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IRJET- Effective Countering of Communal Hatred During Disaster Events in Social Media

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1572
Effective Countering of Communal Hatred during Disaster Events in
Social Media
N. Antony Sophia[1], J. Angelin Jenifer[2], D. Hinduja[3]
1Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeppiaar SRR Engineering College,
Tamil Nadu, India
1,2Student, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeppiaar SRR Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - As we are living in an era of digitization and
information technology is progressivelygrowing, weareusing
websites like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc. The use of
social media has been in a hike in our day to day life.
Especially the teenagers are highly affected by the use of it.
Our daily life, social involvement are affected by social media.
Social media has changed the way people communicate and
socialize on the web. There is a positive effect on business,
politics, socialization as well as some negative effects such as
cyberbullying, privacy, fake news and communal hate speech.
Communal hatred and offensive words in twitter are mainly
addressed in this paper. People are forwarding information
without checking the credibility of the message. In this
scenario a tweet with hatred message also propagates swiftly
leading to unrest in the society. To check these kinds of
messages propagating and to find a way not to promote these
messages, Machine learning technology is used to address
these issues. This paper not only helps in identifying hatred
speech against communities and religions but also classifies
vulgar and offensive or hatred words. The main objective of
this project is to plot a graph which displays the percentage of
offensive or hatred words used in the tweets. By doing so, the
propagation of communal hate speech can be reduced.
Key Words: Cyberbullying, communal hatred, Machine
learning, vulgar, offensive, hatred words, hate speech.
1. INTRODUCTION
Social media reach is widespread such that information
travels very fast without any geographical border or
constraints. The age of Internet has changed the way people
express their views and opinions. It is now mainly done
through social media.Nowadays,millionsofpeopleareusing
social network sites like Twitter, Facebook, Google Plus, etc.
to express one’s emotions, opinion and share views about
their daily lives. But they may not be aware of the issues and
clashes arousing among different class of people in the
society.
In 2013, an article in the Hindustan Times cited Professor
Badri Narayan from the GB Pant Social Science Institute in
Allahabad as saying, “From word of mouth, communal
polarization is now moving online. This is a dangeroustrend
as the internet is very potent."
Twitter users are likely to stick around the content that has
already gotten a lot of retweets and mentions, compared
with content that has fewer. The flow of this misinformation
on Twitter is a function of both human and technical factors.
Human’s role is the major factor: Since we are more likely to
react to content that taps into our existing grievances and
beliefs, inflammatory tweets will generate quick
engagement. It is only after that engagement happens that
the technical side kicks in: If a tweet is retweeted favorited
or replied to by enough of its first viewers, the newsfeed
algorithm will show it to large number of users, at which
point it will tap into the biases of those users too –
prompting even more engagement, and so on. And because
of this reason, these buzz tweets are bubbling virally.
This paper mainly focuses on a machine learning technique
to analyze and classify the tweets on the basis of parameters
like offensive, hatred or neither. The output is displayed in
the form of a graph which is shown to the user who posted
such tweet.
2. RELATED WORKS
Koustav Rudra, Ashish Sharma, NiloyGanguly,andSaptarshi
Ghosh[1]
Have proposed a rule- based classifier to automatically
separate communal tweets from non-communal tweets.The
tweets are mainly collected from initiators, who initiate a
communal tweet and propagators, who retweet the
communal tweets. Those users are identified in this paper.
After the first-level classification an analysis is made on the
non-communal tweets toseparatetheanti-communal tweets
from it. The anti-communal tweetsareusedto encounter the
communal tweets.
Ying Chen, Sencun Zhu, Yilu Zhou and Heng Xu[2]
Have proposed a Lexical Syntactic Feature architecture to
detect offensive content and to identify potential offensive
users in social media. A hand-authoring syntactic rule is
being introduced to identify the name-calling harassments.
The user’s potentiality to send offensive contentispredicted
using certain features like user’s writing style, structureand
specific cyberbullying content.
