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Teaching Speaking & Listening

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Presented to EFL teachers in Santa Ana, El Salvador

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Teaching Speaking & Listening

  1. 1. Teaching Speaking & Listening through Communicative Activities Erin Lowry English Language Fellow Workshop for Universidad Católica del Occidente November 12, 2007
  2. 2. The Challenge <ul><li>To integrate skills </li></ul><ul><li>To provide opportunities for authentic communication contexts </li></ul><ul><li>To give a reason for communication (information gaps) </li></ul><ul><li>To assess these skills in an objective manner </li></ul>
  3. 3. TEACHING LISTENING
  4. 4. What Makes Listening Difficult? <ul><li>Clustering </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced forms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance variables </li></ul><ul><li>Colloquial language </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, rhythm, and intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Principles for Teaching Listening <ul><li>Expose Sts to different ways of processing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up vs. Top-down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expose Sts to different types of listening </li></ul><ul><li>Teach a variety of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity </li></ul>Helgeson, 2003
  6. 6. Types of Classroom Listening <ul><li>Reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Selective </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul>Brown, 2001
  7. 7. Principles for Designing Listening Techniques <ul><li>Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Use authentic language and contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully consider the form of listeners’ responses </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the development of listening strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Include bottom-up and top-down listening techniques </li></ul>Brown, 2001
  8. 8. Successful Listening Activities <ul><li>Purpose for Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A form of response (doing, choosing, answering, transferring, condensing, duplicating, extending, conversing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition depends on T objectives and students’ level </li></ul><ul><li>A motivating listening text is authentic and relates to students’ interests and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Have the skills integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Stages: Pre-task , While-task, Post-task </li></ul>
  9. 9. Listening Strategies <ul><li>Teach student how to listen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for keywords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associating information with one’s existing background knowledge (activating schema) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guessing meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for the general gist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For tests of listening comprehension, various test-taking strategies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Easy-to-plan Pre-Listening Activities <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share </li></ul><ul><li>Word Webbing/Mind Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Team Interview </li></ul>
  11. 11. Easy-to-plan Listening Tasks <ul><li>Agree or disagree (with explanation) </li></ul><ul><li>Create Venn diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>List characteristics, qualities, or features </li></ul><ul><li>Strip story (sequencing game) </li></ul><ul><li>Match speech to visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast to another speech or text </li></ul><ul><li>Give advice </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Listening Tasks <ul><li>Compare and contrast to your own experience </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own version of the missing section </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a solution to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Share reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Create a visual </li></ul><ul><li>Reenact your own version </li></ul>
  13. 13. Easy to Plan Post-listening Assessments <ul><li>Guess the meaning of unknown vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the speaker’s intentions </li></ul><ul><li>List the number of people involved and their function in the script </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the success of communication in the script </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm alternative ways of expression </li></ul>
  14. 14. TEACHING SPEAKING
  15. 15. Distinctive Feature Syllable PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SYNTAX DISCOURSE STRESS RHYTHM INTONATION
  16. 16. What Makes Speaking Difficult? <ul><li>Clustering </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced forms </li></ul><ul><li>Performance variables </li></ul><ul><li>Colloquial language </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, rhythm & intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul>
  17. 17. Principles of Teaching Speaking Beginners <ul><li>Provide something for the learners to talk about </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities for students to interact by using groupwork or pairwork </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate physical arrangements to promote speaking practice </li></ul>Bailey, 2005
  18. 18. Principles of Teaching Speaking Intermediate <ul><li>Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Design both transactional and interpersonal speaking activities </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize the speaking activities whenever possible </li></ul>Bailey, 2005
  19. 19. Principles of Teaching Speaking Advanced <ul><li>Help learners to combine fluency and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage learners to take reasonable risks when speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for learners to notice the gap </li></ul>Bailey, 2005
  20. 20. Tasks & Materials <ul><li>Conversations, guided conversations & interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Information gap & jigsaw activities </li></ul><ul><li>Scripted dialogues, drama, & role-play </li></ul><ul><li>Logic puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Picture-based activities </li></ul><ul><li>Physical actions in speaking lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous speaking </li></ul>
  21. 21. Questions? <ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Website: http://elowry.wikidot.com </li></ul><ul><li>Blog: http://irwyn12.blogspot.com </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Bailey, K.M. (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking . New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop, G. (2006). AP State English Lecturers Retraining Program Teacher’s Handboook . Senior ELF Seminar Series given in Hyderabad, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy . White Plains, NY: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Helgesen, M. (2003). Listening. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching . New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao, X.A. (2001). Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms. EL Forum, 39 (4). Retrieved from http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol39/no4/p38.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, T. (2003). Communication in the language classroom . Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Slagoski, J.D. (2006). Teaching Listening Skills. Senior ELF Seminar given in Samara, Russia. Retrieved from http://slagoski.googlepages.com/downloadpresentations . </li></ul>

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