Open access for researchers, research managers and libraries


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Presented at Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment workshop, July 9 2012, Makerere University, Uganda

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Open access for researchers, research managers and libraries

  1. 1. Open access forresearchers, researchmanagers and librariesIryna KuchmaOpen Access Programme ManagerOpen Access and the Evolving Scholarly CommunicationEnvironment workshop, July 9 2012, Makerere Attribution 3.0 Unported
  2. 2. Open access (OA) is free, immediate, online access to the results of research, coupled with the right to use those results in new and innovative ways
  3. 3. “Restrictive access policies drasticallyreduces readership of electronic research journal articles. OA provides an environment within which literature andscholarly research articles are made freely accessible online without license restrictions and without charging users subscription or access fees. OA is a vital means of dissemination of information which is crucial for national development and in achieving MDGs, given the crucial role that information plays in achieving social, economic, cultural and political development.” Professor Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
  4. 4. OA for researchers increased visibility usage & impact for their work
  5. 5. OA for research institutionspublicises institutes’ research strengths providing maximum return on investmentcomplete record of the research output in easily accessible formnew tools to manage institutions impact
  6. 6. OA for publishersincreased readership & citations visibility & impactthe best possible dissemination service for research
  7. 7. OA for librariespartnerships with scientists & research managers to set up OA repositories, to curate research data & to develop OA policiespartnerships with scholarly publishers to publish OA journals & bookspartnerships with educators to produce OERs
  8. 8. OA journalsUse a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access.Users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the journal articles.
  9. 9. [Bertalan Mesko is a medical doctor studying for a PhD in clinicalgenomics at the University of Debrecen in Hungary. He published thepaper (Peripheral blood gene expression patterns discriminate amongchronic inflammatory diseases and healthy controls and identify novel targets) in BioMed Central’s open access journal Medical Genomicsand shared it via his own English language blog,, his Hungarian blog,, Twitter, Friendfeed, and ResearchGATE.The results were swift and impressive. The article became one of themost viewed on BioMed Central, earning the “highly accessed” badge,and produced responses from his peers across a range of platforms. “I received plenty of emails from colleagues from around the worldwhich means we could launch new collaborations with those workingin our field of interest. I received comments through my blog, Twitternetwork where I have over 6000 followers, Facebook which I use for professional reasons, and Friendfeed, where there is a scientific community,” adds Dr Mesko. While Dr Mesko had anticipated some of the reaction to his openaccess and social media strategy, the opportunities it has opened up for him exceeded all his expectations.]
  10. 10. OA journals in AfricaOver 420 OA journals from Egypt, South Africa,Nigeria, Tunisia, Kenya, Morocco, Ethiopia,Uganda, Tanzania, Libya, Ghana, Mauritius,Madagascar, Algeria, Senegal, Cote dIvoire,Sierra Leone and Sudan66068 full text articles in African Journals OnLine
  11. 11. MEDKNOW: Open Access Publishing for Learned Societies and Associations, D.K. Sahu (MD and CEO, Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd): andD. K. Sahu: Eight Facts and Myths About Open Access Journals: An Experience of Eight Years and Eighty Journals:
  12. 12. MEDKNOW: Open Access Publishing for Learned Societies and Associations, D.K. Sahu (MD and CEO, Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd): andD. K. Sahu: Eight Facts and Myths About Open Access Journals: An Experience of Eight Years and Eighty Journals:
  13. 13. OA repositoriesContain research outputsInstitutional or thematicInteroperable (OAI-PMH)Commons metadata protocol allows webapplications (text and data mining)
  14. 14. Snapshot of publicationoutputs by discipline
  15. 15. OA repositories (2)The need to evaluate researchers anddepartmentsAs a response to requests from faculty (“Open Repository Development in Developing and Transition countries” conducted by EIFL and the University of Kansas Libraries)
  16. 16. OA repositories (3)Publicize an institute’s research strengths, providing maximum return on research investment.Provide an administrative tool for institutions.
  17. 17. OA repositories (4)Increase impact and usage of institutes research, providing new contacts and research partnerships for authors.Provide usage statistics showing global interest and value of institutional research.
  18. 18. Open access repositories (5)FOSS to set up, free technical support.Low installation and maintenance costs, quick to set up and gain benefits.Institutions can mandate OA, speeding development.
  19. 19. Swan, A. (2010) The Open Access citationadvantage: Studies and results to date. TechnicalReport , School of Electronics & Computer Science,University of Southampton:
  20. 20. Swan, A. (2010)
  21. 21. Swan, A.
  22. 22. “My personal belief is that we should be focussing on developing effective and diverse measures of the re-use of researchoutputs. By measuring use rather than merely prestige we can go much of the way of delivering on the so-called impact agenda, optimising our use of public funds to generateoutcomes but while retaining some say over the types of outcomes that are important and what timeframes they are measured over.”Cameron Neylon: Warning: Misusing the journal impact factor can damage your science!
  23. 23. re-use in industry re-use in public health re-use in education re-use in policy development & enactment re-use in researchCameron Neylon: (S)low impact research and the importance of open in maximising re-use:
  24. 24. From SPARC Europe workshop “How to make your work OA” Adapted from: John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” [Online] Available at: http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres /0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7- 0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2006. pdf10/10/11
  25. 25. “Access to relevant and timely information is critical to support the University’s mission of teaching,learning, research and the managerialfunctions of the University. Access to information is also an essentialcondition for the economic and social development of the country. Open access will enhance access to local content and this goal can only be achieved through collaborative efforts.”Professor Kamau Ngamau, Dean Faculty of Agriculture, JKUAT