Pete Burnap and Matthew L. Williams[3]
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1573
Have proposed a study on online hate speech based on the
massive public reaction that arouse during the murder of
Drummer Lee Rigby, Woolwich, London. Human annotated
Twitter data’s regarding the Woolwich attack was collected
to train and test a supervised machinelearningtextclassifier
that distinguishes between hateful responses that focusses
religion and race. Classification features were derived from
the twitter contents including grammatical dependencies
between words to recognize “othering” phrases. The results
of the classifier was optimal using a combination of
probabilistic, rule-based, spatial- based classifiers with a
voted ensemble meta-classifier.
Edel Greevy and Alan F. Smeaton[4]
Have proposed a text categorization system for PRINCIP
project to automatically identify the racist text. Support
Vector Machine (SVM) learning technique is used here to
automatically categorize webpagesandidentifieswhetherit
is racist or not.
3. DATA COLLECTION
3.1 Accessing Twitter API:
OAuth is an open standard framework for accessing the
delegation, which is used by users to grant permission or
applications access to their information on other websites
but without giving the passwords. This mechanism is used
by Twitter to permit the users to share information about
their accounts with third party applications or websites
without revealingtheircredentials.OAuthdefinesfourmajor
roles:
 Resource Owner: The resource owner is the one
who owns an application and allows users to
access their account.
 Client: The client is the application that wants to
access the user’s accounts.
 Resource Server: The resource server conducts
the protected user accounts.
 Authorization Server: The authorization server
verifies the identity of the user and then issues
access tokens to the application.
Fig – 1 A protocol flow of OAuth
Tweepy supports accessing Twitter via OAuth.
Tweepy is a library in python thatenablesPythonto
communicate with Twitter platform anduseitsAPI.
Fig – 2 Access tokens
The above screenshot has the data needed to talk with
Twitter Network. The main classes that are used in the
Twitter API are Tweets, Users, Entities and Places. With
Tweepy it is possible to get any object and use any method
offered by Twitter API. Access to each returns a JSON-
formatted response and traversing through information is
made much easier in Python. The importanttasksofTweepy
are monitoring the tweets and doing actions on it. The key
component is Stream Listener this object monitorstweetsin
real-time and obtains them. Fig. 1. Illustrates the raw data
collected from the Twitter server.
Fig – 3 View of the raw text data collected
4. DATA PREPROCESSING
After collecting the raw Tweets from the Twitter data pre-
processing take place. Followingstepsillustratestheprocess
involved
 The fetched Tweets that are obtained in the JSON
format is formatted using Pandas
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1574
 Measures are also taken to handle and display
exceptions.
 A minimum of 40 tweets under this hash tag will be
obtained as a csv file. Later a cleaning process is
done to remove spaces, emoji’s, URL and links.
 This would be obtained in another csv file.
 The missing values are also cleaned and the data is
encoded. The pandas will recognize both empty
cells and ‘NA’ types as missing values.
Fig – 4 The pre-processed data
5. IDENTIFICATION OF COMMUNAL TWEET
A manually prepared training dataset is used to train a
supervised algorithm called Support Vector Machine
learning algorithm. Supervised Learning is a machine
learning method used to map an input to the output based
on examples input-output pairs. It infers a function from
labelled training data consistingofa setoftrainingexamples.
In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of
an input object (typically a vector) and a desired output
value (supervisory signal). A supervised learning algorithm
analyses the dataset prepared for training and produces an
inferred function, which can be used for mapping new
examples. Supervised learning problems are grouped into
Regression and Classification problems.
 Regression –
When the output variable is a real value then
it is said to be a regression problem Eg: such as
‘dollars’ or ‘weight’.
 Classification –
When the output is a category, then it is
said to be a classification problem Eg:
such as ‘red’ or ‘blue’ or ‘disease’ or ‘no
disease’.
