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Quick medical terminology

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Quick medical terminology

  1. 1. Quick MedicalTerminology:A Self-Teaching Guide4th EditionShirley Soltesz Steiner, R.N., M.S.John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. 2. Quick MedicalTerminology:A Self-Teaching Guide4th EditionShirley Soltesz Steiner, R.N., M.S.John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. 3. This book is printed on acid-free paper. ࠗ ϱCopyright © 2003 by Shirley Steiner. All rights reservedPublished by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New JerseyPublished simultaneously in CanadaNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise,except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, with-out either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through paymentof the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive,Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. Requests to the Publisher forpermission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008,E-Mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM.This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to thesubject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged inrendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, theservices of a competent professional person should be sought.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears inprint may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products,visit our web site at www.wiley.com.ISBN 0-471-23359-5Printed in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  4. 4. For Dorothy Elizabeth Wilson Soltesz who is my mom and best friend.Mildred Hall who is my godmother and may not know how much she influenced my growing up years. Mildred assured me I had what it takes to go to college, get an education, and create a better life.
  5. 5. Contents To the Reader vii Objectives of the Program xi Pronunciation Key xiii The Word-Building Strategy xv List of Illustrations xxi 1 Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 1 2 More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 21 3 Basic Anatomical Terms and Abnormal Conditions 43 4 The Genitals and Urinary Tract 65 5 The Gastrointestinal Tract 95 6 The Heart 115 7 Symptoms, Diagnoses, Treatments, Communication, Qualifiers, and Statistics 139 8 Growth and Development, and Body Orientation 169 9 Gynecology, Pregnancy, and Childbirth 19510 The Eye and the Respiratory Tract 223 Review Sheets 249 Final Self-Test I 279 Final Self-Test II 283 Appendix A: Medical Abbreviations 287 Appendix B: Forming Plurals 289 Index of Words and Word Parts 293 v
  6. 6. To the ReaderWhat It Is and Who It’s For So you want to learn the language of medicine. Great! Everything you need for learning medical terminology is right in your hands. The language of medicine is precise and technically oriented. It is among the great tools of the mind for better understanding and more accurate communication between all practitioners of the life sciences. Learning this special language is your opportunity to be among them. Quick Medical Terminology can prepare you for a new job or even a new career in one of the nation’s fastest growing job markets, Health Care and Allied Health Services. In Quick Medical Terminology you’ll learn to pronounce, spell, and define med- ical terms used in today’s health care settings. You will use a word-building strat- egy that helps you discover connections and relationships among word roots, prefixes, and suffixes. You’ll learn the meaning of each part of a complex medical term and be able to put the parts together and define the term. Very quickly you’ll develop a large repertoire of useful medical terms, much greater than the 500-plus terms presented in this text. Quick Medical Terminology is an enjoyable way to learn the very special language of medicine by yourself, at your own pace. If you speak and understand English and have a high school education or equivalent, you’ll quickly learn the basics and much more.How to Use This Program We suggest you use the following steps to approach your learning. Step 1. Pre- and Post-Testing If it’s worth learning, isn’t it worth knowing you have succeeded? You will find two Final Self-Tests in the back of your guide. We suggest you take one test before you begin your study and take another after you have completed all your lessons. Pre- and post-testing shows you how much you have learned. Either one of the final tests may be used first. vii
  7. 7. viii QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Step 2. Self-Instructional Unit This self-teaching guide lets you proceed at a pace that is right for you. It provides everything you need to complete each of the ten instructional units, which include: Introduction and Mini-Glossary. The first page of each unit introduces you to what you will cover and provides a Mini-Glossary of the terms and word parts you’ll be learning. You may want to refer to it as you proceed through the lesson. Numbered frames. Numbered frames are the building blocks of each unit. A frame presents a small amount of information and expects you to read and think about that information. Then it asks you to respond to it. The way you respond may be: • to select a medical term or definition from a list of suggested answers. • to write a medical term for a given definition. • to draw a conclusion and write it in your own words. Example Emesis is a term that means vomiting. A term that means excessive vomiting is hyperemesis. Underline the part of the medical term meaning excessive. A gallbladder attack can cause excessive vomiting. Write the term that describes this unpleasant condition. Example Myelo / dysplasia means defective development of the spinal cord. Chondro means cartilage. What does chondro / dysplasia mean? Answers. As you work through the unit, you’ll find the correct answers on the left-hand side of the page. It’s a good idea to use a folded piece of paper to cover the answer until you give your own. Your answer will be correct most of the time, but when your answer doesn’t match ours, be sure you know why it doesn’t. You may need to go back and review a few frames before continuing. Pronunciation Guide. When you work with a medical term for the first time, the answer column guides your pronunciation of the new term. Take the opportunity to practice pronouncing each new term correctly several times. Say it aloud or subverbally (saying it to yourself ). Example chondrodysplasia (konЈdro dis pla؅zhe) Review Exercises. Some units are longer than others, so to help you plan your breaks, we designed several short learning sequences into each unit. A brief
  8. 8. To the Reader ixReview Exercise occurs at the end of a learning sequence. If you need a break,stop after a Review Exercise. Proceed at a pace that is right for you. We urge youto complete an entire unit before calling it a day.Summary Exercise. Each of the ten instructional units ends with a Summary Exer-cise. This final exercise pulls together all the new terms you worked with in theunit. Using the pronunciation guide alongside each term in the list, take theopportunity to practice pronouncing each term correctly and defining it aloud orsubverbally. It really works! You might ask a friend to pronounce each term in thelist so you can practice spelling it when you hear it.[This is a good classroom exercise for instructor-guided spelling practice, pronun-ciation practice and defining the terms.]Unit Self-Test. Each unit ends with a Self-Test in two parts. Part 1 asks you tomatch a list of definitions with the correct medical terms. Part 2 asks you to con-struct the correct medical term for each definition listed. All terms and definitionsare covered in the instructional unit you have just completed. Here’s anotheropportunity to see how you’re doing.Step 3. Unit Review SheetBeginning on page 247, you’ll find a two-part Review Sheet for each of the tenunits of instruction that make up this self-teaching program. We suggest you beginevery new unit (beginning with Unit 2) by completing a Review Sheet for theprevious unit. These exercises are an important part of the learning program andwill help you recall and practice the terms and definitions of the preceding unitbefore you begin the next one.Part 1: Given a term, or word part, write the meaning.Part 2: Given the definition of a term, write the correct term.Correct answers are provided.You may use these Review Sheets anytime, and as often as you wish. We suggestyou make several photocopies of each Review Sheet and use them at any time topractice what you’ve already covered. There is never enough practice.
