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PROCESS report    Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts:EXPLORATION OF NEW TERRITORIES     FOR pss DESIGN IN PRACT...
title pagedocument                                          group                                             placeProcess...
SYNOPSIS           This process report describes the steps followed in           the project called Social Innovation and ...
project overview                                title: Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts:                     ...
reading guidance                   The project is represented through two different            The project has contained p...
hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat                        ad tinit i...
[phase 3]                    62   system representation52   rethinking the project                62     SYSTEM OVERVIEW52...
This chapter describes the preparation phase of the project. Before it was started the          client was analyzed, the d...
phase 0
PHASE 0 before the project started THE BEGINNING                                                ZIRRARA The time to choose...
analysis of the problemsThis part wants to dig into the current situation ofthe organization. Other existing NGOs have bee...
PHASE 0                          vision                          mission                                                  ...
focus                                                                              missionAfter analizing those areas and ...
PHASE 0 THE ROLE OF A DESIGNER How can I [designer] help Zirrara [client] help them [end users] help themselves? Help can ...
TRIP TO ECUADOR                                           The current activity of Zirrara is focused in Ecuador. This     ...
This chapter starts by documenting what was observed during the trip and describes          the place, the problem areas, ...
PHASE 1 building the context                                             ECUADOR                                          ...
Deteriorating economic performance in 1997-98                As a developing country, Ecuador is nowadays facedculminated ...
PHASE 1PHASE 2PHASE 3PHASE 4                                                                                              ...
means of transport           spare time                                kind of bus                                        ...
PHASE 1TARGET GROUPThe following chapter gives an idea about the lifestyleof the people living in Ricaurte (see illustrati...
Yuri [21]                                Left her studies to get                                married. Cleaning,        ...
PHASE 1                                                      a [23                                                        ...
Néstor [21]                                         He is the last of 11                                   brother and sis...
PHASE 1                                                 ]                                              [49                ...
general characteristics                                                         As in every culture, there are some behavi...
PHASE 1 narrowing down                                                                                            n       ...
socia                      l inte                                  ract                         means of transport        ...
PHASE 1 INTERPRETATION OF THE                                         The volunteering was done in a school of “special   ...
PROBLEM FORMULATION                                            problem statement (PS)   The project started with a broad q...
PHASE 1 interpretation of the PS This chapter gives a further explanation in the concepts that the Problem Statement menti...
Choosing problem areas led us to define some user                                                                         ...
PHASE 1                hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat           ...
PROGRAM                                   The program is written as a sum up of the phase 1. It is                        ...
The following chapter embraces the concept generation phase. In first place it describes          the behaviour of the sys...
PHASE 2                                                              hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te eui...
t                                             ac                                          str                             ...
PHASE 2                                                                                                        the church ...
It is very important that the knowledge gained was        There were relevant details in the way of proceeding         All...
PHASE 2                                                         hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis d...
PROPOSALS                                           After evaluating the ideas, and choosing some of                      ...
PHASE 2                                                            hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipi...
concept2[moving kitchen]This concept is a moving educational unit, that could bea truck or a big bus, specially designed f...
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT
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Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT

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Process report of a project "Design for an NGO", reflecting upon Service Design in practice.

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Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice - PROCESS REPORT

  1. 1. PROCESS report Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts:EXPLORATION OF NEW TERRITORIES FOR pss DESIGN IN PRACTICE
