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Chapter 14 dessler 12-ce_ppt_ch14

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Chapter 14 dessler 12-ce_ppt_ch14

  1. 1. Chapter 14: Occupational Health and Safety Occupational Health and Safety | 14-1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Dessler, Chhinzer, Cole Human Resources Management in Canada Canadian Twelfth Edition
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • EXPLAIN WHMIS legislation. • ANALYZE in detail three basic causes of accidents. Occupational Health and Safety | 14-2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • ANALYZE the responsibilities and rights of employees and employers under occupational health and safety legislation.
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes • EXPLAIN why employee wellness programs are becoming increasingly popular. • DISCUSS six major employee health issues at work and RECOMMEND how they should be handled. Occupational Health and Safety | 14-3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • DESCRIBE how accidents at work can be prevented.
  4. 4. Strategic Importance of Occupational Health and Safety • in 2007 there were 1,055 deaths and 317,524 injuries resulting from accidents at work • workplace accidents can be prevented Occupational Health and Safety | 14-4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • investment in disability and wellness programs create bottom-line returns
  5. 5. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Legislation • intended to minimize work-related accidents and illnesses • laws fall into three categories: • general health and safety rules • rules for specific industries (e.g. mining) • rules related to specific hazards (e.g. asbestos) Occupational Health and Safety | 14-5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • based on principle of joint responsibility between workers and employers
  6. 6. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Sample OHS Legislation Occupational Health and Safety | 14-6
  7. 7. Employer Responsibilities • take every precaution to ensure the health and safety of workers (due diligence) • • • • filing government accident reports maintaining records ensuring that safety rules are enforced posting safety notices and legislative information Occupational Health and Safety | 14-7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • specific duties include:
  8. 8. Employees Responsibilities and Rights • includes wearing protective clothing and equipment, and reporting contravention of the law • basic rights: • to know about workplace safety hazards • to participate in the OHS process • to refuse unsafe work Occupational Health and Safety | 14-8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety, and that of co-workers
  9. 9. Joint Health and Safety Committees • usually consists of between 2 and 12 members, at least half of whom represent workers • in small workplaces, one health and safety representative may be required Occupational Health and Safety | 14-9 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • non-adversarial atmosphere where management and labour can work together to ensure a safe and healthy workplace
  10. 10. The Supervisor’s Role in Safety • ensure that workers comply with occupational health and safety regulations • safety-minded managers must aim to instill in their workers the desire to work safely Occupational Health and Safety | 14-10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • advise and instruct workers about safety
  11. 11. Enforcement of OHS Laws • periodic government inspections of workplace • “corporate killing”: a criminal offence, failure to ensure an appropriate level of safety in the workplace Occupational Health and Safety | 14-11 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • penalties consist of fines and/or jail terms
  12. 12. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) • control of toxic substances • labelling of hazardous material containers • material safety data sheets (MSDS) • employee training Occupational Health and Safety | 14-12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • three components:
  13. 13. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved WHMIS Symbols Occupational Health and Safety | 14-13 continued
  14. 14. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved WHMIS Symbols Occupational Health and Safety | 14-14
  15. 15. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved MSDS Sample Occupational Health and Safety | 14-15
  16. 16. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved MSDS Sample Occupational Health and Safety | 14-16
  17. 17. OHS and Other Legislation • other legislation covers: • may lead to confusion: • is the right to wear a ceremonial knife more important than the safety of other employees? • are workplace fights or sexual harassment a safety hazard? Occupational Health and Safety | 14-17 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • human rights • labour relations • employment standards
  18. 18. What Causes Accidents? • unsafe conditions • equipment, procedures, storage, illumination, ventilation • job itself, work schedule, psychological climate • unsafe acts • carrying/lifting, operating speed, avoiding safety devices/equipment, horseplay, quarrelling, etc. Occupational Health and Safety | 14-18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • chance occurrences • beyond management control
  19. 19. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Risk from Workplace Violence Occupational Health and Safety | 14-19
  20. 20. Personal Characteristics Human traits related to accident repetition: • vision • age • perceptual versus motor skills Occupational Health and Safety | 14-20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • literacy
  21. 21. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Personal Factors Influencing Accidents Occupational Health and Safety | 14-21
  22. 22. How to Prevent Accidents • reduce unsafe conditions: • reduce unsafe acts: • • • • selection testing top-management commitment training and education positive reinforcement Occupational Health and Safety | 14-22 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • job design, remove physical hazards • ensure safety precautions are taken
