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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1279
A survey paper on Various biometric security system methods
Ms. Shraddha S. Giradkar1, Dr. N. K. Choudhari2
1 M. Tech student , Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Priyadarshini Bhagwati college of
Engineering , Maharashtra, India
2Principal & Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering , Priyadarshini Bhagwati college of
Engineering , Maharashtra, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract -- Security is the major problem in a day to day
life. Many high level industry uses biometric security for
recognition of their employees such as iris, thumb ,face etc.
There are so many systems available for security, but that
systems are not so reliable. To ensure the actual presence of a
real trait against a fake self generated sample biometric
system is used. This developing system is reliable and precise.
In this project we present a software and hardwarebasedfake
detection method which can be used in multibiometric system
to detect different fraudulent access attempts. This paper
focuses on iris recognition, fingerprint recognition and face
recognition. In this survey we present an overview of various
biometric methods for security.
KeyWords: Iris recognition, face recognition,
fingerprint recognition, biometrics, security
1.INTRODUCTION
The science and technology of measuring and analyzing
biological data is referred as Biometric. Biometrics are that
kind of system which can provide more security to user.Any
fake trait can capture the characteristics and behaviour of
human beings. But every human being has theirownunique
identity. That is why it can not easily copied by anyone.
There are many biometric securitysystems availablesuchas
iris recognition ,fingerprint recognition, face recognition,
signature recognition, voice recognition, hand geometry
recognition,etc.
In biometric security system there is no need to remember
passwords or PINs ,so there is no chance of stolen or
forgotten the passwords or PIN, therefore it is more secure
system than any other security systems.Generallybiometric
system have three steps i.e. receiving data, encryption and
analysis of received data.
2. Various Methods Of Biometric security systems:
A] In the year 2003, the authors Salil prabhakar, Sharath
Pankanti and Anil k. Jain [5] proposed the biometric security
and privacy system for fingerprint recognition. The paper
proposed the approach of enrollment, verification and
identification to provide confidentiality and security. In
proposed Scheme the enrollment module first enroll the
person into biometric database. During enrollment process
,the persons characteristics are first scan by the biometric
reader to produce digital representation. In verification
process already enrolled person claims an identity and
system then start verification based on their characteristics.
After that identification task identifies the claim persons
identity.
But the drawback of this method is that there are two types
of errors were introduced : wrong biometric measurement
from two different individuals to be from same persons and
wrong biometric measurement from same persons to be
from two different individuals.
B] Watermarking Scheme for iris:
Authors Jing Dong and Tieniu Tan proposed a biometric
security system for iris recognition. In year 2008, they
studied two methods for iris recognition, namely
protection of iris template by hiding the mincoverimages as
watermarks and watermarking the images of iris.
Experimental results suggest embedding of watermark in
iris images does not provide better performance instead of
that recognition performance drops significantly if iris
watermark suffers due to severe attack[1].
C] Canny Edge detection Technique for iris:
In year 2011,the authors Bhavana chouhan and Shailaja
Shukla proposed a biometric security systemwhichis based
on automatic identification of an individual .Iris recognition
totally depend on unique attribute and characteristics of an
individual.
Basically it focuses on image segmentation and feature
extraction. Especially the iris recognition system depend on
edge detection. Most commonly used tool of image
processing for edge detection is canny edge detection
technique which detects edges very robust .Canny edge
detection technique detects unnecessary eges which does
not provide appropriate result. This feature extraction
method is unable to collect useful information from the
image of iris that is not properly segmented[2].
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1280
D] AdaBoost algorithm for face and Retinex
algorithm for iris:
Authors Yeong Gon Kim ,Kwang Yong Shin, Eui Chul Lee and
Kang Ryoung Park in the year 2012 proposed scheme on
recognition of face and both irises. In the proposed scheme
the face regions are detected by using AdaBoost algorithm
where as eye regions are detected by using rapid eye
detection. After that the size normalization is performed to
remove the variations occured in detected facial region and
Retinex algorithm is used to normalized the illumination.
Then facial features are acquired by using principal
component analysis from normalized result of facial region.
At the end matching score of Euclidean distance is
calculated which is required as an input to support vector
machine.
In case of iris recognition, region of iris is segmented by
using integer based CED and with an eyelid/eyelash
detection technique. Finally matching score of Hamming
distance is calculated and applied as an input to support
vector machine.
The drawback of this method is that in case of iris
recognition if an iris regions of an individuals are more
covered by eyelid/eyelashes can affect the performance of
system. In case of face recognition ,facial images of severe
rotation and extreme facial expression such as surprise can
affect the performance of system[3].
