Open Access and the Evolving Scholarly Communication Environment
Open Access and theEvolving ScholarlyCommunicationEnvironmentIryna KuchmaOpen Access Programme managerOASCIR project final workshop, Faculty of Science,University of Khartoum, 17th of November 2011www.eifl.net Attribution 3.0 Unported
Removing barriers to knowledge sharingEIFL-OA: open access
EIFL-OA achievements• 410+ OA repositories & 2,600+ OA journals in EIFL partner countries• OA policies have been adopted by 24 institutions in the EIFL network• 65 awareness raising, advocacy and capacity building events and workshops in 2003-2011 in 33 countries with participants from over 50 countries
Why OA?“Restrictive access policies drastically reduces readership of electronic research journal articles. OA provides an environment within which literature and scholarly research articles are made freely accessible online without license restrictions and without charging users subscription or access fees…
Why OA? (2)“OA is a vital means of dissemination of information which is crucial for national development and in achieving MDGs, given the crucial role that information plays in achieving social, economic, cultural and political development.”Professor Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
Open access (OA)OA for researchers: increased visibility, usage and impact for their work;OA for research institutions: publicises institutes’ research strengths, providing maximum return on investment; complete record of the research output in easily accessible form, new tools to manage institutions impact;
OA (2)OA for publishers: increased readership and citations, visibility and impact, the best possible dissemination service for research;OA for libraries: partnerships with scientists and research managers to set up OA repositories, to curate research data and to develop OA policies, with scholarly publishers they publish OA journals and books, and with educators – produce OERs.
OA journalsUse a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access.Users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the journal articles.
OA journals in AfricaOver 420 OA journals from Egypt, South Africa,Nigeria, Tunisia, Kenya, Morocco, Ethiopia,Uganda, Tanzania, Libya, Ghana, Mauritius,Madagascar, Algeria, Senegal, Cote dIvoire,Sierra Leone and Sudan58466 full text articles in African Journals OnLine
OA repositoriesContain research outputsInstitutional or thematicInteroperable (OAI-PMH)Commons metadata protocol allows webapplications (text and data mining)
OA repositoriesVisibility, access, and preservation were the most important motivations cited by participating institutions to establish a repository.Other motivations included the need to evaluate researchers and departments, and as a response to requests from faculty.(A survey “Open Repository Development in Developing and Transition countries” conducted by EIFL and the University of Kansas Libraries)
OA repositories (2)Publicize an institute’s research strengths, providing maximum return on research investment.Provide an administrative tool for institutions.
OA repositories (3)Increase impact and usage of institutes research, providing new contacts and research partnerships for authors.Provide usage statistics showing global interest and value of institutional research.
Open access repositories (4)FOSS to set up, free technical support.Low installation and maintenance costs, quick to set up and gain benefits.Institutions can mandate OA, speeding development.
U of K objectivesTo provide modern educational and research environments that will enable students and researchers to face current challenges and to focus on knowledge as a principle driving force for development.To reach international levels in standards, contents and practices while maintaining local values and culture.
U of K objectives (2)To keep up with the development and the new innovations that occur in the different fields of knowledge as well as to take the initiatives in innovation and creativity.To satisfy the increasing demand for excellence in higher education and to ensure the latest quality technology in all its outputs.
U of K objectives (3)To promote libraries, laboratories and other teaching facilities to the latest technical standards and maintain their position as a place for interaction between the different components of the university.To employ information and communication technology to improve University performance with respect to education, research, capacity building, and skills polishing.
OA advocacyEIFL provided financial support to five projects in Africa: national and institutional open access advocacy campaigns to reach out to research communities in Botswana, Ghana, Malawi, Sudan and Zimbabwe
OA advocacy inBotswanaAdvocacy for Open Access to Researchers/Deans/Graduate Students/Editors/Policy Makers/Educators/Library Professionals a project of Botswana Library Consortium and University of Botswana
OA advocacy inGhanaOpen Access Institutional Repositories Advocacy Campaign a project of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghana c/o Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partnership with Association of African Universities
OA advocacy inGhana (2)“Africa cannot attain sustainable development without access to knowledge and knowledge sharing,” stated professor Olugbemiro Jegede, Secretary General of the Association of African Universities at a recent workshop "Harnessing and Disseminating Research Information as a key to the Development of Knowledge-based Economies in Africa"
OA advocacy inMalawiAwareness Campaign for Kamuzu College of Nursing Library / University of Malawi Research Repository, a project of Kamuzu College of Nursing Library / University of Malawi in partnership with the National Commission for Science and Technology (NCST)
OA advocacy inSudanOpen Access awareness-raising campaign among researchers at the Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum (UofK) implemented by the Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum Library with the partner: GrandIR, CB, travel support provided by Carlos III University Madrid
OA advocacy inZimbabweUniversity of Zimbabwe 2011 Open Access Advocacy Campaign implemented by The University of Zimbabwe library.Effective faculty based advocacy and trainings to research administrators.ETDs will be OA, a task force has been created to define processes & advance operational issues related to OA Policy.
OA advocacyresultsOpen access policies (mandates) ensure that research funded by institutions is made freely available.Such policies have been adopted by Strathmore University in Kenya, Covenant University in Nigeria, University of Pretoria and University of Johannesburg in South Africa.
UP Open Scholarship Programme1. Theses and dissertations are available onlineand OA based on a policy of mandatorysubmission2. Research and conference papers are availableonline and OA and researchers actively contributebased on a policy of mandatory submission3. Researchers and students actively use OAmaterial
UP Open Scholarship Programme (2)4. Researchers publish in available OA journalsand the institution has policy and financial supportin place for that5. Researchers actively manage the copyright oftheir publications, inter alia with addenda to theircontracts or using Creative Commons contracts,and the necessary policy exists6. Publications from the institutionspress/publishing house are available in OA basedon policy
UP Open Scholarship Programme (3)7. The institution publishes its own online OAjournals OR provides infrastructure and support formembers of its community who are involved withsociety publishing8. Dissemination forms part of its publicationstrategies.
