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DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SOLAR BASED FAST CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING MATLAB

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DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SOLAR BASED FAST CHARGING STATION
FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING MATLAB
Saima Shafi Choudhary1, Er Baljit Kaur 2
Post Graduate Student, Electrical Engineering Dept., IET Bhaddal Punjab India.
Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Dept. IET Bhaddal Punjab India.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - Thetransitiontowardssustainabletransportation
solutions has led to an increased demand for electric vehicles
(EVs). One of the critical challenges in EV adoption is the
availability of efficient and fast-charging infrastructure. This
paper presents the design and simulation of a solar-basedfast
charging station for electric vehicles using MATLAB. The
proposed system integrates solar photovoltaic (PV) panels,
power electronics, energy storage, andchargingmanagement
techniques to provide a reliable and sustainable solution. The
design process involves selecting appropriate PV panel
configurations and sizing them to generate the required
power for fast charging. To ensure continuous power
availability, an energy storage system, such as batteries, is
integrated into the system. Thepowerelectronicscomponents,
including DC-DC converters and inverters, are designed to
efficiently manage power flow between the PV panels, energy
storage, and the EV charging units. Advanced control
strategies are implemented to regulate the charging process,
considering factors like battery state of charge, EV battery
specifications, and grid interactions.
Key Words: Electric Vehicle Charging Station, Solar EV
charging, Wireless EV Charging System, MATLAB EV
charging station.
1. INTRODUCTION
With the growing demand for sustainable transportation,
electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged asa promisingsolution
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate
change. To encourage the adoption ofEVs,the establishment
of efficient and eco-friendly charging infrastructure is
crucial. One innovative approach is the design and
simulation of a solar-based fast charging station for electric
vehicles. The goal of this project is to create a charging
station that harnesses solar energy to provide fast and
renewable charging solutions for EV owners. By integrating
solar power into the charging station, we aim to reduce
dependency on the conventional grid and decrease the
carbon footprint associated with EV charging. Duringrecent
years, there have been changes in Ecuador about the energy
matrix. New hydropower projects have been carried out to
reduce CO2 emissions that pollute the environment. This, in
turn, has opened recent technologies in which the country
wants to be involved, such as electric vehicles [1], [2] which
contribute, among other things,toa reductioninpollution by
greenhouse gases [3]. The electric vehicle (EV) revolution
refers to the ongoing global transformation in the
automotive industry, characterized by a significant shift
towards the adoption of electric vehicles powered by
electricity instead of traditional internal combustionengines
fueled by gasoline or diesel. This revolution is driven by
various factors and has far-reaching implications for the
environment, energy consumption, and the automotive
sector. The primary driver of the EV revolution is the
growing awareness of the environmental impact of fossil
fuel-powered vehicles. Electric vehicles produce zero
tailpipe emissions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and
improving air quality in urban areas. Significant
advancements in battery technology have led to
improvements in EV range, charging speed, and cost-
effectiveness. Lithium-ion batteries have become the
dominant technology for EVs, making them more practical
and attractive to consumers. Many governments around the
world have implemented policies, incentives, and
regulations to promote the adoption of electric vehicles.
These measures include financial incentives, tax credits,
rebates, and stricter emissions standards for conventional
vehicles. The cost of battery production has beendecreasing
steadily over the years, making electric vehicles more
affordable for consumers. As economies of scale continue to
drive down battery costs, EVs are becoming more
competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles in
terms of upfront prices. Technological advancements in
electric drivetrains, charging infrastructure, and
autonomous driving features have made electric vehicles
more appealing and convenient to consumers. Growing
public awareness of climate change and environmental
issues, coupled with a positive perceptionofEVsasfuturistic
and eco-friendly vehicles, has driven consumer interest in
electric mobility.
2. RELATED WORK
There have been various research studies,pilotprojects, and
developments related to solar-powered microgrid-
connected wireless electric vehicle (EV) charging systems.
