Introduction to open access principles & discussions
Introduction to openaccess principles &discussionsIryna KuchmaOpen Access Programme ManagerOpen Access for Sharing Research Output inTanzania and Beyond Workshop, April 10, 2013www.eifl.net Attribution 3.0 Unported
EIFL Open AccessProgrammeHigher visibility & impact of scholarlypublications, international co-operation, &community building510+ OA repositories & 3,400+ OA journalsin EIFL partner countries38 OA policies in the EIFL network thatensure that research funded by institutionsis made freely available
“Restrictive access policies drastically reduces readership of electronic researchjournal articles. OA provides an environment within which literature and scholarlyresearch articles are made freely accessible online without license restrictions and without charging users subscription or access fees. OA is a vital means of dissemination of information which is crucial for national development and in achieving MDGs, given the crucial role thatinformation plays in achieving social, economic, cultural and political development.” Professor Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
Open access (OA) is free, immediate, online access to the results of research, coupled with the right to use those results in new and innovative ways
OA for researchers increased visibility usage & impact for their work
OA for researchinstitutionspublicises institutes’ research strengthsproviding maximum return on investmentcomplete record of the research output ineasily accessible formnew tools to manage institutions impact
OA for publishersincreased readership & citationsvisibility & impactthe best possible disseminationservice for research
OA for librariespartnerships with Directors for research, facultyand students to set up OA repositories, to curateresearch data & to develop OA policiespartnerships with scholarly publishers to publishOA journals & bookspartnerships with educators to produce OERs
OA journalsUse a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access.Users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the journal articles.
The benefits of OADr. Paul Nampala (RUFORUM) aboutAfrican Crop Science Journal he edits: increased visibility and submissions(increasing number from outside Africa);cost reduction in publishing (up to 70%);time saving;discouragement of plagiarism.
The benefits of OA(2)Allan Mwesiga (Editor of the Pan AfricanMedical Journal):an African OA journal can attract largenumbers of manuscripts in a verycompetitive environment
DiscussionsLicensing & reuse: We recommendCC-BY or an equivalent license as theoptimal license for the publication,distribution, use, and reuse of scholarlyworkhttp://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/openaccess/boai-10-recommendations
Discussions (2)Infrastructure & sustainability:Universities and funding agencies shouldhelp authors pay reasonable publicationfees at fee-based OA journals, and findcomparable ways to support or subsidizeno-fee OA journalshttp://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/openaccess/boai-10-recommendations
OA repositoriesContain research outputsInstitutional or thematicInteroperable (OAI-PMH)Common metadata protocol allows webapplications (text and data mining)
OA repositories (2)The need to evaluate researchers anddepartmentsAs a response to requests from faculty (“Open Repository Development in Developing and Transition countries” conducted by EIFL and the University of Kansas Libraries)
OA repositories (3)Increase impact and usage of institutesresearch, providing new contacts andresearch partnerships for authors.Provide usage statistics showing globalinterest and value of institutionalresearch.
Open accessrepositories (4)FOSS to set up, free technical support.Low installation and maintenance costs,quick to set up and gain benefits.Institutions can mandate OA, speedingdevelopment.
“Open access toresearch is a must for the competitiveness of Europe”Neelie Kroes, the EU Commissioner for Digital Agenda
From SPARC Europe workshop “How to make your work OA” Adapted from: John Houghton, Colin Steele and Peter Sheehan, Report to the Department of Education, Science and Training “Research Communication Costs in Australia: Emerging Opportunities and Benefits” [Online] Available at: http://www. dest . gov .au/NR/ rdonlyres / 0ACB271F-EA7D-4FAF-B3F7-0381F441B175/13935/DEST_Research_Communications_Cost_Report_Sept2010/10/11 06. pdf
Discussions & RecommendationsTen years on from the BudapestOA Initiative: Setting the defaultto open
On policyEvery institution of higher educationshould have a policy assuring thatpeer-reviewed versions of all futurescholarly articles by faculty membersare deposited in the institution’sdesignated repository.
On policy (2)Deposits should be made as early aspossible, ideally at the time ofacceptance, and no later than thedate of formal publication.
On policy (3)University policies should respect facultyfreedom to submit new work to thejournals of their choice.University policies should encourage butnot require publication in OA journals, andshould help faculty understand thedifference between depositing in an OArepository and publishing in an OA journal.
On policy (4)When publishers will not allow OA on theuniversity’s preferred terms, werecommend either of two courses:The policy may require dark or non-OAdeposit in the repository until permission forOA can be obtained.Or the policy may grant the institution anonexclusive right to make future facultyresearch articles OA through the repository(w/without the option for faculty to waive thisgrant of rights for any given publication).
On policy (5)Every institution of higher educationoffering advanced degrees should have apolicy assuring that future theses anddissertations are deposited uponacceptance in the institutions OArepository. At the request of students whowant to publish their work, or seek apatent on a patentable discovery, policiesshould grant reasonable delays ratherthan permanent exemptions.
On policy (6)Every research funding agency,public or private, should have apolicy assuring that peer-reviewedversions of all future scholarlyarticles reporting funded researchare deposited in a suitable repositoryand made OA as soon as practicable.