E] Fingerprint and Iris recognition using Fuzzy
Logic Scheme:
In year 2013, authors Mohamad Abdolahi,MajidMohamadi,
Mehdi Jafari studied the biometric security fusion system
using fingerprint and iris with fuzzy logic. In the fingerprint
recognition, bifurcations and terminates are stored and
recognised as one feature, so that each minutia can be easily
determined , identified and stored with parameters X,Y and
its tangent angle. In addition to proposed method, two 64
bits code is used, one for terminates and another for
bifurcations which collectively combine them to 128 bits
unique code. After getting 128 bit code from new image of
fingerprint it starts comparing with the code stored in
database and starts finding code with minimum difference.
This difference number is then stored in fuzzy logic engine.
Iris is a part of eye, which control the amount of light
entering in to pupil. In case iris recognition the first obtain
the image of iris with good resolution which is referred as
image acquisition. In segmentation ,first find out the size of
image and centre pixel by dividing row and column. So that
pixel is in the pupil region and its clear pupil is the part of
eye that is why it can move to the right side of pixel
with a high amount of difference intensityandmark it, move
left to the pixel with a high amount of difference intensity
and mark it and find the centre of these points. Do the same
and find top and bottom and centre of them. Now with these
centre and peripheral acquired points we can find the real
pupil centre with centre point and maximum distance
drawing a pupil circle performing the same task to find the
iris region and extract iris from eye image. In this way
segmentation is carried out .After that gabor filterisusedfor
feature extraction. After compairing the new images of iris
with the stored database by using hamming code algorithm,
code obtained with minimum difference is stored in fuzzy
logic engine[4].
To overcome the drawbacks of previouspapers,Theauthors
Javier Galbally, Sébastien Marcel and Julian Fierrez [6]in the
year 2014 they proposed a scheme where iris, fingerprint,
face are used as an input to the system which is then
compared with stored database. If applied image is matched
with stored database of any of three inputs then data is
transferred to the microcontroller by wireless technology
using transreceiver. By making comparative analysis with
previous papers this paper achieved better performance in
terms of security.
3. CONCLUSIONS
Preserving Security is very important nowadays. Various
methods of biometrics has been heavily researched in the
recent years. This survey summarizes the various methods
and algorithm used for biometric recognition like iris,
fingerprint and face.
By making use of image quality measurement it is very easy
to identify the real and fake user because fake identities few
different features than the original one it always consists of
different colour, general artifacts, luminancelevels,quantity
of information and quantity of sharpness, which may be
found in both types of images, structural distortions and
natural appearance. Multibiometric system is a challenging
system than unibiometric system aswell asitismoresecure.
This paper focuses on only three biometric system such as
face recognition, iris recognition, fingerprint recognition.
This type of multibiometric system is used for various
applications. In futureformakingthismultibiometricsystem
more reliable and secure then add one more type of
biometric system and try to make system more improving.
REFERENCES
[1] Jing Dong, Tieniu Tan," Effects of Watermarking on Iris
Recognition Performance", 10th Intl Conf. on
Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Hanoi,
Vietnam, 17–20 December 2008
[2] Bhawna chouhan, shailja shukla." Iris Recognition
System using canny edge detection for Biometric
Identification", Interrnational Journal of engineering
Sciences and Technology (IJEST),ISSN:0975-5462Vol.
3 No. I Jan 2011
[3] Yeong Gon Kim, Kwang Yong Shin, Eui Chul Lee and
Kang Ryoung Park ''Multimodal Biometric System
Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises''
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1281
International Journal of Advanced Robotic system
2012, Vol. 9, 65:2012
[4] Mohamad Abdolahi, Majid Mohamadi, Mehdi Jafari ''
Multimodal Biometric system FusionUsingFingerprint
and Iris with Fuzzy Logic '' International Journal of Soft
Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307,
Volume-2, Issue-6, January 2013 504
[5] Salil prabhakar, Sharath Pankanti and Anil k. Jain,''
Biometric Recognition: Security and Privacy
Concerns",published by the IEEE computer society
1540-7993/03/2003
[6] Javier Galbally, Sébastien Marcel and Julian Fierrez,''
Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric
Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint,and Face
Recognition",IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
vol. 23, no. 2, feb2014
[7] A. K. Jain, K. Nandakumar, and A. Nagar, “Biometric
template security,” EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process., vol.
2008, pp. 113–129, Jan. 2008.
[8] J. Galbally, F. Alonso-Fernandez, J. Fierrez, and J.
Ortega-Garcia,“A high performancefingerprintliveness
detection method based on quality related features,”
Future Generat. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 1, 2012.
[9] K. A. Nixon, V. Aimale, and R. K. Rowe, “Spoof detection
schemes,” Handbook of Biometrics. New York, NY, USA:
Springer-Verlag, 2008, pp. 403–423.2009
[10] M. M. Chakka, A. Anjos, S. Marcel, R. Tronci, B. Muntoni,
G. Fadda, et al., “Competitiononcountermeasuresto2D
facial spoofing attacks,”
in Proc. IEEE IJCB, Oct. 2011, pp. 1–6.