Below are some key examples of existing work in this area:
With the increasing interest in green technologies in
transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)have
proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize
greenhouse gas emissions[1]. In[2]Electricvehiclecharging
infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on the
performance and operation ofpowersystemsbecomesmore
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 904
and more pronounced. Concept of V2G (Vehicle to Grid)that
electric vehicles could act as a new power sourceforthegrid
was proposed [3]. A solar PV power system consists of a PV
Module, a DC-DC boost converter, and an Adaptive Neuro-
Fuzzy Inference System (AN FIS) based MPPT controller
developed in MATLAB/Simulink [4]. [5] presents a wireless
charging infrastructure based on Inductive Power Transfer
(IPT) for semi-fast charging of light-duty (LD) EVs. [5][6]
presents an active balancing topology for large-scalebattery
packs in a heavy electric vehicle. In order to investigate the
performance of the system, a battery pack and Bidirectional
Flyback Converter (BiFLC) based active balancing circuit
equipped with Switch Matrix (SwM) have been simulated by
using MATLAB/Simulink. A charge transfer bus, which is
supplied by the first cell of the battery pack, is used to
transfer energy between the source/ destination cells.Thus,
the need for the auxiliary circuit/battery is eliminated. the
existing research fails to adopt differentiated dynamic
electricity price to guide the orderly charging of electric
vehicles and dissipate the photovoltaic output, a strategy of
vehicle and network interaction based on electric vehicle
(EV) charging load space transferisproposed[7].Finally,the
effectiveness of the proposed method [8][9] is verified by a
practical example. Implementation of a suitable DC-DC
converter for charging the battery plays a crucial role in the
pathway of electric vehicle (EV) production [10][11].
3. OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEM FORMULATION.
The design objectives of a solar grid-connected electrified
road for wireless charging of electric vehicles aim tocreatea
sustainable and efficient charging infrastructure that
integrates renewable energy with smart transportation
solutions. The primary objective is to harness solar energy
through photovoltaic (PV) panels integrated into the road
infrastructure. This renewable energy will be usedtocharge
electric vehicles wirelessly, reducing dependency on non-
renewable energy sources and lowering greenhouse gas
emissions [11][12]. The solar PV arrays must be designed to
maximize energy generation efficiency, considering factors
like solar panel orientation,tiltangle,andshadinganalysisto
optimize solar exposure throughout the day. The electrified
road should be connected to the electrical grid, allowing
surplus energy generated by the solar panels to be fed back
into the grid when the demand is low or stored for later use.
Additionally, when solar energy production is insufficient,
the grid can supply additional power to meet the changing
demands of electric vehicles. The wireless charging
technology used on the road should be efficient and capable
of delivering power wirelessly to vehicles in a safe and
controlled manner. It should supportvariouselectricvehicle
models and charging standards. Implementing smart
charging solutions can optimize the charging process by
considering factors like energy demand, electricity pricing,
and grid conditions. Smart charging can also prioritize
charging for vehicles based on their battery levels andusage
patterns.
The primary objective of this project is to develop a solar
grid-connected electrified road systemthatenableswireless
charging of electric vehicles (EVs) while they are in motion
or stationery. The goal is to create a sustainable andefficient
charging infrastructure that promotes widespreadadoption
of EVs and reduces the dependenceontraditional fossil-fuel-
based transportation. The project aims to design and
implement a solar photovoltaic (PV) array system along the
road's surface or in adjacent structures to harvest solar
energy. The challenge lies in optimizing the PV system's
efficiency, considering factors like varying sunlight
conditions, shading, weather patterns, and the road's
available surface area for solar panels. Efficient integration
of the solar energy generated with the existing power grid is
crucial to ensure a continuous and reliable power supplyfor
the charging system. The development of a robust and
efficient wireless charging system is a core aspect of the
project. The wireless charging infrastructuremustbeable to
transfer power effectively to EVs moving at various speeds
while ensuring safety and minimizing energy losses. The
system should also support bi-directional power transfer,
allowing EVs to feed excess energy back to the grid when
needed, contributing to grid stability. Designing an
electrified road surface that can accommodate wireless
charging without compromisingroadsafetyandintegrityisa
significant challenge. The project should consider the road's
durability, ability to withstand heavy traffic, and the impact
of weather conditions on the charging efficiency. Safety
standards and protocols for electrified roads must be
established to prevent accidents and ensure public trust in
technology. Achieving high charging efficiency is vital to
minimize energy losses during wireless charging.
