sit down” He ordered them to sit down “Don’t forget your She reminded him not umbrella” to forget his umbrella. “Don’t shout at me”. He told her not to shout at him “Work hard at He advised me to work school” hard at school
REPORTED SUGGESTIONSDIRECT INDIRECT “Let’s go for a He suggested that walk” we went for a “Why don’t we walk relax?” She suggested that they relaxed.
Do you want to know a secret? A: He whispered in my ear that he was in love with me. B: He expressed doubt that I would ever know how much he really cared for me. C: He insisted that we were the only ones who knew. D: He told me that I would never know how much he really loved me. E: He admitted that the realisation had dawned on him a week or two earlier. F: He offered to confide in me if I promised not to tell.
Do you want to know a secret? D: He told me that I would never know how much he really loved me. B: He expressed doubt that I would ever know how much he really cared for me. F: He offered to confide in me if I promised not to tell. A: He whispered in my ear that he was in love with me. E: He admitted that the realisation had dawned on him a week or two earlier. C: He insisted that we were the only ones who knew.
1. “ I won’t lend you any money”She refused to lend him any money.2. “Would you like to have a drink with me?”She invited him to have a drink with her.3. “Let’s go to the beach!”He suggested going /that they should go to the beach.4. “ If you’re good, I’ll buy you an ice-cream”He promised to buy her an ice cream (if she was good)5. “I’m sorry I broke your heart”She apologised for breaking /having broken his heart.
6. “ If I were you, I’d tell your parents”She advised him to tell his parents7. “It wasn’t me. I didn’t break the window”He denied breaking / having broken the window8. “You’re the one who murdered the President. - I saw you”He accused her of murdering / having murdered the President.9. “ Stop shouting!”She ordered them to stop shouting.10. “ Shall I carry your suitcase for you?”He offered to carry her suitcase (for her)
VERB + THAT CLAUSEDECLAREHe declared that he loved herEXPLAINSAYSUGGEST
VERB + TO + INFINITIVE ( NOT TO DO SOMETHING)AGREEOFFERJosé offered to drive me to the airport.REFUSEPROMISEI promised not to tell anybodyTHREATEN
VERB + OBJECT+ TO+ INFINITIVE ( SOMEBOBY NOT TO DO SOMETHING)ADVISEThe doctor advised me to have a restASKCONVINCEENCOURAGEINVITEJulia’s friend invited her to stay for dinnerORDERPERSUADEI persuaded my sister not to go out with JuanREMINDMy boss reminded me to sign the documents.TELLWARNThe man warned us not to park in this street.
VERB+ GERUND ( NOT DOING SOMETHING)APOLOGIZE ( FOR)I apologized for being so late.ACCUSEThe police accused Maria of stealing the car.ADMITBLAME SOMEBODY FORDENYINSIST ONJane insisted on going to the dcotor’s with meRECOMMENDREGRETSUGGESTKatie suggested going for a walk.
be get help lose pay sack steal walk1. He was accused of stealing money from the company.2. I offered to help him, but he said he could manage.3. He apologized for losing his temper with me.4. His boss threatened to sack him if was late one more time.5. Will you remind me to get some more petrol before we leave?6. Of course, she denies being anywhere near the scene of the crime.7. He warned the children not to walk on the frozen lake.8. Her family insisted on paying for the entire holiday.