[11] J. Galbally, J. Fierrez, F. Alonso-Fernandez, and M.
Martinez-Diaz,“Evaluation of direct attacks to
fingerprint verification systems,”J. Telecommun. Syst.,
vol. 47, nos. 3–4, pp. 243–254, 2011.
[12] A. Anjos and S. Marcel, “Counter-measures to photo
attacks in face recognition: A public database and a
baseline,” in Proc. IEEE IJCB, Oct. 2011, pp. 1–7.
[13] (2010). Trusted Biometrics Under Spoofing Attacks
(TABULA RASA) [Online]. Available:
http://www.tabularasa-euproject.org/
[14] J. Galbally, R. Cappelli, A. Lumini, G. G. de Rivera, D.
Maltoni, J. Fierrez, et al., “An evaluation of direct and
indirect attacks using fake fingers generated from ISO
templates,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 31,no. 8, pp.
725–732, 2010.
[15] J. Hennebert, R. Loeffel, A. Humm,andR.Ingold,“A new
forgery scenario based on regaining dynamics of
signature,” in Proc. IAPR ICB, vol. Springer LNCS-4642.
2007, pp. 366–375.
[16] A. Hadid, M. Ghahramani, V. Kellokumpu, M.
Pietikainen, J. Bustard, and M. Nixon, “Can gait
biometrics be spoofed?” in Proc. IAPR ICPR, 2012, pp.
3280–3283.
[17] Z. Akhtar, G. Fumera, G. L. Marcialis, and F. Roli,
“Evaluation of serial and parallel multibiometric
systems under spoofing attacks,” in Proc. IEEE 5th Int.
Conf. BTAS, Sep. 2012, pp. 283–288.

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Survey of biometric security methods

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1279 A survey paper on Various biometric security system methods Ms. Shraddha S. Giradkar1, Dr. N. K. Choudhari2 1 M. Tech student , Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Priyadarshini Bhagwati college of Engineering , Maharashtra, India 2Principal & Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering , Priyadarshini Bhagwati college of Engineering , Maharashtra, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract -- Security is the major problem in a day to day life. Many high level industry uses biometric security for recognition of their employees such as iris, thumb ,face etc. There are so many systems available for security, but that systems are not so reliable. To ensure the actual presence of a real trait against a fake self generated sample biometric system is used. This developing system is reliable and precise. In this project we present a software and hardwarebasedfake detection method which can be used in multibiometric system to detect different fraudulent access attempts. This paper focuses on iris recognition, fingerprint recognition and face recognition. In this survey we present an overview of various biometric methods for security. KeyWords: Iris recognition, face recognition, fingerprint recognition, biometrics, security 1.INTRODUCTION The science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data is referred as Biometric. Biometrics are that kind of system which can provide more security to user.Any fake trait can capture the characteristics and behaviour of human beings. But every human being has theirownunique identity. That is why it can not easily copied by anyone. There are many biometric securitysystems availablesuchas iris recognition ,fingerprint recognition, face recognition, signature recognition, voice recognition, hand geometry recognition,etc. In biometric security system there is no need to remember passwords or PINs ,so there is no chance of stolen or forgotten the passwords or PIN, therefore it is more secure system than any other security systems.Generallybiometric system have three steps i.e. receiving data, encryption and analysis of received data. 2. Various Methods Of Biometric security systems: A] In the year 2003, the authors Salil prabhakar, Sharath Pankanti and Anil k. Jain [5] proposed the biometric security and privacy system for fingerprint recognition. The paper proposed the approach of enrollment, verification and identification to provide confidentiality and security. In proposed Scheme the enrollment module first enroll the person into biometric database. During enrollment process ,the persons characteristics are first scan by the biometric reader to produce digital representation. In verification process already enrolled person claims an identity and system then start verification based on their characteristics. After that identification task identifies the claim persons identity. But the drawback of this method is that there are two types of errors were introduced : wrong biometric measurement from two different individuals to be from same persons and wrong biometric measurement from same persons to be from two different individuals. B] Watermarking Scheme for iris: Authors Jing Dong and Tieniu Tan proposed a biometric security system for iris recognition. In year 2008, they studied two methods for iris recognition, namely protection of iris template by hiding the mincoverimages as watermarks and watermarking the images of iris. Experimental results suggest embedding of watermark in iris images does not provide better performance instead of that recognition performance drops significantly if iris watermark suffers due to severe attack[1]. C] Canny Edge detection Technique for iris: In year 2011,the authors Bhavana chouhan and Shailaja Shukla proposed a biometric security systemwhichis based on automatic identification of an individual .Iris recognition totally depend on unique attribute and characteristics of an individual. Basically it focuses on image segmentation and feature extraction. Especially the iris recognition system depend on edge detection. Most commonly used tool of image processing for edge detection is canny edge detection technique which detects edges very robust .Canny edge detection technique detects unnecessary eges which does not provide appropriate result. This feature extraction method is unable to collect useful information from the image of iris that is not properly segmented[2].
