From skeptic to believer- The power of graphic organizers


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Presentation given in Tacna & Iquitos, Peru, Summer 2010

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  • such as graphs, semantic webs, timelines, diagrams, story maps, etc. Knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps, cognitive organizers, advance organizers, concept diagrams
  • Take a piece of paper and number from 1-9. In triads, list as many as you can. Then ask the others at the table to share their list. Add anything you didn’t get. This keeps everyone responsible to participate not only in the brainstorming, but in the sharing out. • Focusing • Information-gathering • Remembering • Organizing • Analyzing • Generating • Integrating • Evaluating (Marzano)
  • Robert J. Marzano, Barbara B. Gaddy, and Ceri Dean. (2000). What Works in Classroom Instruction. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
  • Marzano,R.J., Gaddy, B.B. & Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
  • Graphic organizers combine the linguistic mode and the nonlinguistic mode of communication by using words and phrases to highlight key points and symbols and arrows to represent relationships. Each graphic organizer arranges information differently and thus is more appropriate for some types of information than others.
  • Defining in context
  • Adjectives, no nouns!
  • A time/sequence pattern organizes events in a specific chronological order. For example, information about the development of the “race” to the South Pole can be organized as a time/sequence pattern and represented graphically as shown in Illustration 2.
  • Always begin with the event Example on p. 63 of Thinking Maps
  • In 1992, Jay McTighe in his book Graphic Organizers: Collaborative Links to Better Thinking
  • In 1992, Jay McTighe in his book Graphic Organizers: Collaborative Links to Better Thinking
  • From skeptic to believer- The power of graphic organizers