  2. 2. title pagedocument group placeProcess report AD9-ID7 Department of Industrial Design, Institute of Architecture & Design, Aalborg Universitytheme supervisorDesign Research and Strategy Nicola Morelli, Associated Professor editions 7 number of pages 87subtheme project periodSocial Innovation and New Industrial Contexts October 08/January 09project titleExploration of new territories forProduct Service System [PSS] design in practicecasePSS design for Zirrarastudy unitMain project, 3rd semester,Master Degree of Industrial Design2 Irune Gonzalez Cruz TITLE PAGE
  3. 3. SYNOPSIS This process report describes the steps followed in the project called Social Innovation and New Industrial Context: Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice. The case explored to reflect upon the topic has the name of PSS design for Zirrara. The project was developed in the autumn 2009 as main project of 3rd semester of Industrial Design, under the theme of “Design Research and Strategy”.synopsis 3
  4. 4. project overview title: Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: Exploration of new territories for PSS design in practice [Gonzalez, 2008] PROCESS report case: PSS design for an NGO process concepts plan conclusions reflections hypothesisSocial Innovation andNew Industrial Contexts:Can designers “Industrialize” WORKSHOP with Zirrara Presentation of projectSocially Responsible Solutions? conclusions[Morelli, 2007] REFLECTION paper4 ill. -1.1: project overview diagram SUBMISSION [17-XII-2008] dk [27-XII-2008] sp EXAMINATION [08-I-2009] dk [date] place PROJECT OVERVIEW
  5. 5. reading guidance The project is represented through two different The project has contained parallel processes and documents: the PROCESS report and the REFLECTION iterative loops, therefore the content of the process paper. It is recommended to read the PROCESS report report is not presented entirely in a chronological in advance in order to get a clearer understanding of the structure. It is separated in four phases (from 0 to 3) project. which are also divided into different chapters. The references are added in the text by the Harvard Method “[Author, year]”, with the full references listed in alphabetical order in the reference list at the end of the report. Web site references are in the text referred to as a name “[web site name]”, with the exact web site address in the source list at the end of the report. They were updated on December 17th, 2008. Illustrations, schemes and diagrams are referred to as “ill.phase number.illustration number: description”. The illustration list can be found in the end of the report and only contains illustrations not made by the author. The appendices have not been printed but are kept on the enclosed CD, with the file name and the language indicated in the report “[appendix A_description, language]”. 5 All the printed versions of the documents are in grey scale. Nevertheless, the original PDF files in full colour resolution can be found in the attached CD.READING GUIDANCE
  6. 6. hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendremtable of contents [phase 0] [phase 2] 10 before the project started 38 system’s behaviour 10 THE BEGINNING 38 VALUE BASED METHODOLOGY 10 ZIRRARA 38 value mission 10 what is it? 38 interaction vision2 title page 10 general information 40 SCENARIO3 SYNOPSIS 11 analysis of problems4 project overview 12 ngo CAPACITY FRAMEWORK 42 concept generation5 reading guidance 13 focus 42 PROCESS6 table of contents 14 THE ROLE OF A DESIGNER 43 PROPOSALS 15 TRIP TO ECUADOR 44 concept 1 [arrange-meet-cook-eat] 45 concept 2 [moving kitchen] [phase 1] 46 concept 3 [being part of the whole cycle] 18 building the context 18 ECUADOR 47 end of phase 19 RICAURTE 47 STATUS SEMINAR 20 PROBLEM AREAS 47 feedback 22 TARGET GROUP 48 evaluation and future lines 27 general characteristics 28 narrowing down 28 CHOOSING FOCUS 30 INTERPRETATION OF THE CHOSE PROBLEMS 31 PROBLEM FORMULATION 31 problem statement (PS) 32 interpretation of PS6 34 end of phase 34 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 35 PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS
  7. 7. [phase 3] 62 system representation52 rethinking the project 62 SYSTEM OVERVIEW52 STEPPING OUTSIDE THE CASE 62 use case of different actors52 project PS 64 material flow52 case PS 64 knowledge flow53 METHOD AND CONTENT 64 information flow 84 project conclusions 66 FROM “FINISHED” TO “SEMI-FINISHED”54 looking at the world 67 CONCLUSIONS 86 acknowledgements54 THE STORY OF STUFF55 TOWARDS ANOTHER WAY 68 industrialization of service 87 lists 68 MODULARITY AND REPLICABILITY 87 REFERENCES56 practice-oriented analysis 70 EFFICIENCY 87 ILLUSTRATIONS56 PRACTICE-ORIENTED APPROACH 71 the seven deadly wastes 87 SOURCES56 changing and creating practices 75 division of labour57 process 75 5S57 ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM 75 plant distribution60 INTERPRETATION 76 poka yoke60 classification of practices 76 others60 how to evoke images? 77 PROBLEMS60 appropriate location 77 contradictions and incongruities60 control of information 78 aim61 knowledge 78 conclusions61 where are the people?61 ability 80 end of phase61 material 80 WHAT DOES zirrara GET?61 CONCLUSION 80 WORKSHOP 80 purpose 7 81 ideal semi-finished solution 81 method 82 structure 83 considerations 83 hypothesis and expectations 83 WHAT IS NEXT? TABLE OF CONTENTS
  8. 8. This chapter describes the preparation phase of the project. Before it was started the client was analyzed, the design opportunities were seen and the focus was chosen. Aphase 0 trip was done to get in contact with the context that the Product Service System is designed for, before the semester started.8
  9. 9. phase 0