  9. 9. Objectives of the ProgramWhen you have finished Quick Medical Terminology, you will have formed well over500 medical terms using our word-building strategy combining prefixes, suffixes,and word roots to create complex medical terms. 1. You will learn to understand medical terms by breaking them into their com- ponent parts and learning the meaning of the parts. 2. You will learn to construct medical terms from component parts to express given definitions. 3. You will learn to pronounce, spell, and define medical terms used in this book. 4. You will be able to apply this word-building strategy to terms covered in this book and others you will come across as you work in a health care setting. xi
  10. 10. Pronunciation KeyThe primary stress mark (؅) is placed after the syllable bearing the heavier stress oraccent; the secondary stress mark (Ј) follows a syllable having a somewhat lighterstress, as in comиmenиdaиtion (kom؅ ‰nиdaЈ sh‰n). ¯a add, map m move, seem u up, donea¯ ace, rate n nice, tin er urn, termair care, air ng ring, song y¯¯ oo use, fewä palm, father o odd, hot v vain, eveb bat, rub o ¯ open, so w win, awaych check, catch ô order, jaw y yet, yearnd dog, rod oi oil, boy z zest, musee end, pet ou out, now zh vision, pleasuree¯ even, tree oo ¯¯ pool, food ‰ the schwa, anf fit, half oo took, full unstressed vowelg go, log p pit, stop representing theh hope, hate r run, poor sound spelledi it, give s see, pass a in aboveı¯ ice, write sh sure, rush e in sickenj joy, ledge t talk, sit i in clarityk cool, take th thin, both o in melonl look, rule th this, bathe u in focusSource: Slightly modified “Pronunciation Key” in Funk & Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary.Copyright © 1977 by Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. The schwa (‰) varies widely in quality from a sound close to the (u) in up to a sound close tothe (i) in it as heard in pronunciations of such words as ballot, custom, landed, horses. The (r) in final position as in star (stär) and before a consonant as in heart (härt) is regularlyindicated in the respellings, but pronunciations without (r) are unquestionably reputable. StandardBritish is much like the speech of Eastern New England and the Lower South in this feature. In a few words, such as button (but؅n) and sudden (sud؅n), no vowel appears in the unstressedsyllable because the (n) constitutes the whole syllable. xiii
  11. 11. The Word-Building Strategy Quick Medical Terminology teaches you a strategy for word-building. The vocabu- lary of medicine is large and complex, but you can learn much of it by breaking down a complex term into its meaningful parts and putting together a word from those meaningful parts. Let’s begin. 1. All words have a word root. The root is the base or the foundation of the word, regardless of what other word, unit, or syllable may be attached to it. For example: do is the root of undo and doing. What is the root of import, export, transport, and support?port 2. In this example, the words suffix, prefix, affix, and fixation have fixroot as their . 3. What is the root in tonsill/itis, tonsill/ectomy, and tonsill/ar?tonsil . 4. Two or more words may be combined to form a meaningful com- pound word. Using two or more of the following words, create some meaningful compound words:Some Suggestions: over standoverhang hang wearovercome under comeunderstand grand outgrandstandoutcome,etc. xv
  12. 12. xvi QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 5.yes Is teaspoon a compound word?two words are Explain your answer. combined to make a meaningful compound term 6. A word root and a whole word may form a compound word. But the root must be in its combining form. The root plus a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) makes the combining form. Here are two compound terms, micr/o/scope and tel/e/cast.micr What are the word roots? ;telmicr/o What are the combining forms? .tel/e 7. Underline the combining form in each of the following words:phon/ographgastr/o/enteric phon/o/graph gastr/o/enter/iclaryng/o/spasm laryng/o/spasm 8.a word root plus The combining form in compound words is made up of a a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) plus a . 9. In tel/e/graph and tel/e/phone the root plus a vowel is necessary to make these compound words. What is this special form called?a combining form . 10. Compound terms may be composed of which of the following? a) two or more whole words b) a whole word and a word root c) a word root combining form and a wordall three Your answer? 11. Two roots may join together but one of them will be in a specialcombining form form called the .
  13. 13. The Word-Building Strategy xvii 12. What kind of words are these: microfilm and telecommunication?compound termsa combining form What word parts are these terms made of ?(a root plus a vowel)a whole word 13. Many medical terms are made of a combining form, a word root, and an ending. In the term micr/o/scop/ic,micr/o the combining form is ;-ic the ending is ;micr- the root is ; Is there another word root?scop- What might it be? 14. There are two word roots in micr/o/scop/ic. The root micr is in the combining form because it is attached to a word that begins with a consonant. There is no need to add a vowel to the root scop becausevowel the ending -ic begins with a . 15. Build a term from the combining form electr/o, the word root stat, and the ending -ic.electrostatic / / / 16. In the word hydroelectric,word root electr is the ;word hydro is the ;ending -ic is the . 17. Endings change the basic meaning of a root or foundation word. Examine the following sentences: Joe’s job was blast-ing the rocks. Tejo was blast-ed by the cannon.ending The meaning of blast is changed by its .
  14. 14. xviii QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 18. A suffix is a word unit or syllable added to the end of a word or root that alters its meaning and creates a new word. In the wordsyes plant/er, plant/ed, and plant/ing, are these endings also suffixes?the endings added to Explain your answer. the root changed its meaning                                                                                  . 19. You can change the meaning of a word (or root) by adding a suffix. The suffix -er means one who. The word port means to carry. Add theporter suffix to the word root, write the word, and explain what it means.one who carries . 20. When -able is added to the end of read it forms the new word read- able. -Able is a meaningful unit added to the end of a word, creatingsuffix a new word. So -able is a . 21. A prefix is a meaningful unit joined to the beginning of a word or root that creates a new term. In the words im/plant, sup/plant, andim-, sup-, trans/plant, the prefixes are , , andtrans- . 22. In the word dis/please, dis- is a meaningful unit that comes beforeprefix the word and changes the meaning of please; dis- is a . 23. Meaningful units that go in front of a root are called prefixes. Meaningful units placed after a root are called suffixes. Label the units in this word: un- manage -ableprefix root suffix 24. A suffix or a prefix is called a meaningful unit because when it ismeaning attached or added to a root or word it changes theword of the .