On policy (7)Universities with institutional repositoriesshould require deposit in the repository forall research articles to be considered forpromotion, tenure, or other forms ofinternal assessment and review.Similarly, governments performingresearch assessment should requiredeposit in OA repositories for all researcharticles to be reviewed for nationalassessment purposes.
PromotinginteroperabilityThe Office of the Publisher at the World Bank iscreating a pilot program targeted at exploringinteroperability with open access institutionalrepositories in Africa. The goal of this pilot programis to exchange technical expertise on how thecontent in a repository can be exposed to be morediscoverable and re-usable.
Promotinginteroperability (2)The World Bank is currently looking forinstitutions that are interested inparticipating in this pilot program. Weimpose no restrictions when sharing bestpractices but we are particularly interested inworking with institutions that have an interest in,and produce development knowledge.
Promotinginteroperability (3)Contact information:Paschal SsemagandaElectronic Products Specialist,Office of the Publisher, The World Bank+1 (202) 473-3587pssemaganda[@]worldbank.orghttp://openknowledge.worldbank.orghttp://worldbank.org/publications
Swan, A. (2010) The Open Access citationadvantage: Studies and results to date. TechnicalReport , School of Electronics & Computer Science,University of Southampton:http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/
“My personal belief is that we should be focussing on developing effective and diverse measures of the re-use of researchoutputs. By measuring use rather than merely prestige we can go much of the way of delivering on the so-called impact agenda, optimising our use of public funds to generateoutcomes but while retaining some say over the types of outcomes that are important and what timeframes they are measured over.”Cameron Neylon: Warning: Misusing the journal impact factor can damage your science! http://bit.ly/cbK2DK
re-use in industry re-use in public health re-use in education re-use in policy development & enactment re-use in researchCameron Neylon: (S)low impact research andthe importance of open in maximising re-use: http://bit.ly/ntbzQ6
“Access to relevant and timely information is critical to support the University’s mission of teaching,learning, research and the managerialfunctions of the University. Access to information is also an essentialcondition for the economic and social development of the country. Open access will enhance access to local content and this goal can only be achieved through collaborative efforts.”Professor Kamau Ngamau, Dean Faculty of Agriculture, JKUAT
“One of the key pillars of the University of Botswana new strategic plan “Strategy for excellence” is “Research Intensification”. OA will help the University of Botswana,Government, and research institutions to achieve this pillar by ensuring online accessibility to public funded research output that can be freelyshared by everyone, enhance research quality, and improve visibility of the institution and the nation globally.” Prof. Frank Youngman, DVC, University of Botswana
Discussions: Is OA on the agenda at the AU?Is the issue of Open Access to information through libraries part of business for the African Union (AU) when it comes to assessing countries’ performance under the African Peer Review Mechanisms (APRM)?(Matseliso M. (Tseli) Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, National University of Lesotho, EIFL country coordinator in Lesotho and EIFL Advisory Board member)
Discussions: UNESCO-ASSAf-EIFL OA workshopRecommendations:Capacity building: OA publishing and OA repositories, copyright managementAdvocacy campaigns for regulatory policy frameworks – Require open access to publicly funded research – explore possibilities of OA mandates
Discussions: CODIST II“OA technologies could benefit Africa”(pre-event of the Second Session of theCommittee on Development Information (CODISTII): the workshop “Promoting InnovationDevelopment and Diffusion in Africa throughOA Publishing”, in May 2011 at the EconomicCommission for Africa (ECA).Delegates examined ways to improve knowledgesharing in Africa and to remove existing barriers.
Discussions: CODIST II (2)Participants recommended that Member Statesshould adopt appropriate OA policies and thatthe ECA should take the leadership in theseactivities.“OA is a new way of publishing and of sharinginformation in the 21st century. Everyone has arole to play in knowledge development andcontent sharing and everyone can make animpact”, said Irene Onyancha, ECA’s ChiefLibrarian.
How OA benefits yourwork and careerDistribution and usageImmediate access to your research output foreveryone upon official publicationMore visibility & usageImmediate impact of your workIntensification of research through fastdissemination and use of research;Possibly a citation advantage as well
How OA benefits yourwork and career (2)Plus:Monitoring of your research outputPreservation of your research output byyour libraryKeep your rights instead of signing themaway
“Michael Faraday’s advice to his junior colleagueto: “Work. Finish. Publish.” needs to be revised. Itshouldn’t be enough to publish a paper anymore. Ifwe want open science to flourish, we should raiseour expectations to: “Work. Finish. Publish.Release.” That is, your research shouldn’t beconsidered complete until the data and meta-datais put up on the web for other people to use, untilthe code is documented and released, and until thecomments start coming in to your blog postannouncing the paper. If our general expectationsof what it means to complete a project are raised tothis level, the scientific community will start doingthese activities as a matter of course.”(What, exactly, is Open Science? by Dan Gezelter: http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269)
What researchdirectors can do topromote OA?Introduce OA policesTransform the TA journals into OA journalsSet-up OA repositoriesSpread a word about OA
What libraries cando to promote OA?Set-up OA repositoriesHelp researchers and students toself-archiveHelp to publish OA journals and create openeducational resourcesHelp in OA data curation and sharingSpread a word about OA