Although the concept of project management principles date back to Roman and Egyptian architect, the advancement of project management principles and coined terms did not come about until the late 1800’s, early 1900’s during the industrial revolution. As businesses developed and flourished during the 1900’s better ways of conducting business was being sought by those who were budget minded. As project management developed, so did America with the production of mass transportation and factories that exponentially produced product.
These three are considered to be the major contributors to the development of project management because it was during the era of these three men where project management terms and systems were coined and recorded. Henry Gantt designed the Gantt chart that is designed to list the many tasks involved in a project with a breakdown of dates to show the beginning and the end of the project life. This greatly improved planning and communication management during a project (unc, 2002). The term “Taylorism” was coined after Frederick Taylor who developed a scientific way of performing best practices during the life of the project. His focus on best practices was to find the “one” best way for completing a project. In finding this one best way the idea was to find a way for workers to be productive by working smarter rather than harder, thus , forming a systematic way of production, implementation of machines, and ergonomics (Sandrone, 1997). William Fazar’s development of PERT monitored and notated key events in overcoming obstacles rather than project activities that could form a systematic way of project control (Stretton, 1993).
A significant development in history includes the use of William Fazar’s PERT during the missile race between the United States and Russia. Russia began their project and success with the launch of their Sputnik 1 Satellite. This developed a missile race between the United States and Russia as the U.S. wanted to take defense if Russia wanted to turn their missiles into weapons. Guided by Fazar’s PERT method the Navy developed the Polaris missile in response to Russia’s Sputnik. Approximately ten years later Department of Defense project were so successful they developed another project that was another success in 1969 with the flight of Apollo 11 (Department of Contruction and Technology, n.d.).
The listed Project management organizations above are dedicated to furthering the discipline of project management. They believe that project management is a profession and not just a task involved at an organization. They develop elite groups of individuals throughout all industries to enhance the growth of project management across the board. This benefits all involved: the manager by offering updated knowledge and the latest best practices to ensure project success; the business by increasing the return on investment through project management best practices; and the PM organizations because the knowledge sharing forms a database of best practices to be used in various industries.
The project management body of knowledge has come to be accepted for providing the standard guidelines for project management. A small group of individuals, James Snyder, Eric Jenett, Edward Engman, and J. Gordon Davis, began the history of PMBOK in 1968. These individuals dedicated themselves to creating and improving upon the principles that would create the discipline of project management (History of PMBOK, n.d.). The organization created by these men, and later joined by Susan C. Gallagher, would be titled the Project Management Institute (PMI). This group grew to a mass of over a quarter of a million professionals from all parts of the world. PMBOK contains nine knowledge areas. The nine knowledge areas are integration, scope, time knowledge, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, and procurement (PMBOK Guide, n.d.). The nine knowledge areas of PMBOK serve the purpose of dividing the project into its most crucial components and help to develop the parameters for the successful completion of a project. When the project manager is developing his project plan, he can turn to these nine knowledge areas to ensure that all aspects and areas of his project plan are complete. Some areas of PMBOK may be more important than others on specific projects, but none should be overlooked when creating and implementing the plan.
Utilizing integration as a guide for a project plan entails coordinating all of the aspects of the project preparation. In this step the objectives and desired outcome of the project is determined and all of the steps that are necessary to achieve the goal. Utilizing PMBOK’s guidance, integration is the correct way to begin a project. In this important first step the project charter is developed as well as the initial statement of the project scope, the project management plan development is initiated and the plan for execution, monitoring, and integrating the project (PMBOK Guide, n.d.). In step two, we define what is used and what is not in the project plan. This step is called scope. There are five processes within scope and they are: planning, definition, creating WBS, verification, and control (PMBOK Guide, n.d.). These processes keep the scope of the project on its course. The following step is time management, which important when working on nearly any project. Time management deals with creating a schedule or a timeline and monitoring the project’s activities to ensure that the project remains on schedule. The six processes that make up the time management knowledge area are defining the activity, sequencing, resource estimation, duration estimation, developing the schedule, and controlling the schedule (PMBOK Guide, n.d.).
Cost is the next knowledge area and its focus is quite straight forward. The cost knowledge area focuses on getting the project completed within its budget. Only three processes comprise the cost knowledge area, estimating, budgeting and control. The next knowledge area is quality which also has three processes, planning, quality assurance, and quality control. The human resource knowledge area is pretty easily understood as well as it has to do with the people that make up the project team. The four processes involved in human resources are planning, acquiring the team, developing the team, and managing the team (PMBOK Guide, n.d.). The three knowledge area the complete the PMBOK guide are communications, risk, and procurement. Communications deals with the flow of information within the team and to those involved in the project. The four processes in the communication step are planning, information distribution, managing stakeholders, and performance reporting. The knowledge area of risk has to do with limiting the events that are detrimental to the project and increasing those that are positive. There are six processes in the risk portion of the PMBOK guide; risk management planning, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, risk identification, response planning, monitoring, and controlling. The final knowledge area is procurement. Procurement deals with distributing or selling the final product and it also has six processes involved. The six processes are planning for purchasing, plan for contracting, requesting seller response, choosing sellers, contract administration, and closure of contracts.