  15. 15. The Word-Building Strategy xixour suggestion: 25.-itis is a word unit Explain why -itis in tendonitis is called a suffix. added to the end of a word altering its                                                                                  . meaning OK, let’s review what you’ve covered. 26. The fundamental base from which meaningful terms grow or areroot formed is called the . 27. A meaningful word or unit placed in front of a root or word is aprefix . 28. A syllable or word part joined to the end of a root or word andsuffix changes its meaning is a . 29. When a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) is added to a word root, the word partcombining form resulting is called the . 30. When two or more word roots combine to form a meaningfulcompound word word, that word is called a                                                 .
  16. 16. List of Illustrations (All illustrations created by Sakrantip Blazicek of Ocala, Florida)Unit 1 1.1 Acromegaly 1.2 The Upper Digestive Tract (and Heart) 1.3 Electrocardiography (ECG) 1.4 ElectrocardiogramUnit 2 2.1 The Upper Respiratory Tract 2.2 The HeadUnit 3 3.1 Adduction/Abduction 3.2 The Great Cavities 3.3 Cocci BacteriaUnit 4 4.1 The Male Reproductive Organs (Midline Section) 4.2 The Female Reproductive Organs (Midline Section) 4.3 Path of EGD Examination 4.4 Anomaly, Aneurysm, Hernia, Ptosis 4.5 Hernia, Ptosis, Anomaly, Aneurysm 4.6 The Female Urinary Tract 4.7 The Male Urinary Tract xxi
  17. 17. xxii QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYUnit 5 5.1 The Oral Cavity 5.2 The Digestive TractUnit 6 6.1 Coronary Arteries—Nourishment to the Heart 6.2 The Cardiovascular SystemUnit 8 8.1 Cyst 8.2 Polyp 8.3 Papilla 8.4 Papule 8.5 Excresence 8.6 Abnormal Tissues 8.7 Dorsal/Ventral Surfaces 8.8 Midline of the Body 8.9 Regions of the AbdomenUnit 9 9.1 The Female Reproductive Organs (Midline Section) 9.2 The Female Reproductive Organs (Anterior View) 9.3 Embryos at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks 9.4 Fetus in Utero, Beginning 9th Week 9.5 Female PudendaUnit 10 10.1 The Eye 10.2 The Lacrimal Apparatus 10.3 The Respiratory Tract (Cutaway Views)
  18. 18. 1 Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes In Unit 1 you will work with basic word roots and a handful of common suffixes. (These are listed in the Mini-Glossary, below.) You’ll examine many compound medical terms and discover meanings for all the parts. You’ll practice adding various endings to roots and combining forms. By study and practice you’ll make more than 30 meaningful medical terms. Mini-Glossary acr/o (extremities) eti/o (cause) cardi/o (heart) gastr/o (stomach) cyan/o (blue) gram/o (record) cyt/o (cell) leuk/o (white) dermat/o, derm/o (skin) megal/o (enlarged) duoden/o (duodenum) path/o (disease) electr/o (electrical) -algia (pain) -ology (study of) -ectomy (excision of) -osis, -a, -y (condition -itis (inflammation of) of, usually abnormal) -ologist (one who studies, a specialist) -ostomy (forming a new opening) -otomy (incision into) -tome (instrument that cuts) 1. Acr/o means extremities (arms, legs, and the head). To refer to one or more extremities physicians use words containingacr/o / . 1
  19. 19. 2 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 2. Extremities are the parts of the body farthest from the center of the body. You could say these parts are located on the extreme ends of the main body. What parts are they?arms, legs, and head . 3. Extremities in the human body are also known as limbs. When referring to the arms or legs we use the word acr/o. What term could designate the head as an extremity?acr, acr/o . 4. When you read a term containing acr or acr/o (the combiningextremities or limbs form), it should make you think of . 5. Each of the terms acr/o/megaly, acr/o/cyan/osis, and acr/o/der- mat/itis has a common word root that refers to what parts of thearms, legs, head body? , , and . Write the combining form of the word root meaning extremities.acr/o 6. Megal/o means enlarged or oversized. A word containing megal/ooversized, big, or means the part or organ of the body is enlarged . 7.enlargement of, The suffix -y denotes a condition, usually abnormal. Acr/o/megal/y oversized, or means the patient’s abnormal condition involves extremities that are enlarged . Figure 1.1 Acromegaly
  20. 20. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 3 8.acr/o/megal/y The illustration on page 2 shows a man with abnormally large handsacromegaly and head. The term that describes this man’s abnormal condition isak r4 megЈ a l2 / / / . 9. Occasionally you may see a person with very large hands, feet, nose, and chin. The abnormal condition may beacro/megaly / . 10. Here are two new suffixes: -ologist means one who studies, a specialist -itis means inflammation of (something) dermat/o refers to the skin. A dermat/ologist is a specialist in the field of medicine who special-skin izes in treating disease of the .inflammation of the Dermat/itis means . skin Underline the word root in the following medical terms. Write what each means.Dermatitis Dermatitis means .Dermatologist Dermatologist means . Now, circle the suffix in each term. 11. Acrodermatitis is a term meaning inflammation of the skin of theacr/o/dermat/itis extremities. A person displaying red, inflamed hands may have aacrodermatitis condition ofak r4 derЈ ma t3؅ tis / / / . 12. A busy homemaker may experience an inflammatory condition of her hands and lower arms. The physician may describe this abnor-acrodermatitis mal condition as . 13. Remembering that the term acrodermatitis means inflammation of the skin of the extremities, explain the following:inflammation of -itis is a suffix that means ,extremities acr/o refers to ,skin dermat is the root for .