  10. 10. PHASE 0 before the project started THE BEGINNING ZIRRARA The time to choose the 3rd semester project and the what is it? news that Zirrara was created came together. Once that The name of the group is a Basque word which can be PSS was chosen as direction for the following semester Zirrara is a non-governmental and nondenominational translated into English as emotion, excitement, feeling studies, the idea of designing for an NGO came out. Due organization (see illustration 0.1 on the next page or sensation. It comes from the thought “ irrifar baten to the personal interest and motivation about working for the logo). A small group of young people, after six zirrara”, which means the emotion that a smile provokes. on that field and the possibilities that it offers, it was years activity together, decided to create an official The group members agree that people’s smile is what seen as an interesting opportunity that could fit both and legally recognized organization. On April 2008 gives them motivation and makes them happy. personal interests and semester goals. “Zirrara solidaritza taldea” (Zirrara solidarity group) was established. The first approach to the topic can be stated like this: general information The activity of the group started in 2002 and since Name: Zirrara then different things have been done with the aim of contributing to the human development. One of the Address: Arraguako Salbatore Parrokia most important work is the volunteering done in a What can I, as a designer, provide Zirrara in order to 20180 Oiartzun school in Ecuador for 4 years by members of the group. push the development of it as an NGO? Basque Country So far, all the initiatives have been supported by a little Spain church and member’s own founds. e-mail: zirrara08@gmail.com Being a recognized organization offers the opportunity to apply for help to public administration, companies account number: 3035 0126 6512 6004 0405 or people, in order to involve society in the cooperation Euskadiko Kutxa and strengthen the results.10 C.I.F.: Q2000343J [The articles of association can be found in the appendix A_articles of association of Zirrara, Basque] the beginning / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  11. 11. analysis of the problemsThis part wants to dig into the current situation ofthe organization. Other existing NGOs have beenanalysed [Calcuta ondoan, fundacion Vicente Ferrer, zirrara ill. 0.1: logo of Zirraraidealist, ingenieros sin fronteras, sonrisas de Bombay,volunteering Ecuador] to have an overview of how they As starting point, the organization should define itself A high percentage of the income of the organizationswork and the different subareas they have. Taking them more deeply. A mission, vision and values could be comes from members. Membership is open and freeas examples and comparing them to Zirrara, which just written. for everybody at this moment. But some rules shouldstarted, many things could be done in different levels. be established, such us who can be member, different There is nobody working full time on the management of types of members (active collaboration, sponsoring of a the organization. The coordination of all the subareas is child, donations, etc.). limited by the members, studying in different countries at this moment. Apart from the long term projects in action areas (South), some initiatives are usually done in parallel There are ongoing projects (“heziketa eta zaintza (North), such as awareness programs and education for pertsona ezinduei Ekuadorren”, which means the development in schools education and health care for disabled people in Ecuador) [the report of this project can be found in the appendix B_heziketa eta zaintza pertsona ezinduei ekuadorren, Basque] supported by the members. Looking at the future, some project ideas have been thought, but there is a lack of money that complicates the process. That is why it is important to find ways of financing the organization’s activities. Other NGOs are supported by members, private companies (sponsors) 11 and public administration, but an appropriate work on communication must be done to reach them. A web page and speeches or presentations are usually used by other groups.phase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / zirrara
  12. 12. PHASE 0 vision mission society strategy programmes ngo CAPACITY FRAMEWORK impact projects Although there are many ways of describing organizations, the diagram on the side reflects NGO’s key characteristics in an appropriate way [Edwards and Fowler, 2002]. people To do development well, an NGO must have adequate capacity in all the areas and each must be consistent structure systems with the other (see illustration 0.2). management resources relationships results and learningsorganization ill. 0.2: NGO capacity framework, elements and relations NGO capacity framework / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  13. 13. focus missionAfter analizing those areas and the current situation ofZirrara, it is seen as a good start to develop a projectthat fits the programmes of the organization, so thatthe results and learnings have an impact on society (see strategyillustration 0.3).The contribution of the designer to Zirrara will be thedevelopment of a PSS for Ricaurte (Ecuador), that is programmesalready known for the organization and accessible forfuture intervention. projects people structure systems management resources relationshipsill. 0.3: NGO capacity framework, focus of the project Zirraraphase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / NGO capacity framework results and learnings 13
