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Utilization of intestines as animal casings


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Utilization of intestines as animal casings

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Utilization of intestines as animal casings

  1. 1. UTILIZATION OF INTESTINES Dr. Irshad A, MVSc Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Animal Casings  India is a major exporter of animal casings like cattle casings, guts for animal casings, sheep casings and casings of other animals.  Indian animal casings - high quality with excellent calibration and shining colour .  The major destinations for exports are Vietnam, Italy, South Africa, Portugal, Germany, Denmark and Spain.
  3. 3. Animal Casings The country has exported 260.15 MT of Animal Casing products to world for the worth of Rs. 19.32 crores during the year 2014-15. Major Export Destinations (2014-15) : South Africa, Turkey, Portugal, Lebanon andTunisia. The individual products under this sub-head are as below: Cattle Casings Sheep Casings Casings of other animals Bladders and stomach of animals
  4. 4. Animal Casings Exports From India
  5. 5. Animal Casings
  6. 6. Intestine of domestic animals as slaughterhouse by products Non edible use: surgical catguts, sports guts, musical strings and collagen sheets. Edible use: When part of the processed intestine used as food container called casing
  7. 7. Casings Definition:- Alimentary tract of sheep, goat, cattle and pigs, sometimes urinary bladder when used as food containers are called Casings. Or Casings are soft cylindrical containers used to contain sausage mixes
  8. 8. Types of Casings • Animal intestines derived from slaughtering Natural origin • Cellulose, • Collagen or • Synthetic materials Artificial
  9. 9. Natural Casings Natural casings are mainly derived from small and large intestines from sheep, goats and pigs, but also from cattle and horses.They 1. Are strong enough to resist the pressure produced by filling them with sausage mix 2. Are permeable to water vapour and gases, thus allowing fillings to dry 3. Absorb smoke for additional flavour and preservation 4. Expand or shrink firmly attached to the sausage mix and 5. Can be closed at the ends by tying or clipping.
  10. 10. Characters:  Variable strength & length  Low cost  Best smoke penetration  Stored in salted condition  Most tender  Breakage during processing  Suspected quality (hole/tear, microbial)
  11. 11. Characteristics of casings Natural Collagen Cellulose Refrigeration storage Yes Yes No Degree of tenderness Most tender Less tender Peeled Break during processing Most likely Less likely Least likely Cost Low High Low Soaking & flushing before use Yes No Sometimes soaking Ease of smoke penetration Most penetration Less penetration Least penetration Best machinability Least Less Best Best product yield Least Less Best Printability None Limited Best Ease of plant storage Least storage Less storage Best storage Strength Variable High and Uniform Good and Uniform Length Variable Standardized Standardized Microbial quality Suspected Good Good
  12. 12. FACTORS INFLUENCETHE QUALITY  Health of the animal, Species, age, breed, Fodder consumed, Conditions under which the animal was raised, Portion of the intestinal tract utilized, And how the product is handled and Processed after the animal is slaughtered etc.
  13. 13. INTESTINE AS RAW MATERIAL FOR CASINGS I. Mucose membrane with finger-like outgrowths for enlarged surface area II. Submucose membrane, firm-elastic layer mainly of connective tissue III. Muscular layer, the circular internal one, the outside one longitudinal IV. Serose membrane thin coating covering the abdominal cavity from inside and surrounding all organs. IV III II I
  14. 14. Terminology used in Casing Industry Casings Generally refers to sheep and goat intestine alone Rounds Casings from small intestine of cattle mainly, but also from sheep, goat or pig Runners Casings form small intestine of cattle Middles Casings from large intestine of cattle or sometimes pig Weasand Casings from the oesophagus of all species Bung Casings from the caecum Maws or Stomachs Casings from cleaned pig stomach Chitterlings Casings from part of large intestines of pigs.
  18. 18. Cleanliness: Clean & sound, stain free, devoid of fat, parasite nodules, ulcer , defects Strength: Strong enough to withstand pressure during filling, stuffing & processing Length: Standardized (sheep & hog-91.4 m, beef round-180 m) Caliber (thickness): Sheep-14 mm, hog-35 mm, beef-35 mm Curing: Two types, salted & cleaned, some time it may be dried Packaging: Mainly wooden and plastic container FACTORS INFLUENCING THE QUALITY OF CASING
  19. 19. APPROXIMATE LENGTH OF CASING FROM ANIMALS Species Type Length In meters In feet Cattle Runner 25-40 90-135 Middle 5.5-7.5 20-25 Bung 1-1.5 4-4.5 Weasand 5.5 18-20 Bladder 20-35 cm wide 8-15 inches wide Sheep Round 27 90 Goat Round 22 75
  20. 20. Storage of casings  Sheep and Goat casings are generally stored wet and salted– called salted sheep casings/salted goat casings  Cattle casings are generally dried in processing and sprinkled with insecticide—dried cattle casings  A. For salted sheep / goat casings, 1 hank= 91.4 m  B. For dried cattle casings , 1 Hank= 180m in case of runner and 90 m in case of middles
  21. 21. 1. Casings should be manufactured from gut of healthy animals 2. Intestines for processing should not have ulcers and heavy parasitic infestation with nodules. 3. Sanitary handling conditions should be maintained from slaughter till final packaging. 4. The product should be clean with good colour and without objectionable odour. 5. It should have proper length and be sufficiently cured