  21. 21. 4 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 14. Cyan/o means blue or blueness. The suffix -osis denotes an abnor- mal condition. Cyan/osis means an abnormal condition of blueness.abnormal blueness of What do you think acr/o/cyan/osis means? the extremities . The part of the medical term that tells you the color blue is presentcyan or cyan/o is . The part of the medical term denoting that an abnormal condition-osis exists is the suffix . 15.-osis To denote an abnormal condition, use the suffix .condition Acrocyanosis may be defined as the abnormalextremities of blueness of the . 16. Blueness of the extremities is usually due to a reduced amount of oxygen supply to the hands and feet. If the lungs don’t take in enough oxygen or the heart doesn’t pump enough good bloodacr/o/cyan/osis around the body, the patient’s hands and feet may exhibit an abnor-acrocyanosis mal condition described asak r4 s3 ‰ n4Јsis / / / . 17. When the lungs cannot move enough oxygen into the blood because of asthma, blueness of the extremities may result. This isacrocyanosis another cause of .the condition of 18. blueness of the Acrocyanosis means extremities                                                                                  . 19. Dermat/osis denotes an abnormal skin condition. The suffix that-osis means abnormal condition is . 20.cyan/osis Osis is a suffix meaning (usually abnormal) condition. Now,cyanosis build a term that means an abnormal condition of blueness:s3 ‰ n4Јsis / .
  22. 22. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 5dermat/osis 21.dermatosis Build a term meaning a skin condition (abnormal, of course):der ma t4Јsis / . 22. The Greek word tomos means a piece cut off. From this word we have many words that refer to cutting: ectomy (cut out), otomy (cut into), -tome (an instrument that cuts). A dermatome is anskin instrument that cuts . 23.dermat/ome A dermatome is a surgical instrument. When a physician wants adermatome thin slice of a patient’s skin for a skin graft, the doctor asks for adermЈ‰ t4m / . 24.a condition of bluish Dermat, dermat/o refer to the skin. Cyan/o/derm/a means discoloration of the                                                                                   skin                                                                                  .a disease or abnormal Dermat/osis means condition of the skin . 25. Cyanoderma sometimes occurs when children swim too long incyan/o/derm/a cold water. If a patient has a bluish discoloration of the skin, forcyanoderma any reason, the person may exhibitsı ‰ no derЈmä ¯ ¯ / / / . 26. Leuk/o means white or abnormally white. In the termleuk or leuk/o leuk/o/derm/a, the part that means white is .a condition of white 27. skin, or abnormally Leukoderma means                                                           white skin                                                                                  . 28.leuk/o/derm/a Some people have much less color in their skin than is normal.leukoderma Their skin is white. They may havel¯¯ k4 derЈ mä oo / / / .
  23. 23. 6 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 29. Cyt/o refers to a cell or cells. -ology is a suffix that means the study of.the study of cells What does cyt/ology mean? . 30. There are several kinds of cells in blood. One kind is the leuk/o/cyte.white blood cell A leukocyte is a . 31. There are several different kinds of cells in the bloodstream. When aleuk/o/cyt/e physician wants to know how many “infection-fighting” whiteleukocyte blood cells are circulating, the doctor asks the lab technician tol¯ oЈ k4 s3t o ¯ count the / /cytes. 32. Emia is a suffix meaning blood. When a person’s blood contains farleuk/emia too many white blood cells, it may indicate a condition sometimesleukemia described as “blood cancer.” A term meaning literally white blood isl¯ o k2Ј m2 ‰ o ¯ / . 33.acr/o In the term acromegaly, the combining form used for extremities ismegal , the word root for oversized is ,y and the suffix meaning condition of is . 34.a condition of oversized Now try this. Cardi/o means heart. Another suffix meaning condi- heart, or enlargement tion of is -a. What does megal/o/cardi/a mean? of the heart . 35. When any muscle exercises, it gets larger. If the heart musclemegal/o/card/ia overexercises, an enlarged condition of the heart may occur.megalocardia It is described asmeg ‰ l4 kärЈ d2 ä / / / .
  24. 24. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 7 Figure 1.2 Upper Digestive Tract (and Heart) The Digestive Tract begins with the oral cavity. The teeth pul- verize ingested food and soften it. The action of the tongue moves the partly digested food into the esophagus by swallowing. Then strong muscular contractions move the food to the stomach. In the stomach the food is further processed mechanically and chemically. Then it passes into the highly coiled intestine. The first part of the intestine is called the duodenum. Esophagus (esophag/o) Stomach (gastr/o) Duodenum (duoden/o) Heart (cardi/o) 36. When the heart muscle doesn’t receive an adequate supply of oxy- gen, the heart may beat more often. Inadequate oxygen makes themegalocardia or heart work harder and may lead to an enlarged heart described as cardiomegaly .
  25. 25. 8 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 37.megal/o/gastr/ia Try this one. Gastr is the word root for stomach. When themegalogastria stomach enlarges so that it crowds other organs, an undesirablemeg ‰ l4 gasЈ tr2 ä condition exists known as OR / / /ia. enlarged stomachgastromegaly ORgasЈ tr4 meg؅ a l2 / / /y. stomach enlargedoversized heart, or 38. enlargement of the Megalocardia means                                                         heart .(the same thing) What does cardiomegaly mean? 39. The suffix -itis means inflammation of (something).inflammation of the What does carditis mean? heartstomach Both gastr-, gastr/o mean .inflammation of the Gastritis means stomach . 40. Here’s a quick review. Using the suggested answers, write the meaning of each of the following terms. SUGGESTED ANSWERS: abnormal condition of heart blueness inflammation of cell skin cutting instrument stomach enlarged, oversized white extremitiesextremities acr/o                                                                                                                      blueness cyan/o                                                                                                                  white leuk/o                                                                                                                  stomach gastr/o                                                                                                                  cell cyt/o                                                                                                                    heart cardi/o                                                                                                                  
  26. 26. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 9enlarged, oversized megal/o                                                                                                                skin derm/o, dermat/o                                                                                            abnormal condition of -osis (-a, -y)                                                                                                        inflammation of -itis                                                                                                                        cutting instrument -tome                                                                                                                     41. Now build a medical term for each of the following: a condition of oversized extremitiesacro/megal/y / / extremities oversizedleuko/cyte a white cell /dermat/itis inflammation of the skin /megalo/cardi/a a condition of enlarged heart OR / /cardio/megal/y 42. Let’s have a change of pace here. Professional health workers use some special words to talk about illness and sick people. Here areIt’s up to you, of just a few you’ll find very useful. Read each definition. Then course, but here are underline a key word or words to help you remember the meaning some key words. of the term.sickness, illness Disease is a condition in which bodily health is impaired. It means sickness or illness.exhibition, display, Manifestation is proof of impaired bodily health. It’s a display, exhi- evidence bition, or evidence of disease.changes (structural and Pathology is the scientific study of changes in the human body functional) (structural and functional) produced by disease.causes (2t2ology) Etiology is the scientific study of causes of disease. You may refer to the definitions if you need help answering the next few frames.The cause of the 43. patient’s disease is If a physician says that a patient’s disease is of unknown etiology, not yet known (and what would that mean to you?                                             may remain                                                                                   unknown).                                                                                  .