  23. 23. Controlling Workers’ Compensation Costs • before the accident: • after the accident: • • • • provide first aid and ensure medical attention show interest in the injured worker document/file accident reports encourage speedy return to work Occupational Health and Safety | 14-23 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • accident prevention measures
  24. 24. OHS Challenges in Canada • substance abuse • job-related stress • workplace toxins • workplace smoking • viral pandemic • violence at work Occupational Health and Safety | 14-24 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • repetitive strain injuries
  25. 25. Substance Abuse and the Law • human rights law (disability) vs. OHS laws (due diligence requirement) 1. rationally connected to performance of the job 2. adopted in honest and good-faith belief that it is necessary for fulfillment of work-related purpose 3. reasonably necessary to the accomplishment of the work-related purpose Occupational Health and Safety | 14-25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • testing is only legal if test is:
  26. 26. Substance Abuse Testing • random testing is illegal • forbid drugs/alcohol in workplace • require testing for “safety-sensitive” jobs • require testing “for cause” or “post-incident” • positive tests must result in accommodation • immediate termination is not generally justifiable Occupational Health and Safety | 14-26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • employers can:
  27. 27. Dealing with Substance Abuse • look for signs of impairment • refer troubled employees to employee assistance program (EAP) • techniques for dealing with substance abuse: • • • • discipline discharge in-house counselling referral to outside agency Occupational Health and Safety | 14-27 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • make written record of observed behaviour
  28. 28. Job-Related Stress • high demand job • high levels of mental and physical effort Occupational Health and Safety | 14-28 Personal Factors: • Type A personalities • patience, tolerance for ambiguity • self-esteem • health and exercise, work/sleep patterns • non-job-related problems Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Environmental Factors:
  29. 29. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Warning Signs of Job Stress Occupational Health and Safety | 14-29
  30. 30. Reducing Job Stress • Employee can: • Employer/supervisor can: • • • • offer an EAP identify symptoms of stress ensure fair treatment permit employee to have more control Occupational Health and Safety | 14-30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • get more sleep, eat better, take vacation, meditate, find a more suitable job, get counselling, organize activities
  31. 31. Burnout • avoiding burnout: • • • • • break patterns get away from it all periodically reassess goals think about work reduce stress Occupational Health and Safety | 14-31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • total depletion caused by excessive striving to reach unrealistic work-related goals
  32. 32. Workers’ Compensation and Stress-Related Disability Claims • limited or no coverage for chronic stress, in some jurisdictions • attitude is that stress has multiple causes Occupational Health and Safety | 14-32 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • benefits for post-traumatic stress from specific and sudden workplace incidents
  33. 33. Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI) • activity-related soft-tissue injuries • • • • advise and train workers about RSI’s identify and assess RSI risk factors encourage reporting of RSI symptoms early use ergonomic interventions • ergonomics: • the art of fitting work equipment to the individual Occupational Health and Safety | 14-33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • employers must:
  34. 34. continued Occupational Health and Safety | 14-34 reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Ergonomics Example
  35. 35. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Ergonomics Example Occupational Health and Safety | 14-35
  36. 36. Workplace Toxins and Smoking Toxins: • cancer is leading cause of work-related deaths Smoking: • smoking is banned in most workplaces • Health Canada is urging employers to implement smoking cessation programs Occupational Health and Safety | 14-36 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • new chemicals and substances are introduced into the workplace without adequate testing
  37. 37. Viral Pandemic • many organizations do not have a plan • HR will be relied upon to respond to a pandemic: • telecommuting • compensation for absent employees • occupational health for onsite employees Occupational Health and Safety | 14-37 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • impact of a pandemic will be absenteeism, estimated at 35 percent
  38. 38. Violence at Work • human rights laws prohibit forms of harassment and bullying • employers may be liable on the basis of negligence or failure to respond to violent acts Occupational Health and Safety | 14-38 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • legislation covers physical violence; some jurisdictions include psychological/emotional violence
  39. 39. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Reports of Abuse by Nurses on Patients Occupational Health and Safety | 14-39
  40. 40. Prevention and Control of Workplace Violence • identify jobs with high risk of violence • institute workplace violence policy • heighten security measures • provide workplace violence training • improve employee screening Occupational Health and Safety | 14-40 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • create a healthy work environment
  41. 41. Employee Wellness Programs • measurable outcomes related to productivity, recruitment/retention, and profit • often include stress management, nutrition/weight management, smoking cessation programs, tai chi, heart health/physical fitness programs, ergonomics, etc. Occupational Health and Safety | 14-41 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. • proactive approach to employee health and well-being
  42. 42. reserved. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved Employee Wellness Program Benefits Occupational Health and Safety | 14-42

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