  14. 14. PHASE 0 THE ROLE OF A DESIGNER How can I [designer] help Zirrara [client] help them [end users] help themselves? Help can be defined in many ways, depending on the Aalborg question “for whom”. As it has been shown in the Oiartzun previous part, although Zirrara itself has problems, they are completely different from the problems of the end users. zirrara A way of approaching the project is decided. The focus of the project will be in the design of a solution for a specific area, which could constitute a future project of the organization. Once that the service system is designed, it could facilitate the search of financial Ricaurte support (see illustration 0.4).14 ill. 0.4: location of actor involved in the project the role of a designer / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / phase 0
  15. 15. TRIP TO ECUADOR The current activity of Zirrara is focused in Ecuador. This year a trip to Ecuador was also planned for the summer. In order to get an insight of the context and interact and live with the people there, the author joined the trip. Before travelling a first brainstorm on problem areas, and cultural differences was done with members of the group that already had been there. It helped to make a rough picture of the place and to create some expectations. From 13-VII-08 to 29-VII-08 three people went to the town of Ricaurte to volunteer in a school that supports children with special educational needs and disabilities. Although the trip was only 46 days long, it helped to get an understanding on the reality people are living in. Video recording, a diary and a notebook were the way of documenting the data. The information gathered is mainly qualitative. The experience gained makes possible to define target groups characteristics, cultural differences and problem areas, which will be crucial for choosing the direction of the project and the later 15 development of it in Denmark.phase 0 / BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTED / trip to Ecuador
  16. 16. This chapter starts by documenting what was observed during the trip and describes the place, the problem areas, and the target group in order to build the context. Later in the process the case is narrowed down and the problem is formulated. The phasephase 1 ends up with the redaction of the program, which frames the project for the following concept generation and development phases.16
  17. 17. PHASE 1 building the context ECUADOR The Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific. Ecuador straddles the18 equator, from which it takes its name, and has an area of 256,371 square kilometres. Its capital city is Quito and its largest city Guayaquil, which is one of the most important harbours in South America. ill. 1.1: Location of Ricaurte ecuador / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  18. 18. Deteriorating economic performance in 1997-98 As a developing country, Ecuador is nowadays facedculminated in a severe economic and financial crisis in with many socio-economic problems. The population1999. The crisis was precipitated by a number of external is approximately 13 million, of which over 7 million areshocks, including the El Niño weather phenomenon, living below the poverty line.a sharp drop in global oil prices, and internationalemerging market instability. These factors highlighted The public education system is free and attendancethe unsustainable economic policy of the Government. is mandatory from ages 5 to 14. Provision of publicThe Sucre devaluated on 2000 and the U.S. dollar schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizeswas adopted as the official currency of Ecuador to are often very large. However, the Ministry of Educationaddress the ongoing economic crisis. Buoyed by high reports that only 76 percent of children finish six yearsoil prices, the Ecuadorean economy experienced a of schooling [get Quito Ecuador].modest recovery that year. However, 70 percent of thepopulation was estimated to live below the povertyline, more than double the rate in 1995. 20 percent of RICAURTEthe population emigrated after the crisis, often to USA,Spain and Italy. The region of Urdaneta is divided into different towns and Ricaurte is one of them (see illustration 1.1 onEcuador has substantial petroleum resources and rich the previous page for the localization of it on a map).agricultural areas. Half of the labour is used in the Approximately 8000 people live there and most of themprimary sector. Because the country exports primary work in agriculture. The activity of Zirrara is focusedproducts such as oil, bananas, rice, cacao, sugar, flowers here, and the next two chapters will build a picture of,and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can the context, by the description of problem areas andhave a substantial domestic impact. people.phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / ricaurte 19
  19. 19. PHASE 1PHASE 2PHASE 3PHASE 4 working children debt poverty prostitution PROBLEM AREAS cheap food sucre vs. dollar rice & banana bad economic situation The most significant outcome of the trip is the detection of the different opportunities that the specific case desnutrition offers for a project. education private=expensive public=toomany students A mind map is done (see illustration 1.3 on the next eat to kill hunger disabilities not enough teachers page) in order to state all the possible problems and try feed properly vitamins, proteins... to see the relations between them. The problems are illness big and broad which makes the relations between them very complicated. health leave studies difficult diagnosis The following diagram (see illustration 1.2) shows the obstacles that can be found and gives a general idea of expensive medicines hospitals private illiterate the situation. hygiene mosquitos! ignorance slow process (go/diagnosis/buy tools and material/cure) pigs dogs queue cats lots of people lice! pollution rubbish everywhere dirty streets too much sugar flood children picking up in rubbish dumps pesticides by plane no protection of workers coca cola20 bottled water weather sell plastic/cardboard bad not drinkable recicle river laundry/shower ill. 1.2: diagram of problem areas water problem areas / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  20. 