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Viral Marketing


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Brief overview of viral marketing

Published in: Business, News & Politics

Viral Marketing

  1. 1. Viral Marketing ASIMS: Community Multimedia Summer 2008 Steve Anderson
  2. 2. Historical context -Brands first appear in late 19th century -20th century mass marketing campaigns create markets for new products: radios, phonographs, cars, light bulbs , etc. -1980s: shift from product advertising to brand marketing -1990s: brands’ primary association is with lifestyle not commodities For years we thought of ourselves as a production-oriented company, meaning we put all our emphasis on designing and manufacturing the product. But now we understand that the most important thing we do is market the product. We’ve come around to saying that Nike is a marketing-oriented company, and the product is our most important marketing tool. -Phil Knight, Nike CEO
  3. 3. Cultural context - Convergence Culture / Participatory Culture - Social and technological phenomenon - Proliferation of broadband access - Dynamic networks - Tech-savvy, empowered consumer-producers Chris Anderson, The Long Tail Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks
  4. 4. Marketing context - “Publicity stunts” - Guerilla marketing - Stealth marketing - Buzz marketing - Spam - Hoaxes - Astroturfing - Sock Puppeting - ARGs Conspiracy Culture: “Trust no one.”
  5. 5. Memes - build on familiar cultural forms/practices - brand identity without the brand - mutation = lack of control - design aesthetics Apple “Switch” iPod / iRaq “ Citizen Ad” Vote Different
  6. 6. Trust - confidence game - respect users/consumers - backlash potential The very few cannot fool the very many for very long. -Jordan Weisman
  7. 7. Anonymity <ul><li>Mystery / enigma </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>- Prolonged buzz cycle </li></ul>Lonelygirl15 (2006) Subservient President (2004) Angry Professor (2007)
  8. 8. User Generated Content -DIY culture -Remix culture -Copyright wars -Creative Commons Coke Zero, “Sue a Friend” (2007) Time Magazine (December 2006)
  9. 9. Pleasure - TV advertising model: flow + interruption = frustrated desire - UGC: consumers become producers - Viral marketing: consumers become distributors VW GTI “Blingin’ in the Rain ” (DDB London 2005) Diet Coke + Mentos
  10. 10. Sub-cultures <ul><li>- Coextensive with existing social/cultural practices </li></ul><ul><li>- Enhanced social status </li></ul><ul><li>Context-specific </li></ul><ul><li>- Know your demographic </li></ul>Aquateen Hungerforce (2007)
  11. 11. Play/Game cultures - Heightened expectations for interactivity/participation - Sophisticated audiences/consumers 42 Entertainment: I Love Bees (Halo2 ARG) 2004 Pontiac, Second Life Zombie Island (2007)
  12. 12. Transgression & Virtuosity <ul><li>- Jackass syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>- Sexual/violent/scatological </li></ul><ul><li>Excess </li></ul><ul><li>- Bathos </li></ul>Lee & Dan, VW Polo Suicide Bomber (2004) Sprite Zero, Friendship is Overrated (2006) OK Go, Here it Goes Again (2005)
  13. 13. Transgression & Virtuosity <ul><li>- Jackass syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>- Sexual/violent/scatological </li></ul><ul><li>Excess </li></ul><ul><li>- Bathos </li></ul>Nike, Kobe Jumps… (2008) Fountainskiing (2008) From GoViral