Additionally, the project should address the grid'scapability
to manage the increased load from multiple EVs charging
simultaneously, especially during peak hours. Energy
storage systems, such as batteries or supercapacitors,might
be integrated to buffer the grid and improve charging
efficiency. The project should perform a comprehensivecost
analysis, considering the installation, maintenance, and
operational costs of the solar grid-connectedelectrified road
system. An economic feasibility study will help determine
the return on investment and assess the system's potential
for commercial deployment. Evaluating the environmental
benefits of the solar grid-connected electrified road is
essential. The project should conduct a life-cycleassessment
to compare the system's carbon footprint with conventional
charging methods and internal combustion engine vehicles.
Additionally, addressing potential environmental impacts,
such as land use and recyclability of components, is crucial
for long-term sustainability. The project needs to consider
existing regulations and policies related to road
infrastructure, electric vehicle charging, and renewable
energy integration. Identifying any legal barriers or
incentives can help guide the project's implementation and
ensure compliance with relevant standards.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 905
4. METHODOLOGY.
The wireless charging system for electric vehicles typically
consists of two main components:
4.1. Charging Pad Transmitter Coil:
This component is installed on the ground or inside a
charging station. It is responsible for generating an
alternating magnetic field using an alternating current (AC)
power source as shown in figure below.
Figure 1: Simulation model of the wireless power
transmitter and Receiver in a 3-Dimensional Coordinate
system.
structures
4.2. Vehicle Receiver Coil:
This component is integrated into the electric vehicle and is
positioned underneaththevehicle'schassis.Thereceivercoil
is designed to pick up the magnetic field generated by the
charging pad and convert it back into electrical energy as
shown in figure below.
Figure 2: The proposed system is intended for the rear of
an EV. Each charging pad is composed of two coils: a dc
and ac coil.
The process of wireless power transfer in electric vehicle
charging involves the following steps:
1. The charging station is connected to an AC power
supply or a solar connected microgrid.
2. The AC power from the supply is converted to a
higher frequency AC using power electronics,
typically in the range of tenstohundredsofkilohertz.
3. The high-frequency AC is fed into the charging pad
transmitter coil, which generates an alternating
magnetic field around it.
4. When the electric vehicle is parked over the
charging pad, the receiver coil in the vehicle's
undercarriage is brought into proximity with the
magnetic field. As a result of electromagnetic
induction, an electrical current is induced in the
receiver coil.
5. The induced current in the receiver coil is rectified
and converted to direct current (DC) using power
electronics.
6. The DC electricity is then used to charge the electric
vehicle's battery, which powers the vehicle's electric
motor.
5. RESULTS.
Designing and simulating a solar energy-based fastcharging
station for electric vehicles using MATLAB would involve
various steps and components, such as solar panels, battery
storage, power electronics, and control systems.
The experimental and simulated results obtained duringthe
project work are briefly explained.
Figure 3: PV Cell Output Power vs. Intensity and
Temperature
Figure 3. defines several parameters that affect thebehavior
of the PV cell. These include properties of the cell itself and
environmental factors:
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 906
Iph: Photocurrent, the current produced bythePVcell when
illuminated.
I0: Saturation current, a parameter related to the cell's
intrinsic properties.
n: Ideality factor, representing the non-ideal behavior of the
cell.
Rs: Series resistance, representing internal losses.
Rsh: Shunt resistance, also related to internal losses.
k: Boltzmann constant, involved in the temperature effect.
T: Temperature in Kelvin.
q: Elementary charge, related to electron movement.
A: Area of the PV cell.
G: Sunlight intensity (W/m^2), ranging from 0 to 1000.
Tc: Temperature in Celsius, ranging from 0°C to 100°C.
Figure 3. calculates the output power of the PV cell for
different combinations of sunlight intensity (G) and
temperature (Tc). For each combination.
Figure 4: Solar Energy Generation and Vehicle Charging.
a). Generated Solar Energy vs. Time. b). Vehicle Charged
Energy vs. Time.
Figure 4. (a). illustrates how the amount of solar energy
produced by solar panels changes over a specific period.The
x-axis represents time, usually measured in hours, while the
y-axis represents the amount of energy generated by the
solar panels, typically measured in Watt-hours (Wh). The
horizontal axis represents time. Each point on the x-axis
corresponds to a specific time interval, often in hours. The
vertical axis represents the amount of energy generated by
solar panels. This energy is usually measured in Watt-hours
(Wh) or kilowatt-hours (kWh). Each point on the y-axis
corresponds to the amount of energy generated by the solar
panels during a specific time interval. The line on the graph
represents the trend of generated solar energy throughout
the day. It typically rises as the sun comes up, reachesa peak
around midday when sunlight is the strongest, and then
decreases as the sun sets. This line helps visualize how solar
energy generation varies based on daylight hours and
sunlight intensity.