20. means of transport spare time kind of bus lots of motorcycles bad roads sports (basket, football) mototaxis few cars internet “socialize” expensive mobile phones increasing number of cabines & cybers dance party/disco public administration burocracy=nightmare music reggaeton slow! bachata salsa stay at home boring!!! differences between ill. 1.3: working on problem areas chauvinism early “marriage” mistreat to have sex women surprise kids alcohol children people’s behaviour to leave home punctuality agressive leave things for later (tomorrow) work need of affection open and social, but feel lonely at home (cook/clean/kids) can’t concentrate at school old at 22 think ahead/save money low salaries 21 importance of appearance (to own a phone even if nothing to eat) jobs 1st sector inferiority complex banana weak houses buildings “victim of society” and that is the way it iscollapse construction nothing can be done to change it school shops phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / problem areas
  21. 21. PHASE 1TARGET GROUPThe following chapter gives an idea about the lifestyleof the people living in Ricaurte (see illustrations1.4/1.5/1.6/1.7 and 1.8 on the next pages). Kevin [ 6] Loves pla with hi ying footba s fri ll field n ends in the ear the s house mall where he live s. Hi Yaha s oldest ira ( siste a 1 child nd clea 3), coo r, re ns ks beca n and th for four use eir d day. he wor ad, H ks hom is mum all e ye l ars a eft [27] go. Magali in a to work22 S he used but now is all dining h ed. Her unemp loy in a d works husban ir shop and pa moto re to sons. ill. 1.4: pictures of potential target group they have target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  22. 22. Yuri [21] Left her studies to get married. Cleaning, cooking and taking care of her son is what she does in a common day. e of t e ag o [32 ] n [1 9] da t th f time a Juli Nixo ent blin a lot o He is eld. t . na fi He w d spen is mum kes bana build a n 4 a with h and li he still s in a o 1 eWork uld like t could ve t hom talkati alk, bu upport. H e wo where he fe. ry or a w dies s e i ve g f hous with his w bo li ve goin s some d nee phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / target group 23 ill. 1.5: pictures of potential target group
  23. 23. PHASE 1 a [23 ] her teac Melis rks as a r it at the 8] o cio [3 She w studies fo of his Mauri ile our led and wh ity. F b xi ivers are disa tion to-ta un s a mo anging ers ten a Works likes h broth pecial at is s . r and friends. H drive with need edicines na m out orks i and wife w ry shop. groce Clemen cia [61 ] She ha d1 now sh 1 children a e loves nd of her g ta rand ch king care has no ildren. sp Sh but she ecial hobbie e has ple s24 spare t nty of ime. ill. 1.6: pictures of potential target group target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  24. 24. Néstor [21] He is the last of 11 brother and sisters. Eats at school. He 2 year s old and is only 9kg, and has a phycomotor disabilit y y[44] s in anc row ns, in tg w because he is N tha o d. undernourished. co, sband e roa co hu s th Sell her nd by eld le sta fi t t a li [46] nd José ced a divor sons. 25 tly recen f his Was ith one o uction. w r lives on const s Work ill. 1.7: pictures of potential target groupphase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / target group
  25. 25. PHASE 1 ] [49 los Car h wit ou ntry nd he c ns a own s in t wo so lls in t Live wife, t He se paya a hi gther. and p te. s au acao ltiva d c cu the t they th a Tito Wor [63] k and s at th sha e bu his s r s He i on a es his h statio s nd g ouse n like very ta rand c with Verónica [25] s fo enjo otba lkative hildren . coo ys eati ll. He r and She is a therapist for deaf ked ng, eall . but y nev children. Is very good er friend of other teachers, but never meets them outside the school.26ill. 1.8: pictures of potential target group target group / BUILDING THE CONTEXT / phase 1
  26. 26. general characteristics As in every culture, there are some behaviours that are quite general among Ecuadoreans and in other South American countries. Being late is very common. People arrive two hours late to events and it is not seen as disrespectful to others. It could also be mentioned that the appearance is very important. They tend to show higher economic level that they have by wearing nice clothes or having motorbike, mobile phone and so on. Some teenagers leave studies and get married early. un Once they get big responsibilities (job, children, etc.) d they start feeling “old” and the social life is somehowpeople’s behaviour tar ers restricted. Although big cities are changing in this ge ta aspect, in the town of Ricaurte and in many others women don’t usually work outside their house. punctuality leave things for later (”tomorrow”) t g nd open and social, but feel lonely ro in old at 22 think ahead/save money up g importance of appearance (to own a phone even if nothing to eat) inferiority complex “victim of society” (and that is the way it is, nothing can be done to change it)phase 1 / BUILDING THE CONTEXT /target group 27