Open licensesInternational Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)adopted a proposal for the institute to use an‘open’ license for its published outputs.The aim is to encourage maximum uptake and re-use of ILRI’s research.Under this proposal, ILRI retains copyright overeach output. It also explicitly encourages widenon-commercial re-use of each output, subject tofull attribution of ILRI and the author(s), and use ofan equally open license for any derivative output.
Setting up shared repositoriesREPOSITÓRIO SABER: www.saber.ac.mz; 6 institutions:Centro de Formação Jurídica e JudiciáriaInstituto Superior de Ciências e Tecnologia deMoçambiqueUniversidade Eduardo MondlaneUniversidade PedagógicaUniversidade PolitécnicaUniversidade São Tomás de Moçambique
Why OA?“Access to relevant and timely information is critical to support the University’s mission of teaching, learning, research and the managerial functions of the University. Access to information is also an essential condition for the economic and social development of the country. Open access will enhance access to local content and this goal can only be achieved through collaborative efforts.” Professor Kamau Ngamau, Dean Faculty of Agriculture, JKUAT
Why OA? (2)“One of the key pillars of the University of Botswana new strategic plan “Strategy for excellence” is “Research Intensification”. OA will help the University of Botswana, Government, and research institutions to achieve this pillar by ensuring online accessibility to public funded research output that can be freely shared by everyone, enhance research quality, and improve visibility of the institution and the nation globally. ” Prof. Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
Is OA on the agenda at the AU?Is the issue of Open Access to information through libraries part of business for the African Union (AU) when it comes to assessing countries’ performance under the African Peer Review Mechanisms (APRM)?(Matseliso M. (Tseli) Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, National University of Lesotho, EIFL country coordinator in Lesotho and EIFL Advisory Board member)
UNESCO-ASSAf-EIFL OA workshopRecommendations:Capacity building: OA publishing and OA repositories, copyright managementAdvocacy campaigns for regulatory policy frameworks – Require open access to publicly funded research – explore possibilities of OA mandates
CODIST II“OA technologies could benefit Africa”(pre-event of the Second Session of theCommittee on Development Information (CODISTII): the workshop “Promoting InnovationDevelopment and Diffusion in Africa throughOA Publishing”, in May 2011 at the EconomicCommission for Africa (ECA).Delegates examined ways to improve knowledgesharing in Africa and to remove existing barriers.
CODIST II (2)Participants recommended that Member Statesshould adopt appropriate OA policies and thatthe ECA should take the leadership in theseactivities.“OA is a new way of publishing and of sharinginformation in the 21st century. Everyone has arole to play in knowledge development andcontent sharing and everyone can make animpact”, said Irene Onyancha, ECA’s ChiefLibrarian.
The SOAP survey11 EIFL partner countries: Bulgaria, China, Egypt,Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, SouthAfrica, Thailand and UkraineAbout 86% of researchers are convinced that OApublishing is beneficial to their research fielddirectly improving the way scientific communitywork and providing the benefits outside thescientific community – public good benefits.
The SOAP survey(2)About 63% of researchers published OA articles.Top five factors when making choices about publishing in a journal: prestige (prestige/perceived quality of the journal), journal impact factor, speed of publication of the journal, importance for career (importance of the journal for academic promotion, tenure or assessment), and relevance of the journal for the community.
The SOAP survey (3)Publicly fundedresearch should bemade available to S tr o n g ly a g r e e A g re ebe read and used N e ith e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e e D is a g r e e S tr o n g ly d is a g r e ewithout accessbarriers (n=3875)
The SOAP survey (4)OA articles arelikely to be read andcited more often S t ro n g ly a g re e A g re e N e i t h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e ethan those not OA D is a g re e S t r o n g l y d is a g r e e(n=3882)
The SOAP survey (5)OA publishing ismore cost-effectivethan subscription-based publishing S t r o n g ly a g r e e A g re e N e it h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g r e eand so will benefit D is a g r e e S t r o n g ly d is a g r e epublic investment inresearch (n=3871)
The SOAP survey (6)Researchers shouldretain the rights totheir published work S t ro n g ly a g re e A g re eand allow it to be N e it h e r a g r e e n o r d is a g re e D is a g re e S t ro n g ly d is a g re eused by others(n=3872)
What researchers can do to promote OA?Submit your research articles to OA journals, when there are appropriate OA journals in your field.Deposit your postprints in an OA repository.Deposit your data files in an OA repository along with the articles built on them.When asked to referee a paper or serve on the editorial board for an OA journal, accept the invitation.
What researchers can do to promote OA? (2)If you are an editor of a toll-access journal, then start a discussion about converting to OA.Volunteer to serve on your university’s committee to evaluate faculty for promotion and tenure. Adjust the criteria to give faculty an incentive to provide OA to their peer-reviewed research articles, either through OAs journals or OA repositories.
What researchers can do to promote OA? (3)Work with your professional societies to make sure they understand OA.Write opinion pieces (articles, journal editorials, newspapers op- eds, letters to the editor, discussion forum postings) advancing the cause of OA.Educate the next generation of scientists and scholars about OA.(From What you can do to promote open access written by Peter Suber http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/do.htm)
What research managers can do to promote OA?Introduce OA polices.Transform the TA journals into OA journals.Set-up OA repositories.Spread a word about OA.
What libraries can do to promote OA?Set-up OA repositories.Help researchers and students to self-archive.Help to publish OA journals and create open educational resources.Help in OA data curation and sharing.Spread a word about OA.