  27. 27. 10 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 44.sickness, illness Another word for disease is . 45.evidence, or exhibition Manifestation is a display, or , of disease. 46.causes Etiology is the scientific study of of disease. 47.structural Pathology is the scientific study of andfunctional changes in the body produced bydisease . 48. Select the best term for each definition. Write your choice in the space provided. pathology etiology manifestation diseasedisease Another term for illness or sickness is .manifestation Evidence, or proof, of disease is .etiology The study of causes of disease is . The scientific study of changes in the body produced by disease ispathology . 49.path/ologist The suffix -ology means the study of, the suffix -ologist means onepathologist who studies (and becomes an expert). One who studies structuralpath olЈ ‰ jist and functional changes in the body produced by disease is a / . 50.cardi/ologist Some physicians specialize in heart disease. The specialistcardiologist who determines that a heart is deformed is akär d2 olЈ ‰ jist / . heart specialist
  28. 28. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 11 Figure 1.3 Electrocardiography (ECG) Electrocardiography is a method of recording electrical currents traversing the heart muscle just prior to each heart beat. An Elec- trocardiogram is a graphic record of heart action currents that are obtained by electrocardiography. 51. A heart doctor who reads an electr/o/cardi/o/gram (a record of electrical impulses generated by the heart) is a specialist in heartcardiologist problems or / . 52. Complete the meaning of electr/o/cardi/o/gram:a record of electrical waves given off by Gram means a record or recording, electr/o means the heart (or equivalent)heart cardi/o means 53.electr/o/cardi/o/gram The electr/o/cardi/o/gram is a record obtained byelectrocardiogram electr/o/cardi/o/graph/y. A technician can learn electrocardiog-2 lekЈ tr4 kär؅ d2 ‰¯ raphy, but it takes a cardiologist to read the gram / / / / . electrical heart record
  29. 29. 12 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 54. A physician specialist can look at a report that looks like this Figure 1.4 Electrocardiogram (ECG) and learn something about a patient’s heart function. This specialistcardiologist is probably a and can read anelectrocardiogram . (ECG)cardi/algia 55.cardialgia The suffix -algia means pain. Form a word that means heart pain:kär d2 alЈ j2 a (There is / . heart pain no need to add a vowel to the root cardi because -algia begins with a vowel.) 56. When a patient complains of pain in the heart, the symptom iscardialgia known medically as . 57. Gastralgia means pain in the stomach.stomach Gastr is the root for .-algia The suffix for pain is . 58. Gastr/ectomy means excision (removal) of all or part of the stom-stomach ach. Gastr means .to cut out, excise, or The suffix -ectomy means remove surgically .
  30. 30. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 13 59.gastr/ectomy When a patient’s stomach ulcer perforates, the surgeon may need togastrectomy remove part of the stomach. The medical term for the procedure isgas trekЈ t4 m2 / . (stomach) (excision of ) 60. Cancer of the stomach may require a surgeon to remove all or partgastrectomy of the patient’s stomach. This procedure is a .gastr/itis 61.gastritis Form a word that means inflammation of the stomach.gas tr3Ј tis / .duoden/um 62.duodenum The stomach empties its contents into the first section of thedoo 4dЈ n‰m (or ¯ ¯ intestine, called the duodenum. Duoden is the word root for doo 4 d2Ј n‰m) ¯ ¯ .gastr What is the root for stomach? . 63. The suffix -ostomy means a procedure to form a new opening.stomach and Gastr/o/duoden/ostomy means forming a new opening between duodenum the and . 64.gastr/o/duoden/ A surgeon may need to remove a portion of a diseased stomach. If ostomy the natural connection is removed, then the surgeon must form agastroduodenostomy new opening between the stomach and duodenum. This proceduregasЈ tr4 d¯ o 4 de nos؅ o ¯ is called t4 m2 / / / . 65. When an abnormal condition exists between the stomach and thea surgical procedure to duodenum, a surgeon may need to perform a gastroduodenostomy, form a new opening which means                                                                   between the stomach and duodenum
  31. 31. 14 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 66. The suffix -ectomy means excision of; -ostomy means forming aduodenum new opening. The form -otomy means incision into. Ad5 4 d2Ј num duo/den/otomy is an incision into the .-otomy 67. The suffix for incision into is .duoden/otomyduodenotomy If a physician makes an incision into the wall of the duodenum, thedoo od ‰ notЈ ‰ m2 ¯ ¯ doctor has performed a / .-itis 68. The suffix for inflammation is .duoden/itisduodenitis The word for inflammation of the duodenum isdoo od ‰ n3Ј tis ¯ ¯ / . 69. Duoden/al means of or pertaining to the duodenum. -al is a suffix meaning of, or pertaining to. Therefore matern/alof, or pertaining to, means and mother; of, or patern/al means pertaining to, father . 70.duoden/al In the sentence “Duodenal carcinoma was present,” theduodenal word meaning of, or pertaining to, the duodenum isdoo 4 d2Ј n‰l ¯ ¯ / . 71.duoden/ostomy The suffix -ostomy means making a new opening. The wordduodenostomy to form a new opening into the duodenum isdoo od ‰ nosЈ t4 m2 ¯ ¯ / . 72. Here’s one for you to figure out. A duodenostomy can be formed in more than one manner. If it is formed with the stomach, it is called agastroduodenostomy . stomach duodenum new opening 73.-ostomy The suffix for forming a new opening is .