Figure 4. (b). shows how much energy is used to charge an
electric vehicle over a specific period. Like the previous
graph, the x-axis represents time, and the y-axis represents
energy, usually measured in Watt-hours (Wh) or kilowatt-
hours (kWh). Like the previous graph, the x-axis represents
time intervals, usually in hours. The points on the x-axis
correspond to different times throughout the day. The
vertical axis represents the cumulative amount of energy
used to charge the electric vehicle. This is the total energy
transferred to the vehicle's battery. It increases over time as
the vehicle charges. The line on the graph represents the
trend of charged energy over time. Itstartsatzero(whenthe
charging begins) and increases as the vehicle's battery
charges. The slope of the line indicates the charging rate; a
steeper slope indicates faster charging.
Figure 5. Wireless Power Transmission a). Oscillating
Magnetic Field in Wireless Power Transmission. b).
Induced Voltage in Receiver Coil.
Figure 5 (a) generates an oscillating magnetic field, which
represents the electromagnetic waves generated by the
transmitter coil in a wireless power transmission system.
The magnetic field's strength varies sinusoidally over time.
This field is what induces the voltage in the receiver coil.
In Figure 5 (b). The induced voltage in the receiver coil is
calculated using Faraday's law of electromagneticinduction.
The induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 907
the magnetic field strength. Asthemagnetic fieldoscillates,it
induces a corresponding voltage in the receiver coil.
Comparing different power transfer techniques for a solar-
based wireless electric vehicle charging system can involve
various parameters and factors. Figure 5.6. illustrates a
graphical comparison of two hypothetical power transfer
techniques: Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) and Resonant
Inductive Coupling (RIC).
Figure 6: Comparison of Power Transfer Techniques for
Solar-Based Wireless EV Charging a). Comparison of
Power Transfer Techniques b). Efficiency Comparison.
In Figure 6 (a). The x-axis represents time, typically
measured in seconds. The y-axis represents power,typically
measured in watts (W). Two lines, one in red (IPT) and one
in blue (RIC), represent the power profiles of two different
power transfer techniques. These profiles show how the
power being transferred between the charging station and
the EV changes over time. This graph illustratesthedynamic
nature of power transfer using these techniques. You can
observe the fluctuating power levels over the given time
interval. In Figure 6 (b). The x-axisrepresentsthetwopower
transfer techniques, namely "IPT" (Inductive Power
Transfer) and "RIC" (Resonant Inductive Coupling). The y-
axis represents efficiency, often in decimal form (e.g., 0.85
for 85%). Two bars, one corresponding to IPT and the other
to RIC, show the efficiency of each technique. This graph
allows you to quickly compare the efficiency of the two
techniques. Higher efficiency indicates a more effective
utilization of the transferred power.
In Figure 7 (a). Battery charge level, often referred to as
State of Charge (SoC) is illustrated, which indicates the
amount of energy stored in a battery compared to its
maximum capacity. It's usually expressed as a percentage.
For example, if a battery's maximum capacity is 100 kWh
and it currently holds 50 kWh, the SoC would be 50%.
Battery charge level is a critical parameter in electric
vehicles and other battery-powered systems. It helps users
understand how much energy is available for use and
whether the batteryneedscharging.Monitoringthe battery's
charge level helps prevent over-discharging, which can
damage the battery, and ensures the vehicle or system is
operated within its safe and efficient range.
Figure 7: Continuous Monitoring of Battery Charge Level
a). Battery Charge Level b). Low Battery Threshold
In Figure 7 (b). The low battery threshold is a predefined
value of battery charge level, usually expressed as a
percentage, below which the system considersthebattery to
be low on charge. It's a critical point used to trigger various
actions, such as warnings to the user, energy-saving
measures, or initiating charging. For instance, a low battery
threshold set at 20% might indicate that the battery is
running low, prompting the user to charge the vehicle or
take measures to conserve energy.
