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The efficient disposal of effluent from meat plants and meat-processing works is important because of the possible pollution of water – courses. Hence an effluent treatment plant (ETP) is necessary in all modern abattoirs/meat plants. The objective of effluent treatment is to produce a product that can be safely discharged into a waterway or sewer in compliance with the recommended limits for discharge.

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  1. 1. Veterinary Public HealthIndian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagar, BareillyWELCOMEWELCOMEByByIrshad. AIrshad. AMVSc ScholarMVSc ScholarLivestock Product TechnologyLivestock Product TechnologyEmail:- irshad2k6@gmail.comEmail:- irshad2k6@gmail.comMeat Hygiene
  2. 2. ..EFFLUENTEFFLUENTEffluent is an out flowing of water or gas from anatural body of water, or from a human-madestructure.The meat industry uses large quantities of water.Water used in abattoir for cleaning purposeEfficient disposal of effluent is important because ofthe possible pollution of water
  3. 3. Effluents in meat processing plants originateEffluents in meat processing plants originatefromfrom
  4. 4. EFFLUENT=EFFLUENT=Potent pollutant sourceContent high amount of organic matter Solid (up to 10%) and semisolid form organicmatter (blood, stomach content, manure etc.) Should not release directly to environment withouttreatment
  5. 5. Effluents can be divided into four categories:oNon-toxic and not directly pollutant but liable to disturbthe physical nature of the receiving water.oNon-toxic and pollutant due to organic matter content ofhigh oxygen demand.oToxic - containing highly poisonous materials.oToxic and pollutant due to organic matter of highoxygen demand and toxic in addition.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE OF TREATMENT Eliminate threat of diseases Convert the effluent into a readily reusable resource Conservation of water and nutrient Produces a product that can be safely discharged intowater or swear.
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT Content readily biodegradable organic matter (measured interm of BOD) Content grease, fat and oil, tend to coat system Organic matter reduces oxygen transfer Nitrogen present in 3 form, 1. Organic N2,2. Ammonia salt,3.Dissolved ammonia gas Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria Comparatively high temperatureTurbidOff colorDissolved gas (methane, So2)
  8. 8. POLLUTION PARAMETERSBiochemical oxygen demand (BOD) - measure of thereadily biodegradable material in an effluent. It is amount of oxygen consumed by the aerobicorganisms at a temperature of 20oC for a period of 5days.It is generally used to determine the concentration ofpollutant remaining after treatment and prior todischarge.
  9. 9. POLLUTION PARAMETERSChemical oxygen demand (COD)- is a measure ofthe oxygen required for the oxidation of all organicmatter in a known volume of effluent.The COD is often used as a cheaper and moreaccurate.Used for determining the oxygen requirements of aneffluent before treatment.
  10. 10. POLLUTION PARAMETERSChloride (Cl) -a measure of salinity.Dry matter (DM) or total solids (TS) is the finalweight of a known amount of effluent that has beendried to a constant weight at 105°C over 24 h.It is measured in g/litre or mg/litreGrease, fat and oil (FOG):-oimmiscibility substances with a lower specificgravity, which cause them to float.oAffect further treatment systemsoMeasured by extraction with hexane or Freon.
  11. 11. POLLUTION PARAMETERSpH - measure of the acidity or alkalinity Nitrogen (N)/Total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN):Measure of total nitrogennitrates which are found in aerobically treatedeffluents.Ammonia is toxic to aquatic life; the maximumdischarge to sewers is 40 mg / litre.High nitrate in natural waters encourage algae andother plant growth.The maximum level in potable water is 0.5 mg / litre.
