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Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Jackfruit Peel as Adsorbent

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 879
Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer
Treatment in Conjunction with Jackfruit Peel as Adsorbent
Yogesh K N1, Dr. Nagarajappa. D. P2, Mr. Sateesh G Muttagi3
1PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of Engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya
Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India
2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of Engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya
Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India
3Research scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya
Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India
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Abstract - Water is an important fundamentalbasic needfor
the living organisms. Water resources around the world
getting pollution due rapid growing of population and
industrialization. It is not only the depletion of quantity but
also the quality is deteriorating due to improper discharge of
untreated industrial wastewatersandsewagegenerated from
the community. Better wastewater management requires
many treatment methods. This research employs SAT System
to recycle wastewater for potable and non-potableusage. SAT
system was tested on textile industry effluent under different
experimental circumstances. The NaturalAdsorbent like Jack
fruit peel powder were tested in clayey andsilty soils. In silty
soil, which gives good removal efficiency.
Key Words: SAT, Jack fruit peel, Copper, Zinc, Chromium.
1. INTRODUCTION
Water has its own importance and humanity’s most vital
resource. Population growth Industrialization and
urbanization are creating dense human settlements that
pollute the water India generates6.2millionm3ofuntreated
Industrial wastewater every day, yet barely 20 % and 60 %
of household and Industrial wastewater Industrial effluent
pollutes waterways. Men and their actions polluted the
aquatic environment, harming the ecology and human’s
Industrial effluents, urban runoff, agricultural fertilizer, and
animal feaces are the water pollutants These activities raise
physio-chemical parameters overpermissiblelimits,altering
water quality. lather, printing, textile, sugar, and other
industries.
This industry's waste water contains more colored
contaminants and certain haram compounds that impair
human health, the environment Industrial effluent contains
heavy metals such as copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, and
others, which are harmful to aquatic life and the
environment. Textiles industries generates a lot of
wastewaters it contains the combination of dyes solvents
heavy metals and organic compounds from dyeing,printing,
finishing, and washing. Wastewater flow into waterways
may pollute soil, water, and aquatic habitats. Many
wastewaters treatment process like electrocoagulation
reverse osmosis and other techniques are used SAT (Soil
Aquifer Treatment) Is the one of the wastewater treatment
techniques is used for treating of this textileindustrial waste
water because this process gives more efficientresultsinthe
treating of wastewater and removing of heavy metals in
industrial wastewater.
SAT artificially recharges groundwater aquifers. Controlled
soil percolation adds water to groundwater. Soil aquifer
treatment either artificially augments groundwater to
remove freshwater lateror prevents saltwater or pollutants
from entering. Percolation allows water toenter the aquifer
and mix and maybe undergo additional physical and
chemical processes.
Adsorbents remove heavy metals, contaminants, and toxic
chemicals from environmentally harmful liquid or gas
substances. (natural adsorbents) are made of natural
materials like natural fibers, volcanic rocks, soils, plant
biomass, agricultural and industrial wastes, animal shells,
Microalgae, and Fungal biomass, coconut shell, Scrap types,
bark, Fruit wastes and other tannin-rich materials. Sawdust
and other wood type materials, rice husk, fertilizer, Fly ash,
Sugar industry wastes, chitosan, Blast furnace slag,
petroleum wastes.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 Collection of Soil Samples
Soil samples were collected from the two different location
thatisinandaroundBangalore.SiltSoilwerecollectedfroman
open ground in Nagavara and the Clayey Soil was collected
from the lake in Nagavara. These two Soil samples were
tested and then introduced in the columns.
2.2 Preparation of Adsorbent
Collection of jack fruit peels at local fruit shops it is washed
fromthe tap water first after to remove extra fleshly parts
from the peels and to clean the peelsfrom the distilled water
after that it can dried under the sun light until it is ready for
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 880
making the powder after words grind the peels it becomes
the powder.