5. CONCLUSIONS
This study showcases the successful integrationofMATLAB-
based simulation techniques in designing a fast-charging
station for electric vehicles. The simulation results provide
valuable insights into the station's performance, efficiency,
safety, and grid compatibility. As the world transitions
towards a more sustainable transportation ecosystem, the
development ofreliableand efficientcharginginfrastructure,
as demonstrated in this study, plays a pivotal role in
accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles.
REFERENCES
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“PHEV- EV charger technologyassessment withanemphasis
on V2G operation,” Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Tech. Rep.
ORNL/TM-2010/221, Mar. 2012.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 908
[2]. D. Berjoza and I. Jurgena, “Analysis of distribution of
electric vehicle charging stations in the Baltic,” Eng. Rural
Develop., vol. 14, no. January, pp. 258–264, 2015.
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 909

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  • 1. DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SOLAR BASED FAST CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING MATLAB Saima Shafi Choudhary1, Er Baljit Kaur 2 Post Graduate Student, Electrical Engineering Dept., IET Bhaddal Punjab India. Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Dept. IET Bhaddal Punjab India. ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - Thetransitiontowardssustainabletransportation solutions has led to an increased demand for electric vehicles (EVs). One of the critical challenges in EV adoption is the availability of efficient and fast-charging infrastructure. This paper presents the design and simulation of a solar-basedfast charging station for electric vehicles using MATLAB. The proposed system integrates solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, power electronics, energy storage, andchargingmanagement techniques to provide a reliable and sustainable solution. The design process involves selecting appropriate PV panel configurations and sizing them to generate the required power for fast charging. To ensure continuous power availability, an energy storage system, such as batteries, is integrated into the system. Thepowerelectronicscomponents, including DC-DC converters and inverters, are designed to efficiently manage power flow between the PV panels, energy storage, and the EV charging units. Advanced control strategies are implemented to regulate the charging process, considering factors like battery state of charge, EV battery specifications, and grid interactions. Key Words: Electric Vehicle Charging Station, Solar EV charging, Wireless EV Charging System, MATLAB EV charging station. 1. INTRODUCTION With the growing demand for sustainable transportation, electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged asa promisingsolution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat climate change. To encourage the adoption ofEVs,the establishment of efficient and eco-friendly charging infrastructure is crucial. One innovative approach is the design and simulation of a solar-based fast charging station for electric vehicles. The goal of this project is to create a charging station that harnesses solar energy to provide fast and renewable charging solutions for EV owners. By integrating solar power into the charging station, we aim to reduce dependency on the conventional grid and decrease the carbon footprint associated with EV charging. Duringrecent years, there have been changes in Ecuador about the energy matrix. New hydropower projects have been carried out to reduce CO2 emissions that pollute the environment. This, in turn, has opened recent technologies in which the country wants to be involved, such as electric vehicles [1], [2] which contribute, among other things,toa reductioninpollution by greenhouse gases [3]. The electric vehicle (EV) revolution refers to the ongoing global transformation in the automotive industry, characterized by a significant shift towards the adoption of electric vehicles powered by electricity instead of traditional internal combustionengines fueled by gasoline or diesel. This revolution is driven by various factors and has far-reaching implications for the environment, energy consumption, and the automotive sector. The primary driver of the EV revolution is the growing awareness of the environmental impact of fossil fuel-powered vehicles. Electric vehicles produce zero tailpipe emissions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in urban areas. Significant advancements in battery technology have led to improvements in EV range, charging speed, and cost- effectiveness. Lithium-ion batteries have become the dominant technology for EVs, making them more practical and attractive to consumers. Many governments around the world have implemented policies, incentives, and regulations to promote the adoption of electric vehicles. These measures include financial incentives, tax credits, rebates, and stricter emissions standards for conventional vehicles. The cost of battery production has beendecreasing steadily over the years, making electric vehicles more affordable for consumers. As economies of scale continue to drive down battery costs, EVs are becoming more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles in terms of upfront prices. Technological advancements in electric drivetrains, charging infrastructure, and autonomous driving features have made electric vehicles more appealing and convenient to consumers. Growing public awareness of climate change and environmental issues, coupled with a positive perceptionofEVsasfuturistic and eco-friendly vehicles, has driven consumer interest in electric mobility. 2. RELATED WORK There have been various research studies,pilotprojects, and developments related to solar-powered microgrid- connected wireless electric vehicle (EV) charging systems. Below are some key examples of existing work in this area: With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions[1]. In[2]Electricvehiclecharging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on the performance and operation ofpowersystemsbecomesmore International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 904
