Sociology - Economies, Work, Consumption


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  • Sociology - Economies, Work, Consumption

    1. 1. Economies, Work and Consumption <ul><ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaida Al-Dhobee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthur Ducret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xavier Jolyot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isabell Schulz </li></ul></ul>SOC 110 – D. Rukavina November 22, 2007
    2. 2. <ul><li>Economies </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>What We Will Be Talking About
    3. 3. Transformations of the World Economy <ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>3000 B.C. 1850 A.D. 1960’s 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution The Industrial Revolution Post-Fordism The Information Revolution </li></ul>Agricultural Revolution : Production process starts to revolve around the division of labour as the size of the production increases. Industrial Revolution : Development of industries in Europe and North America with creation of new forms of energy, centralisation of work in factories, manufacturing and mass production, division of labour and specialisation , wage labour. Post-Fordism : New shifts in production with more flexibility (just-in-time), new working schedules (part-time workers), added value goods, international division of labour and customer segmentation, increasing niche marketing. Information Revolution : Introduces new notions such as the creativity rather than the production of goods, literacy skills in order to increase communication and profits to a certain extend, decentralisation of work: people can work anywhere they want to.
    4. 4. Capitalism / Socialism <ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic system in which resources and the means of producing goods are privately owned. </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership of property </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of personal profit </li></ul><ul><li>Free competition, consumer sovereignty and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by consumers who pick goods and services with the best quality/price value </li></ul><ul><li>Government role is non-existent in order not to upset the market system </li></ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and political system in which all members of the society are socially equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and political system that combines significant government control with free elections. </li></ul><ul><li>State Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Government owns the most important sectors for the good of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Various regulations from the government </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation is a tool in order to share the benefits of production, increasing the welfare role of the State. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Global Economy <ul><li>Economic activity spanning many nations of the world with little regard for national borders. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Global division of labour by region of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of low-paid workers in the poorer countries of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of products made in more than one nation </li></ul><ul><li>National governments have no longer the power regarding economic activity (production, trade and investments) </li></ul><ul><li>Small number of business control the world’s economic activity, sometimes more powerful than some countries </li></ul>
    6. 6. Thatcherism <ul><li>System of political beliefs based on free markets and economic individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Mrs. Margaret Thatcher system to renew the role of the economy and the government in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Privatizing all nationalized industries </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce internal markets within the welfare state for schools and health care </li></ul><ul><li>Supposed to encourage flexibility, choice and diversity </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Changing Nature of Work <ul><li>Decline of unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Rising number of hours worked per week </li></ul><ul><li>Labour force participation regarding age </li></ul>
    8. 8. From Agricultural Work to Service Work Farming Corporate Businesses Industrialised societies Teleworking Knowledge Society European Middle-Class Society
    9. 9. <ul><li>Primary labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Back to concept of alienation (Marx) </li></ul>Dual Labour Market
    10. 10. Gender Issues and Work <ul><li>Increasing number of women at work </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational gender segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic labour </li></ul><ul><li>Sweatshops </li></ul><ul><li>Feminisation of agricultural work </li></ul>
    11. 12. Trade Unions <ul><li>Declining role in new economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young workers less likely to join </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation to global economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Coercive pacification” </li></ul>
    12. 13. What is Unemployment? <ul><li>Unemployment is the state in which a </li></ul><ul><li>worker wants , but is unable , to work. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Who Are the Unemployed? <ul><li>5 major groups in the UK who are more likely to become or remain unemployed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who experience redundancies due to economic change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unskilled youth trying to make the transition from school to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older workers who face enforced retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployed women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The long-term unemployed </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Two Types of Unemployment <ul><li>Frictional Unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the unemployment temporarily experienced while moving from one job to another and looking for a new one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is unpaid employment </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Experiencing Unemployment <ul><li>Can wreak havoc on lives and families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergence of a subculture of despair; linked to the development of an underclass </li></ul><ul><li>Especially harsh for women who seek work as an escape from home </li></ul><ul><li>Generally affects those with least resources most </li></ul>
    16. 17. Unemployment in Europe <ul><li>By stark contrast with the old European Union, countries in Eastern and Central Europe have rates as high as 40 per cent. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Branding of Commodities <ul><li>Modern world dominated by internationally known brands such as Nike, Starbucks, Coca Cola </li></ul><ul><li>They do not want trainers but Nike </li></ul><ul><li>No soft drink but Coke </li></ul>
    18. 19. Brand Name Society <ul><li>What is on sale is more the logo, a brand with a name rather than a commodity </li></ul>
    19. 20. The Growth of Consumer Societies <ul><li>Massive growth of shopping malls </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping more considered as a leisure rather than a functional activity </li></ul><ul><li>More and newer forms of commodity </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment of our identities to our shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Massive spread of credit cards </li></ul><ul><li>Teleshopping, net shopping </li></ul>
    20. 21. Mass Consumption, Cultural Dopes and a Shallow World (part 1) <ul><li>Consumerist culture is having a deleterious effect on the quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>According to Jeremy Seabrook, mass consumption is leading to a weakening of creativity & decline of participatory communities </li></ul>One of the biggest new form of consumption is tourism
    21. 22. Mass Consumption, Cultural Dopes and a Shallow World (part 2) <ul><li>Consumerism has been a major advance for most of us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher standard of living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A way to enhance the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Greater choice (see supermarkets, megastores) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass participation in creative activity from cooking to reading </li></ul>
    22. 23. Inequalities and Consumption <ul><li>Mass consumption not available to all of us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maker of inequalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veblen’s view: Consumption patterns lead to 3 ways of excluding people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge and skills to consume </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Resistance to Consumption/Anti-Globalisation <ul><li>Some people not part of high consumption world </li></ul><ul><li>Support local shops </li></ul><ul><li>Some hostility toward international brand names </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with elderly people (driving, noise, number of people, technology uses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhospitable places </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Disneyisation <ul><li>Disneyisation is the process by which the principle of the Disney theme parks are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world. (Alan Bryman) </li></ul><ul><li>4 main principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performative or emotional labour </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. McDonaldisation (George Ritzer) <ul><li>4 Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformity and predictability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control through automation </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Conclusion of the Main Concepts
    27. 28. Thank You For Your Attention