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056 Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1280 D] AdaBoost algorithm for face and Retinex algorithm for iris: Authors Yeong Gon Kim ,Kwang Yong Shin, Eui Chul Lee and Kang Ryoung Park in the year 2012 proposed scheme on recognition of face and both irises. In the proposed scheme the face regions are detected by using AdaBoost algorithm where as eye regions are detected by using rapid eye detection. After that the size normalization is performed to remove the variations occured in detected facial region and Retinex algorithm is used to normalized the illumination. Then facial features are acquired by using principal component analysis from normalized result of facial region. At the end matching score of Euclidean distance is calculated which is required as an input to support vector machine. In case of iris recognition, region of iris is segmented by using integer based CED and with an eyelid/eyelash detection technique. Finally matching score of Hamming distance is calculated and applied as an input to support vector machine. The drawback of this method is that in case of iris recognition if an iris regions of an individuals are more covered by eyelid/eyelashes can affect the performance of system. In case of face recognition ,facial images of severe rotation and extreme facial expression such as surprise can affect the performance of system[3]. E] Fingerprint and Iris recognition using Fuzzy Logic Scheme: In year 2013, authors Mohamad Abdolahi,MajidMohamadi, Mehdi Jafari studied the biometric security fusion system using fingerprint and iris with fuzzy logic. In the fingerprint recognition, bifurcations and terminates are stored and recognised as one feature, so that each minutia can be easily determined , identified and stored with parameters X,Y and its tangent angle. In addition to proposed method, two 64 bits code is used, one for terminates and another for bifurcations which collectively combine them to 128 bits unique code. After getting 128 bit code from new image of fingerprint it starts comparing with the code stored in database and starts finding code with minimum difference. This difference number is then stored in fuzzy logic engine. Iris is a part of eye, which control the amount of light entering in to pupil. In case iris recognition the first obtain the image of iris with good resolution which is referred as image acquisition. In segmentation ,first find out the size of image and centre pixel by dividing row and column. So that pixel is in the pupil region and its clear pupil is the part of eye that is why it can move to the right side of pixel with a high amount of difference intensityandmark it, move left to the pixel with a high amount of difference intensity and mark it and find the centre of these points. Do the same and find top and bottom and centre of them. Now with these centre and peripheral acquired points we can find the real pupil centre with centre point and maximum distance drawing a pupil circle performing the same task to find the iris region and extract iris from eye image. In this way segmentation is carried out .After that gabor filterisusedfor feature extraction. After compairing the new images of iris with the stored database by using hamming code algorithm, code obtained with minimum difference is stored in fuzzy logic engine[4]. To overcome the drawbacks of previouspapers,Theauthors Javier Galbally, Sébastien Marcel and Julian Fierrez [6]in the year 2014 they proposed a scheme where iris, fingerprint, face are used as an input to the system which is then compared with stored database. If applied image is matched with stored database of any of three inputs then data is transferred to the microcontroller by wireless technology using transreceiver. By making comparative analysis with previous papers this paper achieved better performance in terms of security. 3. CONCLUSIONS Preserving Security is very important nowadays. Various methods of biometrics has been heavily researched in the recent years. This survey summarizes the various methods and algorithm used for biometric recognition like iris, fingerprint and face. By making use of image quality measurement it is very easy to identify the real and fake user because fake identities few different features than the original one it always consists of different colour, general artifacts, luminancelevels,quantity of information and quantity of sharpness, which may be found in both types of images, structural distortions and natural appearance. Multibiometric system is a challenging system than unibiometric system aswell asitismoresecure. This paper focuses on only three biometric system such as face recognition, iris recognition, fingerprint recognition. This type of multibiometric system is used for various applications. In futureformakingthismultibiometricsystem more reliable and secure then add one more type of biometric system and try to make system more improving. REFERENCES [1] Jing Dong, Tieniu Tan," Effects of Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance", 10th Intl Conf. on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Hanoi, Vietnam, 17–20 December 2008 [2] Bhawna chouhan, shailja shukla." Iris Recognition System using canny edge detection for Biometric Identification", Interrnational Journal of engineering Sciences and Technology (IJEST),ISSN:0975-5462Vol. 3 No. I Jan 2011 [3] Yeong Gon Kim, Kwang Yong Shin, Eui Chul Lee and Kang Ryoung Park ''Multimodal Biometric System Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises''
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