  32. 32. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 15 74. Let’s review what you’ve covered. Using the suggested answers, write the meaning of each of the following terms. SUGGESTED ANSWERS: blueness duodenum cell electrical cause(s) enlarged, oversized changes due to disease record ofduodenum duoden/o                                                                                                           .changes due to disease path/o                                                                                                                   .record of gram/o                                                                                                                cell cyt/o                                                                                                                    electric electr/o                                                                                                                cause eti/o                                                                                                                      enlarged, oversized megal/o                                                                                                                blueness cyan/o                                                                                                                   75. Now try it with the suffixes you just learned. SUGGESTED ANSWERS: (abnormal) condition of incision into cutting instrument inflammation of form a new opening of, or pertaining to one who studies, specializes in painof, or pertaining to -al                                                                                                                          inflammation of -itis                                                                                                                        (abnormal) condition -osis, -a, -y                                                                                                          form a new opening -ostomy                                                                                                                cutting instrument -tome                                                                                                                    incision into -otomy                                                                                                                  pain -algia                                                                                                                    one who studies -ologist                                                                                                                
  33. 33. 16 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 76. Now build some new words.cyan/osis A condition of blueness is / . blueness condition One who studies bodily changes produced by disease is apath/ologist / . changes in the body one who studies A surgical procedure that forms a new opening in the duodenum isduoden/ostomy a / . duodenum form a new opening A term meaning of, or pertaining to, the study of causes of diseaseeti/o/logic/al is / / / . causes of disease the study of pertaining to 77. While working through Unit 1, you formed the following new medical terms. Read them one at a time and pronounce each aloud several times until you can articulate each term clearly and correctly. If a friend pronounces each term for you, could you spell it cor- rectly? Try it. acrocyanosis (ak r4 s3 ‰ n4Ј sis) dermatologist acrodermatitis (der ma tolЈ ‰ jist) (ak r4 der؅ ma t3Јtis) dermatome (dermЈ ‰ t4m) acromegaly (ak r4 megЈ a l2) dermatosis (der ma t4Ј sis) cardialgia (kär d2 alЈ j2 a) disease (diz 2zЈ) cardiologist (kär d2 olЈ ‰ jist) duodenal (doo 4 d2Ј n‰l) ¯ ¯ carditis (kär d3Ј tis) electrocardiogram cyanoderma (s3 ‰ n4 derЈ mä) (2 lekЈ tr4 kär؅ d2 ‰ gram) cyanosis (s3 ‰ n4Ј sis) etiological (2Ј t2 4 loj؅ i k‰l) cytology (s3 tolЈ ‰ j2) gastralgia (gas tralЈ j2 a) gastrectomy manifestation (gas trekЈ t4 m2) (manЈ ‰ fes t1؅ sh‰n) gastritis (gas tr3Ј tis) megalocardia gastroduodenostomy (meg ‰ l4 kärЈ d2 ä) (gasЈ tr4 doo 4 de nos؅ t4 m2) ¯ ¯ megalogastria leukemia (loo k2Ј m2 ‰) ¯¯ (meg ‰ l4 gasЈ tr2 ä) leukocyte (looЈ k4 s3t) ¯¯ pathologist (path olЈ ‰ jist) leukoderma (loo k4 derЈ mä) ¯ ¯ pathology (path olЈ ‰ j2) Before going on to Unit 2, take the Unit 1 Self-Test that follows.
  34. 34. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 17Unit 1 Self-Test Part 1 From the list of definitions on the right, select the correct meaning for each of the terms in the left-hand column. Write the letter in the space provided. 1. Megalocardia a. Study of, or pertaining to, causes 2. Cardiology (of disease) 3. Duodenostomy b. A specialist in the field of skin dis- eases 4. Leukemia c. A condition of blueness of the 5. Dermatologist extremities 6. Electrocardiography d. Enlargement of the heart 7. Acromegaly e. A surgical procedure forming a 8. Gastritis new opening in the duodenum 9. Dermatome f. Display, evidence of disease 10. Manifestation g. One who specializes in the study 11. Gastroduodenostomy of structural and functional changes in the body 12. Etiology h. Pain in the stomach 13. Acrocyanosis i. Inflammation of the stomach 14. Pathologist j. Recordings of electrical waves of 15. Gastralgia the heart k. An abnormal condition of enlarged extremities l. A surgical instrument for cutting skin m. A surgical operation to make a new opening between the stom- ach and duodenum n. The study of disease of the heart o. An abnormal condition of too many white blood cells
  35. 35. 18 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Part 2 Write a medical term for each of the following: 1. Impaired bodily health 2. Bluish discoloration of the skin 3. White cell 4. Oversized or enlarged stomach 5. Evidence of disease 6. The study of causes of an illness 7. Excision or removal of the stomach 8. Pertaining to the duodenum 9. Generalized condition of blueness 10. Heart pain 11. Inflammation of the heart 12. An abnormal condition of white skin 13. Inflammation of the skin of the extremities 14. Study of cell(s) 15. An abnormal condition of the skin ANSWERS Part 1 Part 2 1. d 1. disease 2. n 2. cyanoderma 3. e 3. leukocyte 4. o 4. megalogastria 5. b 5. manifestation 6. j 6. etiology 7. k 7. gastrectomy 8. i 8. duodenal 9. l 9. cyanosis 10. f 10. cardialgia
  36. 36. Basic Word Roots and Common Suffixes 1911. m 11. carditis12. a 12. leukoderma13. c 13. acrodermatitis14. g 14. cytology15. h 15. dermatosis
  37. 37. 2 More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes In Unit 2 you will cover more sophisticated terms, word roots, and suffixes, and you’ll begin using prefixes. Teaching sequences in this unit aim to expand your learning by combining words you covered in Unit 1 with some new ones. We introduced new ideas as well as useful medical terms to improve retention and make your practice exercises interesting. Now, let’s get started. Mini-Glossary aden/o (gland) laryng/o (larynx) arthr/o (joint) lip/o (fat) carcin/o (malignancy) malac/o (soft) cele/o, o/cele (hernia) morph/o (structure of) cephal/o (head) muc/o (mucus) chondr/o (cartilage) onc/o (tumor) cost/o (ribs) ost/o, oste/o (bone) dent/o (tooth) plast/o (repair) emes/is (vomiting) trach/e (trachea) hist/o (tissue) troph/o (development) en-, endo- (in, inside, within) -al, -ar, -ic (of, or pertaining to) ex-, ex/o- (outside, out) -oid (resembling) hyper- (excessive) -oma (tumor) hypo- (under) -ism (medical condition, disease) inter- (between) 21