In this paper, a supervised classification algorithmcalledthe
Support Vector Machine learning algorithm is used.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one among the supervised
learning techniques which can be used for either
classification or regression challenges. However, itismostly
used in classification problems. This algorithm is used to
plot each data item as a point in n-dimensional space where
n is number of features. Here in this paper three featuresare
used. They are, hatred, offensive and neutral words. Based
on these features, the algorithm classifies the tweets
collected from the Twitter.Thealgorithmtakestwoinputs. It
takes specific keywords listwhichisthedatasetpreparedfor
training the algorithm which is shown in Fig – 5 as one input
and the tweet to be identified as another input. The results
were plotted in a graph.
Fig – 5 The training dataset
6. DATA VISUALIZATION
The trained model can be stored as a Python object so that
one need not train each and every time we need to predict.
The accuracy of the trained model is calculated before
prediction. A convolution matrix is calculated. We use data
visualization to present the resultina visualizedmanner. Fig
– 6 Shows the output of the pie chart.
Fig – 6 Plotted graph
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1575
7. CONCLUSION
This paper is the first attempt which is involved in
identifying not only communal tweets but also the tweets
which contains offensive or vulgar contents that has to be
concealed from children below 18 years of age. It also helps
in preventing conflicts that may arouse betweenpeople who
belongs to different communities. This paper is a prototype
built on the idea given in the paper “Characterizing and
Countering Communal MicroblogsduringDisasterEvents”[1].
Here live Tweets are obtained and pre-processed. Those
cleaned Twitter data’s are fetched to the machine which is
trained with manual dataset using Support Vector Machine
Learning Technique. A classifier is used to classify the pre-
processed data. Now, a graph is displayed which gives
information regarding the percentage of hatred, offensive
and neutral contents available in the collected Tweets. The
Tweets collected not only concentrates on particular
incident or a community or a personality, but considers the
Tweets randomly that does not come under any particular
category and identifies communal tweets[1], offensive
contents[2], online hatespeech[3] andvulgarTweets.Finally,a
real-time system that automatically classifies the Tweets is
proposed in this paper.
8. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
The proposed system has some limitations as follows:
 Only the Tweets in English are taken into account.
This system cannot be applied to words notpresent
in the English dictionaries.Thosewordsareignored
in this process, which is one of the major limitation
faced in this paper.
 Some Tweets may contain words with improper
spellings, abbreviations, emoji’s are just ignored
while pre-processing the tweets, which can be
treated.
 A graph is being displayed to the user on the basis
of his Tweet and it can be removed only by the user,
even if it is found to be offensive.
9. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
 It can be used by the Government in taking
decisions like regarding eliminating the
troublesome tweet, and find a solution to stop the
problems that arise in the society.
 The communal, offensive, hatred or vulgar Tweets
can be replaced with neutral Tweets, so that it does
not create any problems or clashes in the society.
 It would be effective if such trouble causing Tweets
can be blocked immediately.
 It would be more effective, when the user is
intimated while typing an offensive or a vulgar
content and not allowing to proceed further.
10. REFERENCES
[1] K. Rudra, A. Sharma, N. Ganguly, and S. Ghosh,
“Characterizing and Countering communal microblogs
during disaster events,”IEEE TransactionsonComputational
Social Systems 5 (2), 403-417
[2] Y. Chen, Y. Zhou, S. Zhu, and H. Xu, “Detecting offensive
language in social media to protectadolescentonlinesafety,”
in Proc. Int. Conf. Social Comput. Privacy, Secur, Risk Trust
(PASSAT), (SocialCom), Sep. 2012, pp. 71–80.
[3] P. Burnap and M. L. Williams, “Cyber hate speech on
Twitter: An application of machine classification and
statistical modeling for policy and decision making,” Policy
Internet, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 223–242, 2015.
[4] E. Greevy and A. F. Smeaton, “Classifying racist texts
using a support vector machine,” in Proc. SIGIR, 2004, pp.
468–469.
[5] I. Kwok and Y.Wang, “Locate the hate: Detecting tweets
against blacks,”in Proc. 27th AAAI Conf. Artif. Intell., 2013,
pp. 1621–1622.
[6] K. Rudra, A. Sharma, N. Ganguly, and S. Ghosh,
“Characterizing communal microblogs during disaster
events,” in Proc. IEEE/ACM ASONAM, Aug. 2016, pp. 96–99.