  • 2. and more pronounced. Concept of V2G (Vehicle to Grid)that electric vehicles could act as a new power sourceforthegrid was proposed [3]. A solar PV power system consists of a PV Module, a DC-DC boost converter, and an Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (AN FIS) based MPPT controller developed in MATLAB/Simulink [4]. [5] presents a wireless charging infrastructure based on Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) for semi-fast charging of light-duty (LD) EVs. [5][6] presents an active balancing topology for large-scalebattery packs in a heavy electric vehicle. In order to investigate the performance of the system, a battery pack and Bidirectional Flyback Converter (BiFLC) based active balancing circuit equipped with Switch Matrix (SwM) have been simulated by using MATLAB/Simulink. A charge transfer bus, which is supplied by the first cell of the battery pack, is used to transfer energy between the source/ destination cells.Thus, the need for the auxiliary circuit/battery is eliminated. the existing research fails to adopt differentiated dynamic electricity price to guide the orderly charging of electric vehicles and dissipate the photovoltaic output, a strategy of vehicle and network interaction based on electric vehicle (EV) charging load space transferisproposed[7].Finally,the effectiveness of the proposed method [8][9] is verified by a practical example. Implementation of a suitable DC-DC converter for charging the battery plays a crucial role in the pathway of electric vehicle (EV) production [10][11]. 3. OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEM FORMULATION. The design objectives of a solar grid-connected electrified road for wireless charging of electric vehicles aim tocreatea sustainable and efficient charging infrastructure that integrates renewable energy with smart transportation solutions. The primary objective is to harness solar energy through photovoltaic (PV) panels integrated into the road infrastructure. This renewable energy will be usedtocharge electric vehicles wirelessly, reducing dependency on non- renewable energy sources and lowering greenhouse gas emissions [11][12]. The solar PV arrays must be designed to maximize energy generation efficiency, considering factors like solar panel orientation,tiltangle,andshadinganalysisto optimize solar exposure throughout the day. The electrified road should be connected to the electrical grid, allowing surplus energy generated by the solar panels to be fed back into the grid when the demand is low or stored for later use. Additionally, when solar energy production is insufficient, the grid can supply additional power to meet the changing demands of electric vehicles. The wireless charging technology used on the road should be efficient and capable of delivering power wirelessly to vehicles in a safe and controlled manner. It should supportvariouselectricvehicle models and charging standards. Implementing smart charging solutions can optimize the charging process by considering factors like energy demand, electricity pricing, and grid conditions. Smart charging can also prioritize charging for vehicles based on their battery levels andusage patterns. The primary objective of this project is to develop a solar grid-connected electrified road systemthatenableswireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) while they are in motion or stationery. The goal is to create a sustainable andefficient charging infrastructure that promotes widespreadadoption of EVs and reduces the dependenceontraditional fossil-fuel- based transportation. The project aims to design and implement a solar photovoltaic (PV) array system along the road's surface or in adjacent structures to harvest solar energy. The challenge lies in optimizing the PV system's efficiency, considering factors like varying sunlight conditions, shading, weather patterns, and the road's available surface area for solar panels. Efficient integration of the solar energy generated with the existing power grid is crucial to ensure a continuous and reliable power supplyfor the charging system. The development of a robust and efficient wireless charging system is a core aspect of the project. The wireless charging infrastructuremustbeable to transfer power effectively to EVs moving at various speeds while ensuring safety and minimizing energy losses. The system should also support bi-directional power transfer, allowing EVs to feed excess energy back to the grid when needed, contributing to grid stability. Designing an electrified road surface that can accommodate wireless charging without compromisingroadsafetyandintegrityisa significant challenge. The project should consider the road's durability, ability to withstand heavy traffic, and the impact of weather conditions on the charging efficiency. Safety standards and protocols for electrified