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# FEM analysis of rolling process

Finite Element Analysis of Rolling Process

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### FEM analysis of rolling process

1. 1. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, CKPCET Prepared by: Varun V. Joshi (100093119001) Aditya A. Patel (090090119003) Chetan K. Anghan (090090119006) Abhishek A. Mukherjee (090090119010) Guided By : Prof. Chaitanya K. Desai Company :
2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION  When metal passes through rolls, metal starts deforming and stress builds up at arc of contact. There is residual stress remaining within the rolled product post rolling.  Finite Element Method (FEM) Analysis is a method of analysis for numerical solution of field problems. A field problem requires that we determine spatial distribution of one or more dependent variables.  In our project, we are concerned with cold rolling process only and intend to obtain the influence of various parameters such as Co-efficient of friction, Plate feed speed and Roller Velocity on outputs like Von-Mises Stress, PEEQ & Pressure, whose distributions have already been obtained through different inputs using FEM software. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
3. 3. 3 COMPANY PROFILE  ESSAR Steel, Hazira is a name renowned within the Rolling Industry.  It has the most vast amount of rolling facilities in the country and the various complexes that are involved in the Rolling process are as follows :  Iron Making Facility  Hot Roll Mill  Cold Roll Mill  In the Cold Roll Mill Complex we observed the following types of Roll Mills  5-Stand Tandem Mill  4-High Single Pass Reversing Mill FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
4. 4. 4 LITERATURE REVIEW Sr. No TITLE YOP FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS 1 SIMULATION OF PLANE-STRAIN ROLLING BY THE RIGID-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 1981 2 SIMULATION OF THE COLD ROLLING OF STRIP USING AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUE 1985 3 A RIGID-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TEMPER ROLLING PROCESS 2002 4 ELASTO-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF A SYMMETRICAL PLATE ROLLING USING AN ALE APPROACH 2006 5 INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE PARAMETERS ON THE HOT ROLLING PROCESS USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 2010 6 ROLLING MILL ROLL DESIGN 2003 7 NON LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT METHOD SIMULATION AND MODELING OF COLD AND HOT ROLLING PROCESSES. 2007
5. 5. 5 CLASSICAL APPROACH TO ROLLING The formulation of the problem based on classic approach is done by SLAB METHOD. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
6. 6. 6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Before we proceed to the formulation of problems and their simulation there are some basic concepts that one should be familiar with:  QUASI-STATIC SIMULATIONS USING EXPLICIT DYNAMICS  MASS SCALING  ALE method  Element: CPE4R(4 node bilinear plain strain , quadrilateral , reduced integration, hourglass control) FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
7. 7. 7 FEA ROLLING ASSUMPTIONS These are the assumptions that we have taken in our simulations:  The arc of contact between the rolls and the metal is a part of a circle.  The coefficient of friction, μ, is constant in simulation, but in actual scenario, μ varies along the arc of contact.  The metal is considered to deform plastically during rolling.  The volume of metal is constant before and after rolling. In actual scenario, the volume might decrease a little bit due to close-up of pores.  The velocity of the rolls is assumed to be constant.  The metal only extends in the rolling direction and no extension in the width of the material.  The cross sectional area normal to the rolling direction is not distorted. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
8. 8. 8 INITIAL BASIC SIMULATION MODEL When we went to the industry, they asked us to formulate a basic simulation model. This was the simulation model we had formed. 2D Deformable plate Analytical Rigid Wire FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
9. 9. 9 INITIAL BASIC SIMULATION MODEL FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
10. 10. 10 INITIAL BASIC SIMULATION MODEL FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS Reference Point Point of Instance
11. 11. 11 INITIAL BASIC SIMULATION MODEL FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS Roller Fixed Upward Movement restricted Plate Feed Velocity
12. 12. 12 INITIAL BASIC SIMULATION MODEL This is the ALE meshed part. Element used is CPE4R. Total no. of elements is 460. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
13. 13. 13 IBSM - SOLUTION FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
14. 14. 14 SHEET SIMULATION MODEL Based on our Initial Basic Simulation Model, the industry provided us with the following data. Length : 1500 mm Initial Sheet Thickness : 5 mm Final Sheet Thickness : 4 mm Sheet Feed Velocity : 1.5 m/s Roller Diameter : 380 mm Roller Velocity: 200 MPM (20 Rad/s) Initial Material Hardness : 50-60 HRB Post-Rolling Material Hardness : 90 HRB Post-Annealing Material Hardness : 60 HRB FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS c
15. 15. 15 SHEET SIMULATION MODEL The further steps are to be carried out in a similar manner to the way the plate problem was formulated. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
16. 16. 16 SHEET SIMULATION MODEL FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
17. 17. 17 SHEET – VMS DISTRIBUTION FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
18. 18. 18 SHEET – PEEQ DISTRIBUTION FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
19. 19. 19 SHEET - PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 Pressure Distribution along Arc of Contact 0 2.3 4.53 6.7 8.8 11 13.13 15.27 17.42 19.55 21.73 23.89 26.07 28.28 30.48 32.7 Stress True distance along path Pressure FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
20. 20. 20 VARIATION IN RESIDUAL STRESSES  As seen in earlier slides, we obtained the Von-Mises Stress distribution. Once the Roll force is removed, the stress remaining in the Sheet may be considered as Residual Stress.  Now we proceed to see the variation in the residual stresses based on the following parameters: •Co-efficient of friction f •Plate Feed Velocity Vp •Roller Velocity Vr FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
21. 21. 21 CO-EFFICIENT OF FRICTION f 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 Residual Stress v/s Co-eff of Friction f 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Von Mises / Residual Stresses Co-Efficient of Friction f Residual Stresses Residual stresses initially increase with increase in Co-efficient of Friction f upto value = 0.35 and then decreases FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
22. 22. 22 PLATE FEED VELOCITY VP 200 150 100 50 0 Residual Stresses v/s Vp 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.25 1.5 1.75 Von-Mises / Residual Stresses Plate Feed Velocity Vp Residual Stresses Residual stresses decreases with increase in plate feed velocity Vp upto value = 1.5 and then has a sudden increase. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
23. 23. 23 ROLLER VELOCITY VR 155 150 145 140 135 130 Residual Stresses v/s VR 7 8 9 9.5 10 10.5 Von-Mises / Residual Stresses Velocity of Roller Vr Residual Stresses Residual stresses remains more or less constant with increase in plate feed velocity Vp, but experiences a sudden drop at value = 9 and then again follows the earlier established trend. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
24. 24. 24 OPTIMUM PARAMETERS Based on all the above graphs, we may conclude that there is a most optimum combination of parameters which would result in an overall reduction in the residual stresses. Co-efficient of Friction f = 0.45 Velocity of Plate Feed VP = 1.5 m/s Velocity of Roller VR = 9 rad/s FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
25. 25. 25 SCOPE OF FUTUREWORK When we formulated the shell problem, in the job analysis stage we found excessive deformation in the roller outer surface and the plate. This was perhaps due to incorrect load and boundary conditions that we had applied. In spite of our best efforts, we were unable to remove and eliminate the error and hence there remains a scope for future work in that direction. FEM ANALYSIS OF ROLLING PROCESS
26. 26. THANK YOU