  22. 22. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION Removal Pulling/running(separation of mesenteric membrane) Chilling (at 10º C) Stripping Flushing Fatting (removal of fat) Fermentation (for 1-2 days, at 20ºC) Turning (turn inside out) Sliming (removal of mucous lining) Measuring (in inflated condition) Inspection & grading (checking of colour, cleanliness, pin hole, cuts etc.) Preservation (sheep, goat-in wet salted; cattle-dried) Packing (tin cans lined with polyethylene)
  23. 23. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 1. Removing the intestine from the animal- the intestinal tract should be removed carefully without any damage or cuts. A ligature is made to check the escape of contents. 2. Running or Pulling - the intestines are detached from loose mesentery attachment and fat. Pulling of sheep intestine
  24. 24. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 3. Chilling- the green intestines may be chilled at 10oC if the processing is not possible immediately 4. Stripping - The intestinal contents are stripped from the intestines either by hand or by machine under a spray of water, which washes away the contents as they are expressed. The water spray also serves to clean the casing. Stripping
  25. 25. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 5. Flushing- tap water can be forced through the gut in order to flush off the remaining intestinal contents 6. Fatting- all fat adhering to the intestines must be removed. Scrapping in case of sheep and goat intestines can do it, whereas in buffalo, it may require tearing, pulling and even use of knife or Brushes. Loosening of tissue layers using a small-scale manual casing cleaning machine
  26. 26. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 7. Fermentation- the intestines are allowed to ferment for 1-2 days in winter by immersion in water at 20o C. This facilitates easy removal of mucous membrane and slime due to bacterial action. However, in summer little salt can be added to prevent over fermentation. 8. Turning- buffalo and cattle intestines only are required to be turned inside out for efficient sliming.
  27. 27. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 9. Sliming -It is the removal of tissue layers done with the help of sliming stick or plastic knife or shells. The process becomes easier if casings are dipped in a sliming solution containing 0.2% Sodium pyrophosphate and 1% sodium chloride for 15-20 minutes.
  28. 28. a = unprocessed casing b1 = processed casing (slimed and cleaned) b2 = processed casing (slimed and cleaned and being flushed with water) c = "slime" removed from inside of casing d = tissue layers removed from outside
  29. 29. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 10. Measuring- the width and length of the casing are measured. 11.Inspection and grading- the casings are inspected for cleanliness,colour, pin holes, cuts, blood spots etc. 12. Preservation- Stored overnight in ice and 15 to 20% saturated salt solution. Cured - rubbing with salt; allow to set for 1 week.
  30. 30. STEPS IN CASING PREPARATION 13. Packing:- Containers such as barrels or boxes preferably of hard wood should be used with recommended insecticide for dried cattle casings. For wet salted sheep casings metal tins, which are completely lined from inside with food grade polyethylene are used for storage and transport. 14. Resalting
  32. 32. Hard wooden box used for dried cattle casings
  33. 33. Required equipments  Plastic/wooden scrapper  Gut cleaning table  Fermentation & chilling tank  Stripper with rubber roller  Bronze crusher
  34. 34. DEFECTS COMMON IN CASING Dull colour: grayish or greenish instead of white or milky Nodules: it may be due to round worm in intestine Holes & laceration: formed due to negligence or rough handling Salt burn: due to long storage in salt or due to loose packing,leaving air inside Defective grading Twisting of gut (kink) Black spot (due to bacterial purification) Cicatrices (scar of healed up wound)
  35. 35. ARTIFICIAL CASING Artificial casings are made of collagen, cellulose, or even plastic and may not be edible.Artificial casings from animal collagen can be edible, depending on the origin of the raw material. Collagen Cellulose Plastic casings
  36. 36. CELLULOSE CASINGS Cellulose casings are usually classified into three types: 1. Small cellulose, 2. large cellulose and 3. Fibrous (paper impregnated with cellulose). Cellulose casings are prepared from a special grade of cotton lintels, which are solubilized, and regenerated into casings of any desired like. A clear cellulose casing is commonly used for sausage, which is not coloured or which is to be coloured by adding dyes to the water in the cooker. Plain cellulose casings are available in a variety of sizes with stretch and shrink characteristics (similar to those of natural casings).
  38. 38. COLLAGEN CASING Collagen casings are mainly produced from the collagen in beef or pig hides, and the bones and tendons. It can also be derived from poultry and fish. The latest generation of collagen casings are usually more tender than natural casings but do not exhibit the “snap” or “bite” of natural casing sausages. The biggest volume of collagen casings are edible, but a special form of thicker collagen casings usually peeled off Collagen casings are less expensive to use, give better weight and size control, and are easier to run when compared to natural casings.
  40. 40. PLASTIC CASINGS Plastic casings are extruded like most other plastic products generally made from polymers such as Polyamide, Polypropylene or Polyethylene Polyamide (Nylon) plastic casings are the most commonly used in production of cooked sausages