[7] K. Rudra, S. Ghosh, N. Ganguly, P. Goyal, and S. Ghosh,
“Extracting situational information from microblogs during
disasterevents:Aclassification-summarizationapproach,”in
Proc. ACM CIKM, 2015, pp. 583–592.
[8] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine learning in
Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, Oct.
2011.

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IRJET- Effective Countering of Communal Hatred During Disaster Events in Social Media

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1572 Effective Countering of Communal Hatred during Disaster Events in Social Media N. Antony Sophia[1], J. Angelin Jenifer[2], D. Hinduja[3] 1Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeppiaar SRR Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India 1,2Student, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeppiaar SRR Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - As we are living in an era of digitization and information technology is progressivelygrowing, weareusing websites like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, etc. The use of social media has been in a hike in our day to day life. Especially the teenagers are highly affected by the use of it. Our daily life, social involvement are affected by social media. Social media has changed the way people communicate and socialize on the web. There is a positive effect on business, politics, socialization as well as some negative effects such as cyberbullying, privacy, fake news and communal hate speech. Communal hatred and offensive words in twitter are mainly addressed in this paper. People are forwarding information without checking the credibility of the message. In this scenario a tweet with hatred message also propagates swiftly leading to unrest in the society. To check these kinds of messages propagating and to find a way not to promote these messages, Machine learning technology is used to address these issues. This paper not only helps in identifying hatred speech against communities and religions but also classifies vulgar and offensive or hatred words. The main objective of this project is to plot a graph which displays the percentage of offensive or hatred words used in the tweets. By doing so, the propagation of communal hate speech can be reduced. Key Words: Cyberbullying, communal hatred, Machine learning, vulgar, offensive, hatred words, hate speech. 1. INTRODUCTION Social media reach is widespread such that information travels very fast without any geographical border or constraints. The age of Internet has changed the way people express their views and opinions. It is now mainly done through social media.Nowadays,millionsofpeopleareusing social network sites like Twitter, Facebook, Google Plus, etc. to express one’s emotions, opinion and share views about their daily lives. But they may not be aware of the issues and clashes arousing among different class of people in the society. In 2013, an article in the Hindustan Times cited Professor Badri Narayan from the GB Pant Social Science Institute in Allahabad as saying, “From word of mouth, communal polarization is now moving online. This is a dangeroustrend as the internet is very potent." Twitter users are likely to stick around the content that has already gotten a lot of retweets and mentions, compared with content that has fewer. The flow of this misinformation on Twitter is a function of both human and technical factors. Human’s role is the major factor: Since we are more likely to react to content that taps into our existing grievances and beliefs, inflammatory tweets will generate quick engagement. It is only after that engagement happens that the technical side kicks in: If a tweet is retweeted favorited or replied to by enough of its first viewers, the newsfeed algorithm will show it to large number of users, at which point it will tap into the biases of those users too – prompting even more engagement, and so on. And because of this reason, these buzz tweets are bubbling virally. This paper mainly focuses on a machine learning technique to analyze and classify the tweets on the basis of parameters like offensive, hatred or neither. The output is displayed in the form of a graph which is shown to the user who posted such tweet. 2. RELATED WORKS Koustav Rudra, Ashish Sharma, NiloyGanguly,andSaptarshi Ghosh[1] Have proposed a rule- based classifier to automatically separate communal tweets from non-communal tweets.The tweets are mainly collected from initiators, who initiate a communal tweet and propagators, who retweet the communal tweets. Those users are identified in this paper. After the first-level classification an analysis is made on the non-communal tweets toseparatetheanti-communal tweets from it. The anti-communal tweetsareusedto encounter the communal tweets. Ying Chen, Sencun Zhu, Yilu Zhou and Heng Xu[2] Have proposed a Lexical Syntactic Feature architecture to detect offensive content and to identify potential offensive users in social media. A hand-authoring syntactic rule is being introduced to identify the name-calling harassments. The user’s potentiality to send offensive contentispredicted using certain features like user’s writing style, structureand specific cyberbullying content. Pete Burnap and Matthew L. Williams[3]