roads must be established to prevent accidents and ensure public trust in technology. Achieving high charging efficiency is vital to minimize energy losses during wireless charging. Additionally, the project should address the grid'scapability to manage the increased load from multiple EVs charging simultaneously, especially during peak hours. Energy storage systems, such as batteries or supercapacitors,might be integrated to buffer the grid and improve charging efficiency. The project should perform a comprehensivecost analysis, considering the installation, maintenance, and operational costs of the solar grid-connectedelectrified road system. An economic feasibility study will help determine the return on investment and assess the system's potential for commercial deployment. Evaluating the environmental benefits of the solar grid-connected electrified road is essential. The project should conduct a life-cycleassessment to compare the system's carbon footprint with conventional charging methods and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, addressing potential environmental impacts, such as land use and recyclability of components, is crucial for long-term sustainability. The project needs to consider existing regulations and policies related to road infrastructure, electric vehicle charging, and renewable energy integration. Identifying any legal barriers or incentives can help guide the project's implementation and ensure compliance with relevant standards. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 905
  • 3. 4. METHODOLOGY. The wireless charging system for electric vehicles typically consists of two main components: 4.1. Charging Pad Transmitter Coil: This component is installed on the ground or inside a charging station. It is responsible for generating an alternating magnetic field using an alternating current (AC) power source as shown in figure below. Figure 1: Simulation model of the wireless power transmitter and Receiver in a 3-Dimensional Coordinate system. structures 4.2. Vehicle Receiver Coil: This component is integrated into the electric vehicle and is positioned underneaththevehicle'schassis.Thereceivercoil is designed to pick up the magnetic field generated by the charging pad and convert it back into electrical energy as shown in figure below. Figure 2: The proposed system is intended for the rear of an EV. Each charging pad is composed of two coils: a dc and ac coil. The process of wireless power transfer in electric vehicle charging involves the following steps: 1. The charging station is connected to an AC power supply or a solar connected microgrid. 2. The AC power from the supply is converted to a higher frequency AC using power electronics, typically in the range of tenstohundredsofkilohertz. 3. The high-frequency AC is fed into the charging pad transmitter coil, which generates an alternating magnetic field around it. 4. When the electric vehicle is parked over the charging pad, the receiver coil in the vehicle's undercarriage is brought into proximity with the magnetic field. As a result of electromagnetic induction, an electrical current is induced in the receiver coil. 5. The induced current in the receiver coil is rectified and converted to direct current (DC) using power electronics. 6. The DC electricity is then used to charge the electric vehicle's battery, which powers the vehicle's electric motor. 5. RESULTS. Designing and simulating a solar energy-based fastcharging station for electric vehicles using MATLAB would involve various steps and components, such as solar panels, battery storage, power electronics, and control systems. The experimental and simulated results obtained duringthe project work are briefly explained. Figure 3: PV Cell Output Power vs. Intensity and Temperature Figure 3. defines several parameters that affect thebehavior of the PV cell. These include properties of the cell itself and environmental factors: International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 906
  • 4. Iph: Photocurrent, the current produced bythePVcell when illuminated. I0: Saturation current, a parameter related to the cell's intrinsic properties. n: Ideality factor, representing the non-ideal behavior of the cell. Rs: Series resistance, representing internal losses. Rsh: Shunt resistance, also related to internal losses. k: Boltzmann constant, involved in the temperature effect. T: Temperature in Kelvin. q: Elementary charge, related to electron movement. A: Area of the PV cell. G: Sunlight intensity (W/m^2), ranging from 0 to 1000. Tc: Temperature in Celsius, ranging from 0°C to 100°C. Figure 3. calculates the output power of the PV cell for different combinations of sunlight intensity (G) and temperature (Tc). For each combination. Figure 4: Solar Energy Generation and Vehicle Charging. a). Generated Solar Energy vs. Time. b). Vehicle Charged Energy vs. Time. Figure 4. (a). illustrates how the amount of solar energy produced by solar panels changes over a specific period.The x-axis represents time, usually measured in hours, while the y-axis represents the amount of energy generated by the solar panels, typically measured in Watt-hours (Wh). The horizontal axis represents time. Each point on the x-axis corresponds to a specific time interval, often in hours. The vertical axis represents the amount of energy generated by solar panels. This energy is usually measured in Watt-hours (Wh) or kilowatt-hours (kWh). Each point on the y-axis corresponds to the amount of energy generated by the solar panels during a specific time interval. The line on the graph represents the