  27. 27. PHASE 1 narrowing down n be fu working children poverty an debt gc kincheap food prostitution CHOOSING FOCUS coo rice & banana sucre vs. dollar bad economic situation food d desnutrition out of schoolprivate=expensive ee eat to kill hunger education The diagram (see illustration 1.9) highlights the problem areas that n feed properly public=toomany students ic vitamins, proteins... disabilities offer more interesting opportunities not enough teachers as for the development of a project and the relevant issues related to them. In the following pages the problems are b illness further explained. health leave studies difficult diagnosis expensive medicines hospitals hab private illiterate its hygiene slow process (go/diagnosis/buy tools and material/cure) mosquitos! pigs ignorance dogs queue cats lots of people lice! pollution rubbish everywhere dirty streets too much sugar flood children picking up in rubbish dumps pesticides by plane no protection of workers coca cola bottled water weather28 sell plastic/cardboard bad not drinkable recicle river laundry/shower water ill. 1.9: diagram of chosen problem areas choosing focus /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  28. 28. socia l inte ract means of transport spare time ion kind of bus bad roads lots of motorcycles sports (basket, football) mototaxis few cars internet “socialize” expensive mobile phones increasing number of cabines & cybers dance party/disco music public administration oney, reggaeton n burocracy=nightmare mo oint bachatano m salsa slow! for b n no fustay at home com ng p oth eti boring!!! differences between early “marriage” me mistreat chauvinism to have sex women surprise kids alcohol children to leave home agressive work need of affection at home (cook/clean/kids) can’t concentrate at school low salaries 29 jobs banana 1st sector collapse weak houses buildings construction school shops phase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / choosing focus
  29. 29. PHASE 1 INTERPRETATION OF THE The volunteering was done in a school of “special education”, that provides appropriate education to In relation with food, different issues were detected. Drinkable water doesn’t come from the tap, and it must CHOSEN FOCUS disabled children according to their residual capabilities. The opportunity to work with physical handicap and be bought. This makes people buy other drinks, usually soft drinks rich in sugar, which mixed with a not well- mental handicap was given. Some of the children were balanced diet are very unhealthy. Rice and banana are During the trip done before the project started, the blind, deaf, had down syndrome or had some kind of the basis of every meal. They give the feeling of being problems previously mentioned were observed. disability that was not classified (often because of the full fast but without providing them with all nutrients lack of money for the tests). necessary for long-term survival. The aim was to experience the different aspects trying to feel as close as possible to the way they live. The The index of disabled children in the area is notoriously Apart from the fact that they don’t have money enough interaction with local people was very rich due to the higher in the region of Los Rios, where Ricaurte is located, to buy the ingredients, they don’t feed properly because openness of Ecuadoreans and the fact that it was the than in other places. The school has 180 students, they don’t know how. Most of the people does not know 4th year members of the group were there, and it gave coming from towns nearby. The three objectives of neither that the body needs proteins, carbohydrates, a chance to get a broader understanding of it. the school are Nutrition, Health and Education, in that vitamins, etc. nor that the amount must be balanced. order. With the help of Innfa (Instituto Nacional de la The Hospitals were seen from different points of view. Niñez y la Familia), [Innfa], the school provides food to The social life of Ecuadoreans is centred in birthday First as a visitor, then as companion of a child and in the all the students. parties and family events. They are very important and end as a patient. This showed that health care systems food, drinks and music are a must of the celebrations. are far from the social security model of other countries. Agriculture is the main economic activity and lots of Other than those special days, the social life is reserved The process is too slow. There are long queues and pesticides are used for better results. Fumigations mainly for young people who go to discotheques. Men once the doctor sees the patient, he makes a list of the are done by plane, affecting people working without who work and their wives that spend their time at home material he needs to examine the patient. Then those protection. This seems to be the causes of some do not meet with other people spontaneously. This is materials must be bought and wait the queue again. disabilities. Malnutrition in the first years of life lowers one of the reasons why they use to feel lonely. There are Medicines are expensive and usually people can’t afford defences, which are not enough to fight illnesses, and no places where people usually meet in Ricaurte. the whole treatment and they buy some of the pills (It is end up bringing disabilities.30 possible to buy pills by units instead of full packages). Other schools were also visited, and lots of concentration problems come from nutrition, because a hungry child can not learn. interpretation of the chosen focus /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  30. 30. PROBLEM FORMULATION problem statement (PS) The project started with a broad question: How can I design a PSS that contributes to creatingWhat can I, as a designer, provide Zirrara in order to push the awareness of the importance of an adequate diet, development of it as an NGO? providing people with the knowledge that will enable them to make healthier decisions based on their available resources, in a social environment? Before any project is started in a developing country, financial support is needed. The current situation of Zirrara makes it difficult to start any activity. In order to search for sponsors or financial support, a project and a plan must be presented, informing about all the relevant issues. For this reason, designing a specific solution seems to be an appropriate way of reaching the goal. Taking the town Ricaurte (Ecuador) as a case gives the opportunity to get information about the target group and the social context, due to the already existing contact with the place and the possibility of experiencing and getting close to the reality they are living in. It is also probable that in the future Zirrara continues with the work started there. 31 After the analysis of the context and all the documentation made on phase 1, the focus is chosen and the problem will be narrowed down. phase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / problem formulation