2.3 Experimental Setup For SAT
The experimental setup involves a PVC column with 1.5
meters in length and a diameter of 6 inches.At the base of the
column,a fine mesh with a pore size of 60µmisprovided.The
bottom of the column is designed in funnel shape to facilitate
the collection of treated water. A regulator is to maintain the
flow of wastewater in the column. To maintain consistency, a
pondingdepthof35cmis maintained,and anyexcesswateris
guided out of the column through an overflow system. The
column, includingthe mesh, is thoroughly cleaned after each
trial.
2.4 Collection of Wastewater
The wastewater is used for the SAT system is collected from
the textile industry is locatedin Kareem sablayoutof Peenya
industrial area Bangalore.
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The experiment is carried to determine the efficiency of SAT
with and without usingadsorbentsforthisstudytwotypesof
soil is used they are Clayey soil and Silty soil and Jackfruit
peel powder used as adsorbent. The textile industrial
wastewater used in the study was obtained from a specific
industrial source.
The results obtained by experimentation and efficiency of
SAT with and without using adsorbents can be discussed
below.
Table 1: Characteristics of Wastewater
Parameters Wastewater
characteristics
pH 6.25
Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600
T.D.S, mg/L 1702
Chloride, mg/L Ab
Hexavalent
Chromium(Cr+6), mg/L 0.45
Copper, mg/L 0.98
Nickel, mg/L Ab
Zinc, mg/L 1.2
Table 2: Performance of SAT for only Silty Soil
Parameters Influent Filtrate RE %
pH 6.25 7.65
Conductivity,
(µs/sec)
3600 2100
T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1300
Chloride, mg/L Ab Ab
Hexavalent
Chromium
(Cr+6),mg/L
0.45 0.220 51.1111
Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.4870 50.306122
Nickel, mg/L Ab Ab -
Zinc, mg/L 1.2 0.55 54.16667
As the table 2 shows the removal efficiency by the SAT
system by only silty soil. The removal efficiency ofchromium
is 51.11%, Copper 50.30% and Zinc of 54.167% by above
results the performance of SAT by only silty soil gives Zinc is
the maximum removal efficiency
Table 3: Performance of SAT for Clayey Soil
Parameters Influent Filtrate RE %
pH 6.25 7.98
Conductivity,
(µs/sec)
3600 2900
T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1795
Chloride, mg/L - Ab
Hexavalent
Chromium(Cr+6)
,mg/L
0.45 0.41 8.88889
Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.68 30.61224
Nickel, mg/L Ab 0.00 Ab
Zinc, mg/L 1.2 1.12 6.6667
Table 3 shows the performance of SAT by only clayey soil
with out using any adsorbents.in this the removal efficiency
of Chromium. Copper and Zinc is 8.88%, 30.61% and 6.67%
of removal efficiency.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 881
Table 4: Performance of SAT For Silty Soil with Jackfruit
Adsorbent
Parameters Influent Filtrate RE %
pH 6.25 7.78
Conductivity,
(µs/sec)
3600 1780
T.D.S, mg/L 1702 895
Chloride, mg/L - - -
Hexavalent
Chromium(Cr+6
),mg/L
0.45 0.162 64
Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.18 81.6327
Nickel, mg/L Ab - Ab
Zinc, mg/L 1.2 0.44 63.33
Table 4 shows efficiency of SAT by silty soil with jackfruit
adsorbent the removal efficiency is Chromium 64%, Copper
81.63% and Zinc is 63.33%. and these results shown in
graph below.
Fig 1: - Performance of SAT silty soil with Jack fruit peel as
adsorbent
Table 5: Performance of SAT by Clayey Soil with Jackfruit
Adsorbent
Parameters Influent Filtrate RE %
pH 6.25 8.01
Conductivity,
(µs/sec)
3600 3020
T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1970
Chloride, mg/L AB - -
Hexavalent
Chromium(Cr+
6),mg/L
0.45 0.35 22.2222
Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.48 51.0204
Nickel, mg/L Ab - Ab
Zinc, mg/L 1,2 0.89 25.8333
TheEfficiencyofSATbytheclaysoilwithjackfruitadsorbent
showed the removal of chromium about 22.22% copper
51.02% and zinc of 25.8% by this resultsis tabulatedintable
4.9 and the respected graph is ploted for the values in fig 4.6
by this combination of clay soil and jack adsorbent it
removes maximum amount of 51.02% of copper. These
results are shown by graph below.