I consider the ability to lead to be one of the most important traits for an effective project manager. Leadership requires that project managers do more than just direct employees by giving orders, but they also must steer the project and members of the project team through his examples and instruction. Leadership qualities in managers help the team to be more effective and more willing to do the extra tasks needed to make a project successful. The ability to increase competence and value among the members of the team is another needed skill in the project manager. The manager should have these development skills to improve on the capabilities of each member of the team. Time management skills are very important traits in project managers also. Many times when a project is being lead, the manager’s time can be in high demand. A good project manager has the ability to prioritizing the tasks requiring attention. To make optimal use of the time available, project managers need to have self-discipline, be able to prioritize, and show a willingness to delegate (Clements & Gido, p. 313). Project managers must also have the ability to deal with and solve problems.Communication skills are important in a good project manager. Communication must stay frequent between the members of the group without unsettling the work-flow of the assignment. The manager should be able to distribute information in many different ways, such as written memos and emails, verbally through meetings and interpersonal interaction, and by listening to the feedback of employees, superiors, and customers (Clements & Gido, 2009). Project managers should not only communicate effectively, but should also encourage good communication from the members of the team. In this way, the manager acts as a conduit between team members by managing the flow of information.
The American Academy of Project Management </li></li></ul><li>Project Management Institute (PMI)<br />PMI, is a non-profit project management professional association that provides global leadership in the development of professional standards, certifications, research, publications, education and training. <br />Standards, is a document that was established by a consensus-based process that provides guidelines, rules, and characteristics for the topic of discussion. <br />There are five categories that standards have:<br />projects <br />programs <br />people <br />organizations<br />profession <br />
PMBOK<br />Integration<br />Beginning the Project<br />Scope<br />Defining the Project<br />Time Management<br />Keeping to the Schedule<br />
PMBOK<br />Cost<br />Staying Within the Budget<br />Quality<br />Planning for Quality Assurance<br />Human Resources<br />The Team<br />Communications<br />The Flow of Information<br />Risk<br />Keeping Risk at a Minimum<br />Procurement<br />Selling the Final Product<br />
Project Lifecycle Phases<br />There are five phases of the project lifecycle that can assist with the completion of the project:<br />Initiation<br />Planning<br />Execution<br />Monitoring and Controlling<br />Closure<br />
Knowledge Areas<br />There are nine knowledge areas of the project lifecycle:<br />Integration<br />Scope<br />Time<br />Cost<br />Quality<br />Human Resource<br />Communications<br />Risk<br />Procurement<br />
Skills of a Successful Project Manager<br />Leadership<br />Developmental Capabilities<br />Time Management<br />Communication<br />
Resources<br />A Quick View on the History of PMBOK. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2009 from http://theartofservice.com/PMP/PMP/A-Quick-View-on-History-of-PMBOK.html<br />Clements, J., & Gido, J. (2009). Successful Project Management (4th Edition). South-Western Cengage Learning: Mason, OH<br />Department of Construction and Technology. (n.d.). The Sputnik Crisis. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from <br />Freedman, Rick (2002) Encourage Success by Following PMI’s Knowledge Areas. Retrieved on January 27, 2009 from www.articles.techrepublic.com/5100-10878_11-1051548.html<br /> http://ekt.bme.hu/CM-BSC-MSC/PERTReadings03.pdf<br />PMBOK Guide Knowledge Areas. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2009 from http://www.vtc.com/products/PMBOKPart2/PMBOKGuideOverview/75022<br />
Resources<br />Project Management Institute (2008) Retrieved on January 26, 2009 from http://www.pmi.org/Pages/default.aspx<br />Project Manager Job Description. (n.d.). Retrieved January 13, 2009 from http://www.mariosalexandrou.com/free-job-descriptions/project-manager.asp<br />Sandrone, V. (1997). Skymark. F. W. Taylor & Scientific Management. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from <br />Skillsoft (2007) Project Management Institute – PMI Certification Program. Retrieved on January 26, 2009 from http://www.skillsoft.com/about/credit_programs/credential_programs/pmi.asp<br />http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/taylor.asp<br />Stretton, A. (1993). PM World Today. A Short History In Project Management. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from http://www.pmforum.org/library/second-edition/2007/PDFs/Stretton-10-07.pdf<br />Unc. (2002). ME450 Gantt Chart Handout. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from http://www.bme.unc.edu/~bob/me450_gantt_chart_handout.pdf<br />