  12. 12. Pathogenic bacteriaSuspended solids (SS)TemperatureTurbidity and colourVolatile solidsPOLLUTION PARAMETERS
  13. 13. Source BOD mg/litrePoultry meat plant 1000-1200Pig meat plant 1500-2000Cattle/sheep meat plant 1400-3200Fish processing 1000-3000Dairy (washings) 600-1300Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)Normal Domestic sewage 250-300
  14. 14. TREATMENT STEPSTREATMENT STEPSPrimary treatment (physical removal of solid)Secondary treatment (biological treatment)Final treatment(disinfection)Release of water into water bodyRelease of water into water body
  15. 15.  Primary treatmentRemoval of solids, passing through screen, filters,floatation/sedimentation, grit chamber etc.Results: Reduction of BOD up to 200-250 mg/lit.Reduction of BOD up to 200-250 mg/lit.
  16. 16. Consequent steps:Consequent steps:1. Passing through “fat trap”-removes finesuspended solid, fat & greaseFAT TRAP GRIT CHAMBER
  17. 17. Woven wire screens: suitable for gut content, yardand truck washings.Wedge wire: relatively strong and abuse resistant.It reduces the chances of screens becoming blockedwith fats and other tissues.
  18. 18. 2. Air floatation Dissolved Air Floatation(DAF)- physical separation by micro-bubbles of solids, fat,grease.
  19. 19. Suspended solids in thewastewater are removed byfloatation assisted bymicrobubblesbubbles are produced bydissolving air in thewastewater.Coagulants (ferric chloride,alum, soda ash, lime &polymer) may be added toincrease the efficiency ofremoval.
  20. 20. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGESworks faster and produces a drier sludge. Low capital cost Less ground area requirements Less operator time Flexibility of operations in respect ofrecovery of oil and proteins.62-90% of oil and grease removal&30-80% of BOD reduction.
  21. 21. 3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TREATMENTUse of cationic (Fe3+and Al3+salts) and anionic coagulants (Nahexametaphosphate, lignosulfonate and Na alginate) with pHadjustment precipitate and agglomerate protein & otherorganic materials into larger particles (flocs) that can berecovered by a physical process such as DAF or settling.Fe3+and Al3+salts also precipitateout much of the phosphorus fromwaste waterAnionic coagulants are used toremove hemoglobin, which can makeup a large proportion of the solubleorganic load in wastewater from meatprocessing
  22. 22. Secondary treatmentSecondary treatmentOne biological treatment system under controlledcondition Culture of microbes is mixed Microbes utilizes available organic matter &synthesis new cell More than 90% organic matter removedSecondary treatment can be done aerobically oranaerobically followed by disinfection usingchlorides or by other methods and digestion ofsolids.
  23. 23. Anaerobic TreatmentCarried out in absence of air- in a closed system Effective in high BOD level In 1ststage VFA formed, methanogenic bacteria useit and produce CO2 and methane (pH-7.0-7.2).With a BOD higher than 2000 mg/litre it becomesadvantageous.TWO--STAGE FERMENTATION PROCESS
  24. 24. Typical composition of biogasMatter %Methane, CH4 50 - 75Carbon dioxide, CO2 25 - 50Nitrogen, N2 0 - 10Hydrogen, H2 0 - 1Hydrogen sulfide, H2S 0 - 3Oxygen, O2 0 - 2
  25. 25. Advantages:Achieve removal rates of 70% to 90% for COD and BOD5. Low operating cost due to low sludge production and lowenergy requirements Net producer of energy if the biomass is recovered as fuel.Disadvantages: Does not remove nitrogen or phosphorus. Reduces organic form of nitrogen and sulfur to ammonia andH2S, which can be toxic to aquatic lives. H2S can also cause anodor nuisance and corrosion of equipment.Maintaining the pH at around 7.0-7.2 is very important.
