Group presentation research ethics

Self Employed (Business)
Jun. 7, 2015

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Group presentation research ethics

  2. Introduction  What is ethics?  What are ethical principles  Ethical business behaviour  Brief history of evolution of ethics in research  Ethical principles  Ethics in research  Qualitative vs quantitative data
  3. What is ethics?  Societal norms adopted by a group – A conception of conduct that is right or wrong  Deal with fundamental human relationships  a universal human trait
  4. Ethical Principles – What are they?  Guides to moral behaviour – Good: honesty, keeping promises, helping others, respective rights of others – Bad: lying, stealing, deceiving, harming others  Universality of ethical principles: should apply in the same manner in all countries, cultures, communities  Relativity of ethical principles: vary from country to country, community to community
  5. Ethical Relativism  Is Defined by – Various periods of time in history – A society’s traditions – The special circumstances of the moment – Personal opinion  Meaning given to ethics are relative to time, place, circumstance, and the person involved
  6. Reasons for Ethical Business Behaviour  Fulfill public expectations for business  Prevent harming others  Improve business relations  Improve employee productivity  Reduce penalties  Protect business from others  Protect employees from their employers  Promote personal morality
  7. Business Ethics Across Organizational Functions  Accounting ethics – honesty, integrity, accuracy  Marketing ethics  Information systems ethics
  8. Ethics in Research – Why?  To protect rights and welfare of research participants and  To protect the wider society or community within which the research is being conducted
  9. Mechanisms of Protection  Ethical regulations or guidelines  Law  Universal principles of human rights
  10. Ethical Principles  In research, help to make and to justify decisions  Are abstract and difficult to implement in practical situations  Key phrases: – Voluntary participation – Informed consent – Risk of harm – Confidentiality – Anonymity
  11. Ethical Principles Guiding Research  Respect for human dignity  Respect for free and informed consent  Respect for vulnerable persons  Respect for privacy and confidentiality  Respect for justice and inclusiveness  Balancing harms and benefits  Minimizing harm  Maximizing benefit
  12. 1. Human Dignity  Two essential components – The selection and achievement of morally acceptable ends – The morally acceptable means to those ends - Protect the multiple and interdependent interests of the person (bodily, psychological, cultural integrity)
  13. 2. Consent  Presumption that individuals have capacity and right to make free and informed decisions  Your research cannot proceed without informed consent by the research subject  Consent must be maintained throughout
  14. 3. Vulnerable Persons  Ethical obligations towards vulnerable persons:  Entitled to special protection, special procedures to protect their interests based on grounds of human dignity, caring, solidarity, fairness to special protection against abuse, exploitation, discrimination
  15. 4. Privacy & Confidentiality  Fundamental to human dignity  Standards protect the access, control, dissemination of personal information  Helps to protect mental, psychological integrity
  16. 5. Harms and Benefits  Balance critical to ethics of human research  Foreseeable harms should not outweigh anticipated benefits  Harms-benefits analysis affects welfare and rights of subjects
  17. 6. Justice and Inclusiveness  i.e., fairness and equity  Procedural justice – Application process  Distributive justice – Harms and benefits
  18. 7. Non-malfeasance  Duty to avoid, prevent or minimize harm  No unnecessary risk of harm  Participation must be essential to achieving scientifically and societally important aims that cannot be realized without the participation of human subjects  Minimizing harm requires smallest number of human subjects that will ensure valid data
  19. 8. Beneficence  The duty to benefit others  The duty to maximize net benefits  Produce benefits for subjects themselves and other individuals  Produce benefits for society as a whole and for the advancement of knowledge (usually the primary benefit)
  20. Qualitative vs Quantitative Data  Quantitative – Logic rests on generalizability & representativeness – Sample size is criterion for judging rigour – Respondents can refuse to answer questions  Qualitative approaches – Designed to best reflect experiences – Therefore most qualitative research less formally structured – Logic rests on notice of saturation – the point at which no new insights are likely to be obtained – Saturation guides sample size
  21. Qualitative Issues  More invasive therefore ethical issues more subtle  Tendency to investigate more completely  Reliance on observations, interviews, stealthy methods can lull subjects  Easy to violate confidentiality and trust  Power and status differentials
  22. Confidentiality & Anonymity  Quantitative Techniques – Can be easier – Anonymity of the firm sometimes impossible – Pseudonyms common but do not eliminate problem  Qualitative Techniques – Smaller sample sizes – Informed consent more critical – Problems with data presentation/ publication
  23. Obligations of the Researcher  Follow code of ethics – Objectivity – No misrepresentation – Preserve anonymity and confidentiality
  24. Rights & Obligations of Subject  Right to informed consent  Obligation to be truthful  Right to privacy  Right to confidentiality  Right to no harm  Right to be informed
  25. Rights & Obligations of Client (User)  Ethical conduct between buyer and seller  Obligation to reduce bias  Do not mis-represent data  Privacy  Commitment to research  Pseudo-pilot studies
  26. Language  The language you use is very, very important. What may be clear to you may not be clear to the reader. The reader, who is your prospective participant, is in a different world than you – don’t expect the reader to read your mind, to know your intentions…
  27. Questions? all the best in your exams