Fig 2: Performance of SAT Clayey soil with Jack fruit peel
as adsorbent
3 CONSLUSION
 Clayey soil with adsorbent shows less removal
efficiency in removing heavy metals from
wastewater.
 Silty soil with jackfruit peel as adsorbent shows
maximum removal efficiency in removing heavy
metals such as copper 81.64%, Chromium 64%and
Zinc of 63.33%.
 Jackfruit peel adsorbent have the capacity to
remove the heavy metals present in industrial
wastewater by SAT.
 Both silty soil and clayey soil are introduced into
SAT System without conjunction with adsorbent.
Silty soil gives more efficiency than clayey soil in
removal of heavy metals in the wastewater along
with-it addition of the adsorbent will increase the
efficiency.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 882
4 REFERENCES
1. Shivaleela Chavan, Nagarajappa, D P, Shrikanth
Chavan “Textile Mill Wastewater Treatment bySAT
System in Conjunction with Natural Adsorbents”
International Journal SciencesandResearch(2017).
2. Saroj K. Sharama and Maria D. Kennedy “SAT for
Wastewater Treatment” International
Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Vol 119,
(2017)
3. Rekha. K.H. Nagarajappa D P, Lokeshappa B
“Deportation of Wastewater Utilization SAT with
Adsorbent, International Journal of Management
(2018).
4. Sana Khan and Abdul Malik “Environmental and
Health Effects of Textile Industry Wastewater”.
Environmental Deterioration and HumanHealthpp
55-71 (2013).
5. P. Sharmila. P P Saradhi. “Potential of the Aquatic
Macrophytes for Removing the CONTAMINANTS
From the “ Environment Science Technology 39
(2009).
6. Fakayode. S.O. “Impact of Industrial Effluents on
Water Quality of Alaro River in Labadm”. (2005).
7. Harish Naik and Nagarajappa D. P. “Rural Waste
water Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer
Treatment in Conjunction With Mangifera Indica”
GRD Journals Research and Development Journal
for Engineering Volume 02 (2017).

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Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Jackfruit Peel as Adsorbent

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 879 Textile Industrial Wastewater Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction with Jackfruit Peel as Adsorbent Yogesh K N1, Dr. Nagarajappa. D. P2, Mr. Sateesh G Muttagi3 1PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of Engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India 2Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of Engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India 3Research scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, UBDT College of engineering, Davanagere, Visvesveraya Technological University, Belagavi – 590018, Karnataka, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Water is an important fundamentalbasic needfor the living organisms. Water resources around the world getting pollution due rapid growing of population and industrialization. It is not only the depletion of quantity but also the quality is deteriorating due to improper discharge of untreated industrial wastewatersandsewagegenerated from the community. Better wastewater management requires many treatment methods. This research employs SAT System to recycle wastewater for potable and non-potableusage. SAT system was tested on textile industry effluent under different experimental circumstances. The NaturalAdsorbent like Jack fruit peel powder were tested in clayey andsilty soils. In silty soil, which gives good removal efficiency. Key Words: SAT, Jack fruit peel, Copper, Zinc, Chromium. 1. INTRODUCTION Water has its own importance and humanity’s most vital resource. Population growth Industrialization and urbanization are creating dense human settlements that pollute the water India generates6.2millionm3ofuntreated Industrial wastewater every day, yet barely 20 % and 60 % of household and Industrial wastewater Industrial effluent pollutes waterways. Men and their actions polluted the aquatic environment, harming the ecology and human’s Industrial effluents, urban runoff, agricultural fertilizer, and animal feaces are the water pollutants These activities raise physio-chemical parameters overpermissiblelimits,altering water quality. lather, printing, textile, sugar, and other industries. This industry's waste water contains