  26. 26. AEROBIC TREATMENTIn presence of air bacteria utilizes organic mater for their owncell synthesis.Organic carbon converted into CO2, nitrogen or nitrate ions.Before anaerobically treated wastewater is discharged towaterways, it is treated aerobically◦ to remove most residual BOD and suspended solids, &◦ to oxidize NH3 and H2S to less harmful nitrate and sulphate.Treatments:-◦ Activated sludge process◦ Trickling filters◦ Lagoons.◦ Evaporation & Irrigation
  27. 27. Waste streamPrimary treatmentAeration tank(mixing and aeration by aerators& / or pressurized air diffusers)Mixed liquid is allowed to settlein the clarifierClear supernatantChlorinated & discharged to thereceiving waterContent 2 tanks, Aeration tank Final settling tank
  28. 28. Tickling filter3-10m deep bed of porous media. (bed of stone,slag) wastewater is applied to the surface of the bed andtrickles downwards through the media, to whichmicroorganisms are attached. 90% reduction of BOD & removal of suspendedsolids
  29. 29. Lagoons Scientifically constructed pond (3-5ft deep) Sunlight, bacteria, algae & oxygen interact Warm, clean, sunny weather is favorable Aerobic type (takes 2-6 days), consists of series of ponds,reduces 90% BOD Anaerobic type (6-10 days), in cold weather it is used. 70-80% reduction of BOD.
  30. 30. Heterotrophic bacteria remove organic matter bybiological oxidation and by incorporation into cellbiomass, which is subsequently removed as sludge.
  31. 31. EVAPORATION & IRRIGATIONIn favorable climate waste can be disposed off by evaporationLarge shallow evaporation pondLined bottom (prevent seepage)
  32. 32. Production of useful end products such as methane and digested sludge.Low nutrient requirement in case of treatment of nutritionallyunbalanced wastes.No energy required for aeration.Allows rapid dewatering of sludge which can subsequently be handledeasily.High loading rates can be achieved as compared to aerobic treatment.
  33. 33. Combination of anaerobic-aerobic method Most suitable for meat industries. Anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system for packinghousewastes provided an overall BOD removal of 99%,suspended solids removal of 98% and grease removalof 98% (loehr, 1974). Combined system of anaerobic lagoons followed bytrickling filters for meat packing wastes removeBOD, COD and grease 74, 73 and 69% respectively(becker & white, 1971).
  34. 34. FINAL TREATMENTFINAL TREATMENTFertilizer &soil conditionerCOMPOSTINGIncineration & landfillDrying + LandfillOrDisinfected bychlorineDischarged
  35. 35. For direct discharge to surface water, the effluentshould have:pH : 6-9BOD5 (mg/l) : 50COD (mg/l) : 250Total suspended solids (mg/ml) : 50Oil & Grease (mg/ml) : 10Nitrogen (total) : 10Total phosphorus : 5 Temperature should not be more than few degrees. Should be colorless/clear
  36. 36. Recommended (minimum) effluent standardsRecommended (minimum) effluent standardsType BOD(mg/ltr)Faecal coliformPer 100 mlAlga (per ml)Effluent to bedischarged in tosurface waterLess than 25 Less than 5000 Less than 100,000Used forrestricted forirrigation- do -Used forunrestrictedirrigation- Less than 100 -
  37. 37. Novel methods of treatment ofNovel methods of treatment ofslaughterhouse wastewaterslaughterhouse wastewater1.Electrocoagulation:Easy operationShortened reactiveretention periodAmount of precipitateor sludge which sedimentsrapidly.
  38. 38. 2. Membrane separationUltrafiltration: separation of fats, oils or greasesReverse osmosis and nanofiltration: water purification,desalination and disinfection.Microfiltration: recovery/removal or to concentrateparticulate materials from liquids or slurries.
  39. 39. ReferenceReferenceGracey, Collins and Huey. 1999. Meat Hygiene. 10th Edition. W. B.Saunders Company.Hui, Nip, Rogers and Young. 2001 Meat Science and Applications. MarcelDekker Inc.Ranken. 2000. Handbook of Meat Products Technology. Blackwellwww.fao.orgMasse, D.I., and Masse, L. 2000. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaterin anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Agriculture and Agri-FoodCanada, P.O. Box 90, Route 108 East, Lennoxville, QC, Canada J1M1Z3. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada contribution No. 659Sindhu, R., and Meera, V. Treatment Of Slaughterhouse Effluent UsingUpflow Anaerobic Packed Bed Reactor. 2012 International Congresson Informatics, Environment, Energy and Applications-IEEA 2012IPCSIT vol.38, Singapore.
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