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1573 Have proposed a study on online hate speech based on the massive public reaction that arouse during the murder of Drummer Lee Rigby, Woolwich, London. Human annotated Twitter data’s regarding the Woolwich attack was collected to train and test a supervised machinelearningtextclassifier that distinguishes between hateful responses that focusses religion and race. Classification features were derived from the twitter contents including grammatical dependencies between words to recognize “othering” phrases. The results of the classifier was optimal using a combination of probabilistic, rule-based, spatial- based classifiers with a voted ensemble meta-classifier. Edel Greevy and Alan F. Smeaton[4] Have proposed a text categorization system for PRINCIP project to automatically identify the racist text. Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning technique is used here to automatically categorize webpagesandidentifieswhetherit is racist or not. 3. DATA COLLECTION 3.1 Accessing Twitter API: OAuth is an open standard framework for accessing the delegation, which is used by users to grant permission or applications access to their information on other websites but without giving the passwords. This mechanism is used by Twitter to permit the users to share information about their accounts with third party applications or websites without revealingtheircredentials.OAuthdefinesfourmajor roles:  Resource Owner: The resource owner is the one who owns an application and allows users to access their account.  Client: The client is the application that wants to access the user’s accounts.  Resource Server: The resource server conducts the protected user accounts.  Authorization Server: The authorization server verifies the identity of the user and then issues access tokens to the application. Fig – 1 A protocol flow of OAuth Tweepy supports accessing Twitter via OAuth. Tweepy is a library in python thatenablesPythonto communicate with Twitter platform anduseitsAPI. Fig – 2 Access tokens The above screenshot has the data needed to talk with Twitter Network. The main classes that are used in the Twitter API are Tweets, Users, Entities and Places. With Tweepy it is possible to get any object and use any method offered by Twitter API. Access to each returns a JSON- formatted response and traversing through information is made much easier in Python. The importanttasksofTweepy are monitoring the tweets and doing actions on it. The key component is Stream Listener this object monitorstweetsin real-time and obtains them. Fig. 1. Illustrates the raw data collected from the Twitter server. Fig – 3 View of the raw text data collected 4. DATA PREPROCESSING After collecting the raw Tweets from the Twitter data pre- processing take place. Followingstepsillustratestheprocess involved  The fetched Tweets that are obtained in the JSON format is formatted using Pandas
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1574  Measures are also taken to handle and display exceptions.  A minimum of 40 tweets under this hash tag will be obtained as a csv file. Later a cleaning process is done to remove spaces, emoji’s, URL and links.  This would be obtained in another csv file.  The missing values are also cleaned and the data is encoded. The pandas will recognize both empty cells and ‘NA’ types as missing values. Fig – 4 The pre-processed data 5. IDENTIFICATION OF COMMUNAL TWEET A manually prepared training dataset is used to train a supervised algorithm called Support Vector Machine learning algorithm. Supervised Learning is a machine learning method used to map an input to the output based on examples input-output pairs. It infers a function from labelled training data consistingofa setoftrainingexamples. In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of an input object (typically a vector) and a desired output value (supervisory signal). A supervised learning algorithm analyses the dataset prepared for training and produces an inferred function, which can be used for mapping new examples. Supervised learning problems are grouped into Regression and Classification problems.  Regression – When the output variable is a real value then it is said to be a regression problem Eg: such as ‘dollars’ or ‘weight’.  Classification – When the output is a category, then it is said to be a classification problem Eg: such as ‘red’ or ‘blue’ or ‘disease’ or ‘no disease’. In this paper, a supervised classification algorithmcalledthe Support Vector Machine learning algorithm is used. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one among the supervised learning techniques which can be used for either classification or regression challenges. However, itismostly used in classification problems. This algorithm is used to plot each data item as a point in n-dimensional space where n is number of features. Here in this paper three featuresare used. They are, hatred, offensive and neutral words. Based on these features, the algorithm classifies the tweets collected from the Twitter.Thealgorithmtakestwoinputs. It takes specific keywords listwhichisthedatasetpreparedfor training the algorithm which is shown in Fig – 5 as one input and the tweet to be identified as another input. The results were plotted in a graph. Fig – 5 The training dataset 6. DATA VISUALIZATION The trained model can be stored as a Python object so that one need not train each and every time we need to predict. The accuracy of the trained model is calculated before prediction. A convolution matrix is calculated. We use data visualization to present the resultina visualizedmanner. Fig – 6 Shows the output of the pie chart. Fig – 6 Plotted graph
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 03 | Mar 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1575 7. CONCLUSION This paper is the first attempt which is involved in identifying not only communal tweets but also the tweets which contains offensive or vulgar contents that has to be concealed from children below 18 years of age. It also helps in preventing conflicts that may arouse betweenpeople who belongs to different communities. This paper is a prototype built on the idea given in the paper “Characterizing and Countering Communal MicroblogsduringDisasterEvents”[1]. Here live Tweets are obtained and pre-processed. Those cleaned Twitter data’s are fetched to the machine which is trained with manual dataset using Support Vector Machine Learning Technique. A classifier is used to classify the pre- processed data. Now, a graph is displayed which gives information regarding the percentage of hatred, offensive and neutral contents available in the collected Tweets. The Tweets collected not only concentrates on particular incident or a community or a personality, but considers the Tweets randomly that does not come under any particular category and identifies communal tweets[1], offensive contents[2], online hatespeech[3] andvulgarTweets.Finally,a real-time system that automatically classifies the Tweets is proposed in this paper. 8. LIMITATIONS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM The proposed system has some limitations as follows:  Only the Tweets in English are taken into account. This system cannot be applied to words notpresent in the English dictionaries.Thosewordsareignored in this process, which is one of the major limitation faced in this paper.  Some Tweets may contain words with improper spellings, abbreviations, emoji’s are just ignored while pre-processing the tweets, which can be treated.  A graph is being displayed to the user on the basis of his Tweet and it can be removed only by the user, even if it is found to be offensive. 9. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  It can be used by the Government in taking decisions like regarding eliminating the troublesome tweet, and find a solution to stop the problems that arise in the society.  The communal, offensive, hatred or vulgar Tweets can be replaced with neutral Tweets, so that it does not create any problems or clashes in the society.  It would be effective if such trouble causing Tweets can be blocked immediately.  It would be more effective, when the user is intimated while typing an offensive or a vulgar content and not allowing to proceed further. 10. REFERENCES [1] K. Rudra, A. Sharma, N. Ganguly, and S. Ghosh, “Characterizing and Countering communal microblogs during disaster events,”IEEE TransactionsonComputational Social Systems 5 (2), 403-417 [2] Y. Chen, Y. Zhou, S. Zhu, and H. Xu, “Detecting offensive language in social media to protectadolescentonlinesafety,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Social Comput. Privacy, Secur, Risk Trust (PASSAT), (SocialCom), Sep. 2012, pp. 71–80. [3] P. Burnap and M. L. Williams, “Cyber hate speech on Twitter: An application of machine classification and statistical modeling for policy and decision making,” Policy Internet, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 223–242, 2015. [4] E. Greevy and A. F. Smeaton, “Classifying racist texts using a support vector machine,” in Proc. SIGIR, 2004, pp. 468–469. [5] I. Kwok and Y.Wang, “Locate the hate: Detecting tweets against blacks,”in Proc. 27th AAAI Conf. Artif. Intell., 2013, pp. 1621–1622. [6] K. Rudra, A. Sharma, N. Ganguly, and S. Ghosh, “Characterizing communal microblogs during disaster events,” in Proc. IEEE/ACM ASONAM, Aug. 2016, pp. 96–99. [7] K. Rudra, S. Ghosh, N. Ganguly, P. Goyal, and S. Ghosh, “Extracting situational information from microblogs during disasterevents:Aclassification-summarizationapproach,”in Proc. ACM CIKM, 2015, pp. 583–592. [8] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, Oct. 2011.