  31. 31. PHASE 1 interpretation of the PS This chapter gives a further explanation in the concepts that the Problem Statement mentions. healthier decisions social environment create awareness of an adequate diet Enable them to chose wether X is better than Z or In this context interaction between people is very Refers to explaining the relations between nutrition and cooking the same thing in a way of the other is better, important. People tend to leave their social life aside health (positive-negative effects of eating properly), always from a nutritional point of view. Better choices once they get married ( 18-24) and tend to think that in order to understand the importance of it. The towards physical and mental well-being. there is no place for entertainment in their lives. It adequateness of a diet is measured in relation to the should be an enjoyable activity , not an obligation, just effects on the body (physical/mental) and contains all their available resources something they do for fun. A meaningful situation that nutrients necessary for a long-term survival. It has to be coherent with what they have within reach. facilitates relation between individuals. knowledge Even if X is very healthy, expensive solutions should be avoided. What can be done with what they already people Refers to practical and useful knowledge. In this case, have? At this point of the project, the target group is broad. All knowledge relevant for their daily life. It could be of the inhabitants of Ricaurte could benefit from such a information about the origin of food, how to cook, concept. As it has been explained before, lot of different variety of dishes, hygiene habits, etc. but always in a level reasons could make the target group be interested in that people without higher studies could understand. such a concept.32 problem formulation /NARROWING DOWN / phase 1
  32. 32. Choosing problem areas led us to define some user needs, which the Problem Statement aims to cover. It can be said at firs sight that the PS refers to basic needs such as food and health. But it is also important that, once the physiological and safety needs are covered, a move could be made to upper levels of Maslow’s pyramid. It is very interesting that people develop self-esteem, feels respected and morality gets recognition from others. The social environment creativity should facilitate this. spontaneity problem solving The system will fulfil people’s needs in different levels lack of prejudice (see illustration 1.10). acceptance of facts SELF-ACTUALIZATION self-esteem/conficence achievement/ respect ESTEEM friendship/family/sexual intimacy BELONGING security of health/family/employment/resources 33 SAFETY breathing/food/water/sex/sleep/homeostasis/excretion PHYSIOLOGICAL ill. 1.10: maslow’s pyramid of needsphase 1 / NARROWING DOWN / problem formulation
  33. 33. PHASE 1 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem end of phase SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS There are some general requirements that should be taken into account for the solution to be successful: · Future users must be part of the start up of the project. They need to be and feel part of it in order to the later development of it. · It has to be created in a way that it will be possible to keep functioning by Ecuadoreans. It has to be sustainable in the sense of not need of support from Zirrara (people, money, etc.) in the future. · The aim of it is to help them help themselves. It is not giving something “for free”. · It is not easy to attract Ecuadoreans to new and unknown things. It has to be a meaningful solution which gives visible value to people. · The start up of the project must be cheap, in a way that it does not include high technology equipment, so that Zirrara can afford it and it is coherent with the reality of the town.34 system requirements / END OF PHASE / phase 1
  34. 34. PROGRAM The program is written as a sum up of the phase 1. It is presented in a separate document that has been added to the CD [appendix C_program, English]. The following ones are the contents of the document: PROBLEM FORMULATION VISION OBJECTIVES CONTENT METHODOLOGIES DELIMITATIONS ASSUMPTIONS TIMETABLEphase 1 / END OF PHASE / program 35
  35. 35. The following chapter embraces the concept generation phase. In first place it describes the behaviour of the system through the Value Based Methodology. Secondly the proposals generated through the idea generation process are explained. And finally,phase 2 the evaluation of them is described and the concept chosen to be further developed is shown.36
  36. 36. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem system’s behaviour VALUE BASED value mission METHODOLOGY help to selfhelp guide, show some ways let others do In order to find the core values of the system, the Vision Based Model [Tollestrup, 2007] has been used. After enjoyable social experience doing some brainstorms and mind maps, the most entertainment, fun suitable value mission and interaction vision have been chosen and represented in the Lerdahl’s pyramid (see illustration 2.1 on next page). interaction vision The system should be designed keeping the upper open to everybody level of the pyramid in mind, and it should be perceived welcoming, no need of invitation according to those key words. like going to a park game like rules, reward, play by teams like a win-win game easy to use useful, handy, easy to use, fast understanding, intuitive38 value based methodology / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / phase 2