more colored contaminants and certain haram compounds that impair human health, the environment Industrial effluent contains heavy metals such as copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, and others, which are harmful to aquatic life and the environment. Textiles industries generates a lot of wastewaters it contains the combination of dyes solvents heavy metals and organic compounds from dyeing,printing, finishing, and washing. Wastewater flow into waterways may pollute soil, water, and aquatic habitats. Many wastewaters treatment process like electrocoagulation reverse osmosis and other techniques are used SAT (Soil Aquifer Treatment) Is the one of the wastewater treatment techniques is used for treating of this textileindustrial waste water because this process gives more efficientresultsinthe treating of wastewater and removing of heavy metals in industrial wastewater. SAT artificially recharges groundwater aquifers. Controlled soil percolation adds water to groundwater. Soil aquifer treatment either artificially augments groundwater to remove freshwater lateror prevents saltwater or pollutants from entering. Percolation allows water toenter the aquifer and mix and maybe undergo additional physical and chemical processes. Adsorbents remove heavy metals, contaminants, and toxic chemicals from environmentally harmful liquid or gas substances. (natural adsorbents) are made of natural materials like natural fibers, volcanic rocks, soils, plant biomass, agricultural and industrial wastes, animal shells, Microalgae, and Fungal biomass, coconut shell, Scrap types, bark, Fruit wastes and other tannin-rich materials. Sawdust and other wood type materials, rice husk, fertilizer, Fly ash, Sugar industry wastes, chitosan, Blast furnace slag, petroleum wastes. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 2.1 Collection of Soil Samples Soil samples were collected from the two different location thatisinandaroundBangalore.SiltSoilwerecollectedfroman open ground in Nagavara and the Clayey Soil was collected from the lake in Nagavara. These two Soil samples were tested and then introduced in the columns. 2.2 Preparation of Adsorbent Collection of jack fruit peels at local fruit shops it is washed fromthe tap water first after to remove extra fleshly parts from the peels and to clean the peelsfrom the distilled water after that it can dried under the sun light until it is ready for
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 880 making the powder after words grind the peels it becomes the powder. 2.3 Experimental Setup For SAT The experimental setup involves a PVC column with 1.5 meters in length and a diameter of 6 inches.At the base of the column,a fine mesh with a pore size of 60µmisprovided.The bottom of the column is designed in funnel shape to facilitate the collection of treated water. A regulator is to maintain the flow of wastewater in the column. To maintain consistency, a pondingdepthof35cmis maintained,and anyexcesswateris guided out of the column through an overflow system. The column, includingthe mesh, is thoroughly cleaned after each trial. 2.4 Collection of Wastewater The wastewater is used for the SAT system is collected from the textile industry is locatedin Kareem sablayoutof Peenya industrial area Bangalore. 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The experiment is carried to determine the efficiency of SAT with and without usingadsorbentsforthisstudytwotypesof soil is used they are Clayey soil and Silty soil and Jackfruit peel powder used as adsorbent. The textile industrial wastewater used in the study was obtained from a specific industrial source. The results obtained by experimentation and efficiency of SAT with and without using adsorbents can be discussed below. Table 1: Characteristics of Wastewater Parameters Wastewater characteristics pH 6.25 Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600 T.D.S, mg/L 1702 Chloride, mg/L Ab Hexavalent Chromium(Cr+6), mg/L 0.45 Copper, mg/L 0.98 Nickel, mg/L Ab Zinc, mg/L 1.2 Table 2: Performance of SAT for only Silty Soil Parameters Influent Filtrate RE % pH 6.25 7.65 Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600 2100 T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1300 Chloride, mg/L Ab