trend of generated solar energy throughout the day. It typically rises as the sun comes up, reachesa peak around midday when sunlight is the strongest, and then decreases as the sun sets. This line helps visualize how solar energy generation varies based on daylight hours and sunlight intensity. Figure 4. (b). shows how much energy is used to charge an electric vehicle over a specific period. Like the previous graph, the x-axis represents time, and the y-axis represents energy, usually measured in Watt-hours (Wh) or kilowatt- hours (kWh). Like the previous graph, the x-axis represents time intervals, usually in hours. The points on the x-axis correspond to different times throughout the day. The vertical axis represents the cumulative amount of energy used to charge the electric vehicle. This is the total energy transferred to the vehicle's battery. It increases over time as the vehicle charges. The line on the graph represents the trend of charged energy over time. Itstartsatzero(whenthe charging begins) and increases as the vehicle's battery charges. The slope of the line indicates the charging rate; a steeper slope indicates faster charging. Figure 5. Wireless Power Transmission a). Oscillating Magnetic Field in Wireless Power Transmission. b). Induced Voltage in Receiver Coil. Figure 5 (a) generates an oscillating magnetic field, which represents the electromagnetic waves generated by the transmitter coil in a wireless power transmission system. The magnetic field's strength varies sinusoidally over time. This field is what induces the voltage in the receiver coil. In Figure 5 (b). The induced voltage in the receiver coil is calculated using Faraday's law of electromagneticinduction. The induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 907
  • 5. the magnetic field strength. Asthemagnetic fieldoscillates,it induces a corresponding voltage in the receiver coil. Comparing different power transfer techniques for a solar- based wireless electric vehicle charging system can involve various parameters and factors. Figure 5.6. illustrates a graphical comparison of two hypothetical power transfer techniques: Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) and Resonant Inductive Coupling (RIC). Figure 6: Comparison of Power Transfer Techniques for Solar-Based Wireless EV Charging a). Comparison of Power Transfer Techniques b). Efficiency Comparison. In Figure 6 (a). The x-axis represents time, typically measured in seconds. The y-axis represents power,typically measured in watts (W). Two lines, one in red (IPT) and one in blue (RIC), represent the power profiles of two different power transfer techniques. These profiles show how the power being transferred between the charging station and the EV changes over time. This graph illustratesthedynamic nature of power transfer using these techniques. You can observe the fluctuating power levels over the given time interval. In Figure 6 (b). The x-axisrepresentsthetwopower transfer techniques, namely "IPT" (Inductive Power Transfer) and "RIC" (Resonant Inductive Coupling). The y- axis represents efficiency, often in decimal form (e.g., 0.85 for 85%). Two bars, one corresponding to IPT and the other to RIC, show the efficiency of each technique. This graph allows you to quickly compare the efficiency of the two techniques. Higher efficiency indicates a more effective utilization of the transferred power. In Figure 7 (a). Battery charge level, often referred to as State of Charge (SoC) is illustrated, which indicates the amount of energy stored in a battery compared to its maximum capacity. It's usually expressed as a percentage. For example, if a battery's maximum capacity is 100 kWh and it currently holds 50 kWh, the SoC would be 50%. Battery charge level is a critical parameter in electric vehicles and other battery-powered systems. It helps users understand how much energy is available for use and whether the batteryneedscharging.Monitoringthe battery's charge level helps prevent over-discharging, which can damage the battery, and ensures the vehicle or system is operated within its safe and efficient range. Figure 7: Continuous Monitoring of Battery Charge Level a). Battery Charge Level b). Low Battery Threshold In Figure 7 (b). The low battery threshold is a predefined value of battery charge level, usually expressed as a percentage, below which the system considersthebattery to be low on charge. It's a critical point used to trigger various actions, such as warnings to the user, energy-saving measures, or initiating charging. For instance, a low battery threshold set at 20% might indicate that the battery is running low, prompting the user to charge the vehicle or take measures to conserve energy. 5. CONCLUSIONS This study showcases the successful integrationofMATLAB- based simulation techniques in designing a fast-charging station for electric vehicles. The simulation results provide valuable insights into the station's performance, efficiency, safety, and grid compatibility. As the world transitions towards a more sustainable transportation ecosystem, the development ofreliableand efficientcharginginfrastructure, as demonstrated in this study, plays a pivotal role in accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles. REFERENCES [1]. M. C. Kisacikoglu, A. Bedir, B. Ozpineci, and L. M. Tolbert, “PHEV- EV charger technologyassessment withanemphasis on V2G operation,” Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Tech. Rep. ORNL/TM-2010/221, Mar. 2012. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 908
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