  26. 26. “One of the key pillars of the University of Botswana new strategic plan “Strategy for excellence” is “Research Intensification”. OA will help the University of Botswana, Government, and research institutions to achieve this pillar by ensuring online accessibility to public funded research output that can be freely shared by everyone, enhance research quality, and improve visibility of the institution and the nation globally.” Prof. Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
  27. 27. Is OA on the agenda at the AU?Is the issue of Open Access to information through libraries part of business for the African Union (AU) when it comes to assessing countries’ performance under the African Peer Review Mechanisms (APRM)?(Matseliso M. (Tseli) Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, National University of Lesotho, EIFL country coordinator in Lesotho and EIFL Advisory Board member)
  28. 28. UNESCO-ASSAf-EIFL OA workshopRecommendations:Capacity building: OA publishing and OA repositories, copyright managementAdvocacy campaigns for regulatory policy frameworks – Require open access to publicly funded research – explore possibilities of OA mandates
  29. 29. CODIST II“OA technologies could benefit Africa”(pre-event of the Second Session of theCommittee on Development Information (CODISTII): the workshop “Promoting InnovationDevelopment and Diffusion in Africa throughOA Publishing”, in May 2011 at the EconomicCommission for Africa (ECA).Delegates examined ways to improve knowledgesharing in Africa and to remove existing barriers.
  30. 30. CODIST II (2)Participants recommended that Member Statesshould adopt appropriate OA policies and thatthe ECA should take the leadership in theseactivities.“OA is a new way of publishing and of sharinginformation in the 21st century. Everyone has arole to play in knowledge development andcontent sharing and everyone can make animpact”, said Irene Onyancha, ECA’s ChiefLibrarian.
  31. 31. The SOAP survey11 EIFL partner countries: Bulgaria, China, Egypt,Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, SouthAfrica, Thailand and UkraineAbout 86% of researchers are convinced that OApublishing is beneficial to their research fielddirectly improving the way scientific communitywork and providing the benefits outside thescientific community – public good benefits.
  32. 32. The SOAP survey(2)About 63% of researchers published OA articles.Top five factors when making choices about publishing in a journal: prestige (prestige/perceived quality of the journal), journal impact factor, speed of publication of the journal, importance for career (importance of the journal for academic promotion, tenure or assessment), and relevance of the journal for the community.
  33. 33. The SOAP survey (3)Publicly fundedresearch should bemade available to S tr o n g ly a g r e e A g re ebe read and used N e ith e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e e D is a g r e e S tr o n g ly d is a g r e ewithout accessbarriers (n=3875)
  34. 34. The SOAP survey (4)OA articles arelikely to be read andcited more often S t ro n g ly a g re e A g re e N e i t h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e ethan those not OA D is a g re e S t r o n g l y d is a g r e e(n=3882)
  35. 35. The SOAP survey (5)OA publishing ismore cost-effectivethan subscription-based publishing S t r o n g ly a g r e e A g re e N e it h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e eand so will benefit D is a g r e e S t r o n g ly d is a g r e epublic investment inresearch (n=3871)
  36. 36. The SOAP survey (6)Researchers shouldretain the rights totheir published work S t ro n g ly a g re e A g re eand allow it to be N e it h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g re e D is a g re e S t ro n g ly d is a g re eused by others(n=3872)
  37. 37. How OA benefits your work and careerDistribution and usageImmediate access to your research output for everyone upon official publicationMore visibility & usageImmediate impact of your workIntensification of research through fast dissemination and use of research;Possibly a citation advantage as well
  38. 38. How OA benefits your work and career (2)Plus:Monitoring of your research outputPreservation of your research output by your libraryKeep your rights instead of signing them away
  39. 39. What researchers can do to promote OA?Submit your research articles to OA journals, when there are appropriate OA journals in your fieldDeposit your postprints in an OA repositoryDeposit your data files in an OA repository along with the articles built on themWhen asked to referee a paper or serve on the editorial board for an OA journal, accept the invitation
  40. 40. What researchers can do to promote OA? (2)If you are an editor of a toll-access journal, then start a discussion about converting to OAVolunteer to serve on your university’s committee to evaluate faculty for promotion and tenure. Adjust the criteria to give faculty an incentive to provide OA to their peer-reviewed research articles, either through OA journals or OA repositories
  41. 41. What researchers can do to promote OA? (3)Work with your professional societies to make sure they understand OAWrite opinion pieces (articles, journal editorials, newspapers op-eds, letters to the editor, discussion forum postings) advancing the cause of OAEducate the next generation of scientists and scholars about OA(From What you can do to promote open access written by Peter Suber
  42. 42. “Michael Faraday’s advice to his junior colleague to: “Work. Finish. Publish.” needs to be revised. It shouldn’t be enough to publish a paper anymore. If we want open science to flourish, we should raise our expectations to: “Work. Finish. Publish. Release.” That is, your research shouldn’t be considered complete until the data and meta-data is put up on the web for other people to use, until the code is documented and released, and until the comments start coming in to your blog post announcing the paper. If our general expectations of what it means to complete a project are raised to this level, the scientific community will start doing these activities as a matter of course.” (What, exactly, is Open Science? by Dan Gezelter:
  43. 43. What research managers can do to promote OA?Introduce OA policesTransform the TA journals into OA journalsSet-up OA repositoriesSpread a word about OA
  44. 44. What libraries can do to promote OA?Set-up OA repositoriesHelp researchers and students to self-archiveHelp to publish OA journals and create open educational resourcesHelp in OA data curation and sharingSpread a word about OA
  45. 45. Thank you! Questions?