  38. 38. 22 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Before you begin Unit 2, complete the Review Sheet for Unit 1. It will help you get a running start as you continue your studying. You’ll find review sheets beginning on page 247. 1. Examine the terms hyper/trophy, hyper/emia, and hyper/emesis. Hyper- means excessive, more than normal amount. Hyper- placed in front of trophy, emia, and emesis changes the meaning of theprefix terms. Therefore, hyper- is a (prefix/suffix?). 2. Hyper/thyroid/ism is a medical condition of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive thyroid gland activity. The prefix expressinghyper higher than normal activity of the thyroid gland is . 3. The suffix -ism indicates there is a medical condition involving some specified thing or body part. In the case of hyper/thyroid/ismthyroid gland the medical condition involves what body part? . 4.Here’s a suggestion: Hyper- means something is excessive. Thyroid tells you what part is Hyperthyroidism involved. The suffix -ism means there is a resulting medical condition. means the patient has a medical condition In your words, explain the meaning of the term hyper/thyroid/ism. resulting from excessive activity of the thyroid gland. . 5.hyper/emesis Emesis is a word that means vomiting. A word that means excessivehyperemesis vomiting is / .h3 per emЈ ‰ sis Gallbladder attacks can cause excessive vomiting. This, too, is calledhyperemesis . 6. Hyper/trophy means overdevelopment; troph/o comes from thehyper/troph/y Greek word for nourishment. Note the connection between nour-hypertrophy ishment and development. Overdevelopment is calledh3 perЈ tr4 f2 / /y . a condition of excessive developmenthypertrophy Muscles also can overdevelop or . (a verb form)
  39. 39. More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 23 7. Many organs can overdevelop. If the heart overdevelops, the condi-hypertrophy tion is called cardiac . 8. The prefix hypo- is just the opposite of hyper-. The prefix for underhypo- or less than normal is . 9.skin Derm/o refers to the . The suffix -ic means of, or pertaining to. Hypo/derm/ic means pertaining to under theskin . 10.hypo/derm/ic A hypodermic needle is short because it goes just under the skin. Ahypodermic shot given superficially is administered with ah3 p4 derЈ mik / / needle. under skin pertaining to 11.aden/itis Aden/o is used in words that refer to glands. Build a word thatadenitis means inflammation of a gland:ad ‰ n3Ј tis / . gland inflammation of 12.aden/ectomy Since ectomy means excision (or surgical removal of ), the word foradenectomy surgical removal of a gland isad ‰ nekЈ t4 m2 / . gland surgical removal 13. If a gland is like a tumor, part or all of it may be excised. Excisionadenectomy of a gland is . 14.aden/oma The suffix -oma means tumor. Form a word that means tumor of aadenoma gland:ad ‰ n4Ј mä / . 15. Try this. Sometimes the thyroid gland develops a tumor. A patient’s history might read, “. . . because of the presence of a thyroid ade-surgical removal, or noma, thyroidectomy is indicated.” What is a thyroid/ectomy? excision, of the thyroid gland                                                                                  .
  40. 40. 24 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 16. The suffixes -ic, -al, and -ar mean of, or pertaining to, the attached word.spleen A splenic tumor is a tumor of the .tonsil A tonsillar tumor is a tumor pertaining to the . Where would you expect to find a duodenal tumor?in the duodenum . 17. Carcin/o is the root for cancer. The suffix -oma means tumor. Acancerous tumor carcinoma is a . 18. A carcinoma may occur in almost any part of the body. A canceroussplenic tumor of the spleen is called carcinoma.carcinoma Cancer of the tonsil is tonsillar .of, or pertaining to The suffixes -ic, -ar, and -al mean . 19.tumor An adenoma is a glandular tumor; -oma means . A lip/oma is a tumor of fatty tissue.fat, fatty tissue Lip/o is the combining form for .lip/oma 20.lipoma A fatty tumor is called a / .li poЈ ma 21.lip/oid Lipoma is a fatty tumor; -oid is a suffix meaning like or resembling.lipoid Using the word root for fatty tissue, build a term that means fatlike,lipЈ oid or resembling fat: / . 22. The word lipoid is used in chemistry and pathology. It describes a substance that looks like fat, dissolves like fat, but is not fat. Choles- terol is an alcohol that resembles fat; therefore, cholesterol is alip/oid / substance. fat like
  41. 41. More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 25 23.muc/oid Muc/oid means resembling mucus. There is a substance inmucoid connective tissue that resembles mucus. This is called amyooЈ koid ¯ ¯ / substance. 24. There is a protein in the body that is said to be mucoid in nature.resembling mucus Mucoid means . 25. A substance that resembles mucus is best described asmucoid .lipoid A substance resembling fatty tissue is called a substance. Figure 2.1 The Upper Respiratory Tract The Respiratory Tract conducts oxygen-rich air to the lungs where oxygen can be readily absorbed by the blood. It removes car- bon dioxide–laden air to the external atmosphere. The pharynx filters
  42. 42. 26 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY and warms the air we breathe and conducts it into the larynx. The larynx protects against inadvertent inhaling of solid matter and con- tains the vocal cords, the mechanism of sound production. Leading from the larynx is the windpipe, more correctly known as the trachea. Pharynx (pharyng/o) Trachea (trache/o) Larynx (laryng/o) 26. The larynx or voice box contains the vocal cords. Laryng/o is the combining form for building words referring to the voice box, alsolarynx called the .laryng/itis Build a term meaning inflammation of the larynx.laryngitis / .lair an j3Ј tis 27.inflammation of the After a bad cold, a patient may develop laryngitis, which means larynx                                                       . 28. Now, you’ll add a few new suffixes to your growing vocabulary. An obstruction of the colon may require a new opening into the colon that will be permanent.(k4 losЈ t4 m2) Col, col/o refer to the colon, or large bowel. The suffix -ostomy means a new (permanent) opening into.a new (permanent) opening into the Col/ostomy means colon . 29.-ostomy The suffix for a new (permanent) opening is . 30. Take a look at Illustration 2.1. An obstruction of the windpipe makes breathing very difficult, or even impossible. In an emergency, a physician may make an incision into the windpipe to permit a free flow of air to the patient’s lungs.(tr1 k2 otЈ 4 m2) Trache, trache/o refer to the trachea, or windpipe. The suffix -otomyan incision into, or means incision into, or a temporary opening. temporary opening into, the trachea, or Trache/otomy means windpipe .