Ab Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6),mg/L 0.45 0.220 51.1111 Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.4870 50.306122 Nickel, mg/L Ab Ab - Zinc, mg/L 1.2 0.55 54.16667 As the table 2 shows the removal efficiency by the SAT system by only silty soil. The removal efficiency ofchromium is 51.11%, Copper 50.30% and Zinc of 54.167% by above results the performance of SAT by only silty soil gives Zinc is the maximum removal efficiency Table 3: Performance of SAT for Clayey Soil Parameters Influent Filtrate RE % pH 6.25 7.98 Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600 2900 T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1795 Chloride, mg/L - Ab Hexavalent Chromium(Cr+6) ,mg/L 0.45 0.41 8.88889 Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.68 30.61224 Nickel, mg/L Ab 0.00 Ab Zinc, mg/L 1.2 1.12 6.6667 Table 3 shows the performance of SAT by only clayey soil with out using any adsorbents.in this the removal efficiency of Chromium. Copper and Zinc is 8.88%, 30.61% and 6.67% of removal efficiency.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 881 Table 4: Performance of SAT For Silty Soil with Jackfruit Adsorbent Parameters Influent Filtrate RE % pH 6.25 7.78 Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600 1780 T.D.S, mg/L 1702 895 Chloride, mg/L - - - Hexavalent Chromium(Cr+6 ),mg/L 0.45 0.162 64 Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.18 81.6327 Nickel, mg/L Ab - Ab Zinc, mg/L 1.2 0.44 63.33 Table 4 shows efficiency of SAT by silty soil with jackfruit adsorbent the removal efficiency is Chromium 64%, Copper 81.63% and Zinc is 63.33%. and these results shown in graph below. Fig 1: - Performance of SAT silty soil with Jack fruit peel as adsorbent Table 5: Performance of SAT by Clayey Soil with Jackfruit Adsorbent Parameters Influent Filtrate RE % pH 6.25 8.01 Conductivity, (µs/sec) 3600 3020 T.D.S, mg/L 1702 1970 Chloride, mg/L AB - - Hexavalent Chromium(Cr+ 6),mg/L 0.45 0.35 22.2222 Copper, mg/L 0.98 0.48 51.0204 Nickel, mg/L Ab - Ab Zinc, mg/L 1,2 0.89 25.8333 TheEfficiencyofSATbytheclaysoilwithjackfruitadsorbent showed the removal of chromium about 22.22% copper 51.02% and zinc of 25.8% by this resultsis tabulatedintable 4.9 and the respected graph is ploted for the values in fig 4.6 by this combination of clay soil and jack adsorbent it removes maximum amount of 51.02% of copper. These results are shown by graph below. Fig 2: Performance of SAT Clayey soil with Jack fruit peel as adsorbent 3 CONSLUSION  Clayey soil with adsorbent shows less removal efficiency in removing heavy metals from wastewater.  Silty soil with jackfruit peel as adsorbent shows maximum removal efficiency in removing heavy metals such as copper 81.64%, Chromium 64%and Zinc of 63.33%.  Jackfruit peel adsorbent have the capacity to remove the heavy metals present in industrial wastewater by SAT.  Both silty soil and clayey soil are introduced into SAT System without conjunction with adsorbent. Silty soil gives more efficiency than clayey soil in removal of heavy metals in the wastewater along with-it addition of the adsorbent will increase the efficiency.
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 882 4 REFERENCES 1. Shivaleela Chavan, Nagarajappa, D P, Shrikanth Chavan “Textile Mill Wastewater Treatment bySAT System in Conjunction with Natural Adsorbents” International Journal SciencesandResearch(2017). 2. Saroj K. Sharama and Maria D. Kennedy “SAT for Wastewater Treatment” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Vol 119, (2017) 3. Rekha. K.H. Nagarajappa D P, Lokeshappa B “Deportation of Wastewater Utilization SAT with Adsorbent, International Journal of Management (2018). 4. Sana Khan and Abdul Malik “Environmental and Health Effects of Textile Industry Wastewater”. Environmental Deterioration and HumanHealthpp 55-71 (2013). 5. P. Sharmila. P P Saradhi. “Potential of the Aquatic Macrophytes for Removing the CONTAMINANTS From the “ Environment Science Technology 39 (2009). 6. Fakayode. S.O. “Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Alaro River in Labadm”. (2005). 7. Harish Naik and Nagarajappa D. P. “Rural Waste water Treatability Studies by Soil Aquifer Treatment in Conjunction With Mangifera Indica” GRD Journals Research and Development Journal for Engineering Volume 02 (2017).