    1. 1. From Skeptic to Believer: The Power of Graphic Organizers Erin Lowry 2 nd International ELT Conference Tacna, Peru July 26 & 27th, 2010
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What are they and which ones? </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting students’ thinking AND language development </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing the field, increasing the yield </li></ul><ul><li>Owning the organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating instruction </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Believer The Skeptic
    4. 4. <ul><li>  </li></ul>“ The difference between good and poor learners is not the sheer quantity to what the good learner learns, but rather the good learner’s ability to organize and use information” (Smith, 1986).
    5. 5. Image source: Battling….
    6. 6. What ? <ul><li>Visual maps of information that help learners understand and retain information </li></ul><ul><li>Also often referred to as a &quot;map&quot; because it can help teachers and students &quot;map out&quot; their ideas in a visual manner </li></ul>
    7. 7. Brainstorm <ul><li>A Groups : How do you and your students use graphic organizers? </li></ul><ul><li>B Groups : What cognitive functions do graphic organizers support? </li></ul><ul><li>C Groups : What linguistic features and functions do organizers support? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Using Organizers to Support Cognitive Functions <ul><li>main idea/detail </li></ul><ul><li>compare& contrast </li></ul><ul><li>sequence </li></ul><ul><li>build meaning (vocabulary) </li></ul><ul><li>brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>story map </li></ul><ul><li>problem/solution </li></ul><ul><li>cause/effect </li></ul><ul><li>categorize </li></ul>
    9. 9. Instructional Categories that Affect Achievement <ul><li>Identifying similarities and differences </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing and note-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing effort and providing recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Homework and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic representations </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals and providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Generating and testing hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Activating prior knowledge </li></ul>
    10. 10. Time on Task <ul><li>Incremental process that benefits from long-term, consistent exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal exposure restricts the overall impact of GO practices </li></ul>
    11. 11. Benefits <ul><li>  Easy for students to use </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful for differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Once they are taught, they are owned </li></ul><ul><li>Can start teaching them early </li></ul><ul><li>Can use them in our assessments and for review </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in any content area or grade level </li></ul>
    12. 12. Factors Influencing Effectiveness <ul><li>Important variables include grade level, point of implementation, instructional context, and ease of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Handing students a ready-made organizer does not encourage independent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Changing visuals from class to class does not allow students to “own” the organizers </li></ul>
    13. 13. Before Instruction <ul><li>Provide structure for the presentation of new material while indicating relations between ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit information to have an accurate idea of students’ prior knowledge </li></ul>
    14. 14. During Instruction <ul><li>Actively isolating, processing and reorganizing key information </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at and adapting an organized structure of information gives students an opportunity to learn from their own mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing students to construct maps that are appropriate to their individual learning styles </li></ul>
    15. 15. After Instruction <ul><li>Construct own organizers using the full text to isolate and organize key concepts—summarization </li></ul><ul><li>Connect prior knowledge with what was learned and identify relationships between those ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Describe purpose, model use, and provide students with opportunities for guided practice </li></ul><ul><li>When students are comfortable with using the organizer, more independent application </li></ul>
    16. 16. Narrow the field, Increase the yield
    17. 17. Patterns of information <ul><li>Marzano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time/sequence patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process/cause-effect patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episode patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization/principle pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thinking Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming/Defining in context </li></ul><ul><li>Describing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing/Contrasting </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-Parts Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing analogies </li></ul>
    18. 18. Usually text or teacher centered Based on isolated tasks Difficult to transfer across content areas Often static forms, used alone Inconsistent graphics across classrooms Based on fundamental thinking skills Easily transferred across disciplines Consistent visual language Highly flexible form Visual Patterns Very successful Useful for teaching Combo linguistic & non-linguistic 400+ 8
    19. 19. Rural Life Defining in Context: Circle Map
    20. 20. Describing Qualities: Bubble Map
    21. 21. Describing: Bubble Map Function: My school day Function: reflexive verbs
    22. 22. Sequencing: Flow Map
    23. 23. Sequencing: Flow Map Function: Steps in a recipe Function: My morning routines
    24. 24. Compare/ Contrast: Double Bubble
    25. 25. Compare/Contrast: Double Bubble Function: Me now & me in the future
    26. 26. Whole to Parts: Brace Map Function: My favorite meal
    27. 27. Whole to Parts: Brace Map Spanish Speaking Latin America North America Central America United States Mexico Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama South America Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Uruguay Paraguay Bolivia
    28. 28. Classifying: Tree Map Function: Types of food Function: Types of verbs
    29. 29. Tree Map Idiom: A blessing in disguise Illustration In Use Real Meaning Example: &quot;I lost my job and was upset at first, but I found a better one and have been much happier since.&quot; Answer: &quot;Losing your job was just a blessing in disguise!&quot; Something good that isn’t recognized at first
    30. 30. Cause & Effect: The Fishbone
    31. 31. Cause & Effect: Multi-flow Grade: 80 I didn’t do all of my homework I didn’t take notes in class. I can’t use my cell phone. My mom got angry!
    32. 32. Concept: Frayer Model <ul><li>Adaptation of concept map  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concept word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characteristics of the concept word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples of the concept word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non examples of the concept word </li></ul></ul>
    33. 35. Your Turn <ul><li>Think of the lesson plan you created recently. Choose what linguistic function or grammatical feature the lesson covered, or the content. Create a graphic organizer that you could have used with your students. </li></ul><ul><li>Post your map for others to see! </li></ul>
    34. 36. Questions? <ul><li>Erin Lowry </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop documents available at </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    35. 37. Useful Sites <ul><li>Designs for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Maps, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Enchanted Learning / </li></ul><ul><li>Scholastic </li></ul>
    36. 38. Sources <ul><li>Buehl, D. (2009). Classroom strategies for interactive learning . (3 rd ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Glover, PJ. (2009). Getting more out of graphic organizers . PowerPoint presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2007) . Differentiated instructional strategies: One size doesn’t fit all . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Haynes, J. (2004).Graphic organizers for content instruction. Everything ESL . Available online at </li></ul><ul><li>Hyerle, D. & Yeager, C. (2007). Thinking maps: a language for learning . Cary, NC: Thinking Maps, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano,R.J., Gaddy, B.B. & Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction. Aurora, CO : Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano, R.J. & Pickering, D.J. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teachers’s manual . Alexandria, VA: ASCD. </li></ul>
    37. 39. Sources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    38. 40. Image Sources <ul><li>Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano: Langwitches </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Foreman </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Lowry’s Spring Semester Spanish 2 Classes @ Hertford County High, Ahoskie, North Carolina </li></ul>