  37. 37. t ac str ab help to selfhelp enjoyable social experience VALUE MISSION phylosophy SPIRITUAL intention open to everybody soft game like easy to use INTERACTION VISION story CONTEXTUAL expression PRODUCT PRINCIPALS concept PRINCIPAL concept e ret hard nc co 39 PRODUCT DETAILS elements MATERIAL product kinesthetic visual ill. 2.1: value mission and interaction visionphase 2 / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / value based methodology
  38. 38. PHASE 2 the church is in front of us 1 WALKsurroundings describe WITH THEM give useful references to find their way around [generate relevant knowledge] 2 they can do itTHEthemselves I think we are in front of the FOLLOW IN DISTANCE yeah! church make sure bySCENARIO assist when dangerInstead of using metaphors and images, the followingscenario (see illustration 2.2) has been seen to be themost appropriate way of explaining the behaviour ofthe system.It explains the steps followed instructing blind people 3 LET THEM DO IT(from the school where the volunteering was done) in I am in frontorder to help them help themselves to walk around the of the churchtown, being self-sufficient.40 ill. 2.2: scenario of system behaviour scenario / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / phase 2
  39. 39. It is very important that the knowledge gained was There were relevant details in the way of proceeding All those little details and the scenario picture a similar remembered, so a tool was provided and how to use which have similarities with the desired system’s behaviour to the one that the system should show. First it was taught them. A 3D map of the town was done behaviour: of all, at the operational level, when the system is already with different materials and textures (see illustration working. But also it refers to the relation between 2.3). This way, the information would be remembered It was not allowed neither to hold their hands nor to Zirrara and the Ecuadoreans when implementing the or consulted before going to the streets without walk ahead (because they could guide by the sound of whole system. It has to be done with them, then make assistance. steps). We showed how to protect in case of danger. We sure they can manage by themselves, and later leave were not going for a walk with them ,we were helping them do it. them be prepared to go for a walk by themselves (help to selfhelp). Different walks were tried out and better results were reached doing them by couples than individually. We all talked about interesting topics in which they were interested. Definitely it was more fun, and having an enjoyable experience at the same time of learning turned out to be more effective.main street As complementary activity we learnt Braille from them. This reciprocal learning-teaching was very appropriate for self-actualization of both parts. The practice had the aim of showing them the town, but also became in a process of showing blind people to the people in the town. It turned out to be very positive, ironmonger’s shop because it facilitated the interaction between blind 41 people and inhabitants of Ricaurte, which was not seen before. ill. 2.3: 3D map phase 2 / SYSTEM’S BEHAVIOUR / scenario
  40. 40. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendrem concept generation PROCESS At the beginning of the phase crazy ideas were generated based on solving the problem statement (see illustration 2.4). Several brainstorms were done and ideas were represented by fast sketches. Some were selected and discussed with other groups and the supevisor. problem statement ideas !42 ill. 2.4: idea generation process / CONCEPT GENERATION / phase 2
  41. 41. PROPOSALS After evaluating the ideas, and choosing some of them, the proposals were given a second thought. The following pages explain the concepts presented in the status seminar (see illustrations 2.5/2.6/2.7).phase 2 / CONCEPT GENERATION / proposals 43
  42. 42. PHASE 2 hello my name is Heniam, cor si. Giam dit atie te euipis doloreet, sum ilissi exer autat ad tinit ing ex et iriuscipisit ut ea facincillan velessit dolessi. At. Iliquam, sumsandignim iurem quisl ing ex etum doleseniam in ulput ad tat laor sed dolessequat adipsustin volorperil ilis eummolorper in eu feugait loreros nulputpat veriure delendremconcept1[arrange-meet-learn-cook-eat] day 1This concept is about arranging groups of peopleinterested in eating together with others. A timetableis planned and they meet each day at somebody’splace. There is an assistant teaching how to cook andall of them are part of it. The costs of the ingredientsareshared among all the participants.This way all of them learn from each other while creatinga nice atmosphere for talking and strengthening theirfriendship.There is no need of a common meeting point due tothe fact that they meet at their places, each time in adifferent one, so the cost of this system is very low.44 day 2 ill. 2.5: concept 1 proposals / CONCEPT GENERATION / phase 2
  43. 43. concept2[moving kitchen]This concept is a moving educational unit, that could bea truck or a big bus, specially designed for the educationabout nutrition and food.Inside the unit there are interactive games, informationpanels and a kitchen. This way people entering the unitlearn, cook a little bit and eat.Once every week the unit goes to another town, this wayreaching a lot of people from many different places.phase 2 / CONCEPT GENERATION / proposals ill. 2.6: concept 2 45

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