  43. 43. More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 27 31. The suffix meaning a temporary opening, or incision into, is-otomy . 32. Which suffix would you use to indicate creation of a new (perma--ostomy nent) opening? . Which suffix means making an incision into, or creating a tempo--otomy rary opening? .creation of a new 33. (permanent) opening Colostomy means into the colon                                                                                  .incision into, or Tracheotomy means temporary opening . into, the trachea 34. Time for a quick review. Using the suggested answers, write a meaning for each of the following word roots. SUGGESTED ANSWERS: fat, fatty mucus larynx skin cancer, malignant spleenfat, fatty lip/o                                                                                                                      spleen splen/o                                                                                                                skin derm/o                                                                                                                larynx laryng/o                                                                                                              mucus muc/o                                                                                                                  cancer, malignant carcin/o                                                                                                                 35. Now do the same with the following suffixes. SUGGESTED ANSWERS: incision into, temporary a new (permanent) opening opening into like, or resembling development of or pertaining to vomiting tumor excision ofdevelopment -trophy .excision of -ectomy .
  44. 44. 28 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYincision into, -otomy temporary openinga new (permanent) -ostomy                                                                                                                 opening intoof, or pertaining to -ic, -ar, -al                                                                                                          like, or resembling -oid                                                                                                                        vomiting -emesis                                                                                                                  tumor -oma                                                                                                                       36. Complete the following:under, less Hypo- is a prefix meaning .over, excessive Hyper- is a prefix meaning . 37. Build a medical term for each of the following:muc/oid resembling mucus / . mucus likesplen/ic pertaining to the spleen / . spleen of theaden/ectomy excision of a gland / . gland excision ofhyper/trophy overdevelopment / . excessive developmenthypo/derm/ic under the skin / / .. under skin pertaining to new (permanent) opening into the larynxlaryng/ostomy / . larynx new opening 38. Here are two terms to define.a condition of excess development, Hypertrophy means oversized .of, or pertaining to, Hypodermal means under the skin . This is a good place to stop and take a short break.
  45. 45. More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 29 Figure 2.2 The Head Cephalus is a term that refers to the entire head. It is composed of both the cranium and facial bones. The cranium (or skull) is a bony vault protecting the contents of the head. The face is the front portion of the head and includes the eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin. The cranium encloses the cerebrum, also known as the brain. The brain is the center of sensory awareness and movement, emotions, rational thought and behavior, foresight and planning, memory, speech, language, and interpretation of language. Cephalus, head including skull and facial bones (cephal/o) Cranium (crani/o) Cerebrum (cerebr/o) Use the illustration of the head to help you with the frames that follow. 39. Welcome back. At this stage of word-building, students sometimes find they have one big headache. Both ceph/algia and cephal/algiacephal/o mean pain in the head. The combining form and root for head areceph and . 40.ceph/algia or To indicate pain we use -algia. Any headache may be calledcephal/algia / or head paincephalalgia / .(sef ‰ lalЈ j2 ä) head ache
  46. 46. 30 QUICK MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 41. The word root and combining form for head is ceph, cephal/o. Twocephalalgia words for pain in the head are and cephalgia . 42.headache Cephalalgia means .of, or pertaining to, the Cephal/ic means head .cephal/ic 43.cephalic A case history reporting head wounds due to an accident might read,s‰ falЈ ik “ / lacerations were present.” 44.cephalic A tumor located on the head might be noted as a tumor. Prefix Meaning en-, endo- in, inside, within ex-, exo- out, outside completely Use the table to help with the frames that follow. 45.inside the head (the Cephal/o means head. What does encephal/o mean? brain) . 46. Since the brain is enclosed inside the head’s bony vault, encephal/obrain means the organ inside the head, or the . 47. Using the word root for head, build words meaning the following:encephal/itis inflammation of the brainen sef ‰ l3Ј tis / . brain inflammation ofencephal/omaen sef Ј ‰ l4؅ mä brain tumor / . brain tumor of 48.inflammation within What does endocarditis mean? the heart .
  47. 47. More Word Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes 31 49. Refer to Frame 44 for help. Select a prefix meaning out, or com-ex-, exo- pletely outside of: . en-, endo- or ex-, exo- 50. Exo/genous means originating completely outside of an organ or part. Genous takes its meaning from a Latin word meaning to pro- duce or originate.exo- What part of the term means completely outside of ? .exo/genous Something originating completely outside of an organism, cell, orexЈ oj؅ ‰ nus organ is called / . outside produced or originatingendo/genous Now build a word that indicates something is produced orenЈ doj؅ ‰ nus originates from within a cell or organism: / . within produced or originating 51. Try these. Here are some common English words often used in the medical world. Write what each means. hale (breathe) cise (cut) spire (breathe)breathe out exhale means .cut out excise means .breathe out (it also expire means . means to die or breathe out for the last time) 52. Write two forms of a prefix for each of the following.en-, endo- in, inside of, within , .ex-, exo- out, completely outside of , . 53. The Greek word for hernia is kele. From this we derive the com- bining forms cele/o or o/cele. Encephal/o/cele is a word meaningbrain herniation of tissue.

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