Ensuring Health and Safety


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Ensuring Health and Safety

  1. 1. NQF level 5: BTEC Higher National — H1HND Health and Social Care (Management & Care Practice) In Course Completion of UNIT 3: ENSURING HEALTH AND SAFETY Submitted this _____ Submitted to: Submitted by: 1
  2. 2. Contents:Answer to Question 1 - 1.1 3Answer to Question 1 - 1.1 4Answer to Question 1 - 1.2 4Answer to Question 1 - 1.2 5Answer to Question 1 - 1.3 5Answer to Question 1 - 1.3 6Answer to Question 1 – 1.4 7Answer to Question 2 - 2.1 8Answer to Question 2 - 2.2 9Answer to Question 2 - 2.2 10Answer to Question 2 - 2.3 10Answer to Question 2 - 2.3 11Answer to Question 2 - 2.4 11Answer to Question 3 – 3.1 12Answer to Question 3 – 3.2 13Answer to Question 3 – 3.3 14References 15Bibliography 16Appendix 17 2
  3. 3. Answer to question 1 – 1.1There are five steps involved in a risk assessment, these are namely: hazard identification,knowing the people at risk, risk evaluation and identification of precautionary measures,gathering of the output and implementation of actions/activities and review and revision. Thefirst step involves being able to point the areas that is in need of a remedy and constantmonitoring. In the given scenario, risk assessment was displayed upon the recognition of theflaws that the management of the hospital has seen. In the given situation, the areas needing acall for change are the security system of the hospital, accident prone zones and the breach ofinfection control. Risk assessment is a very important step towards radical change andimprovement.The second step involved is knowing which of the people are vulnerable to the type of health andsecurity threat identified. This will allow the planner or the change agent to become aware ofwhich groups are to be targeted and how activities and processes will be designed. Basing fromthe given scenario, it was clearly stated that the institution caters different age groups withvarious problems. Therefore, the type of plan that must be created shall compliment each agebrackets and type of illness that a patient has. The third step is to evaluate the risk and to takenote of the precautionary measures. In this stage, you must assess the severity and seriousness ofthe risk. If there are several risks identified then all of them must be attended according toprioritization. The most severe case must be entertained first since this has the capability todirectly provoke danger. Identification of the risks has to be followed by listing down the thingsthat must be done in response to the threats. In the scenario, tips and falls cases can beeradicated through placing a proper signage if the maintenance man hasn’t arrived yet. Fireexists can be made clear by implementing a proper exit route and fire alarms can be reactivatedand be repaired instantly by doing a regular maintenance check-up of all the hospital equipmentsto see whether they are still efficient or not. Visitors can also be limited by imposing strictvisiting hours and controlling the number of people who can visit.Data gathering and implementation, which is the fourth step, are made possible by recordingevery single entry that has been observed and catered. This will then become the basis during 3
  4. 4. the evaluation period. Evaluations are done to see whether improvements have beenimplemented. The elements which are assessed including the planned interventions will now beput into action. The last step includes review and revision; this is done after ample time has beengiven for change provision. In the scenario, six months was given as the target period. After sixmonths, the elements that are found to be affecting the health and safety of the hospital will bere-evaluated to see whether improvement has taken place or not. Revision will take placewhether the kind of change taking place is good or bad. The data gathered from the start need tobe compiled for future references.Word count: 521Answer to Question 1 – 1.2Health and safety at work act 1974 and Health and Safety at Work regulations 1992 are twotypes of policy that allows workers to be protected by supplementing them with enoughinformation necessary to prevent any work related accidents from occurring. These policies aimto legally require the stakeholders or employers to provide the privileges that are needed by theirworkers and not to allow any form of health hazard to affect the lives of the people. Theprocedures behind these two policies also require the business operators to continually assesshealth risks and revise institutional policies whenever necessary. Upon formulation of thepolicy, the content must be clearly communicated to the workforce including the people involvedin the policy composition. The purposes, objectives and systems must be clearly stated and bereflected in the organisational chart. This guides the workers as to how the flow of proceduresgoes and the people who are strongly involved.Implementation of health and safety policies means giving out trainings. However, beforeimplementing such change, rule or regulation, employees must primarily be consulted and theirconcerns shall be considered. Consultation is a way of making the entire team feel part of thedecision making process and this also avoids post objections. Other than that, consultation canalso prevent culture shocks since even a small amount of change can already affect the workers.A careful consideration must be given by allowing enough time for this. The Management for 4
  5. 5. Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 is a great way to keep the skills of the care workersup-to-date. This doesn’t only provide assistance to the employees but it can also help in theoverall improvement of the institution. Those in the field of health care can greatly benefit fromthis since the field of medicine and health and social care involves a constant skill up grade. Dueto the advantage it brings both to the service providers and employers, resources are also savedfrom being used up for worker medical assistance.Another policy is the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health; it is pretty much selfexplanatory. Proper trainings and information dissemination is still their primary concern suchas using protective gears and emergency procedures involved. The Signpost to the Health andSafety Regulation of 1996 concentrates on the labeling of materials, equipments and othersubstances. This provides awareness to the people by making generic posts.Word count: 398Answer to Question 1 – 1.3Since I am currently employed in a hotel company, I would love to examine the responsibilitiesof my workplace with regards to the management of health and safety. Basing from theorganisational chart found on the Appendix section of the paper [page 17],the lines represent theinvolved personnel responsible for maintaining good levels of health and safety. Along with thegeneral manager and executive secretary, the food and beverage manager, executive housekeeper, executive assistant manager, chief engineering and the finance and account controller arethe ones primarily responsible in identifying, planning and implementing policies. Thesubordinates under each of these departments with exemption to the general manager andexecutive secretary also play a role in identifying factors which are in need of furtherconcentration. The problems and resolution will all be brainstormed according to eachdepartment and the head is tasked to communicate these on the upper department. Theimportance of the organisational flow chart is its representation of the clear chain-of-commandof the whole company. 5
  6. 6. When all of the subordinates were able to properly voice out their ideas, thoughts and concerns,the policy formation starts and shall be communicated back to the subordinates. Under the foodand beverage manager is the executive chef, assistant FB manager and the executive sous chef.Maintenance of health and safety issues can be through the form of policies related to the safefood handling since the subordinates under this department is specifically responsible on hands-on food preparation. The health and safety for the consumers is therefore monitored by thisdepartment by implementing strict compliance to food sanitation procedures. On the part of theworkers, their health and safety is protected by giving them proper training and selfprotectiveequipments.Health and safety is maintained by the executive housekeeper through the provision of policieswhich would require facility check-ups, sanitation maintenance on each room and other relatedactivities. The front office manager is the one responsible for keeping security systems tight bymonitoring the flow of customers who are using the services and keeping track of those whowould like to contact the guests. The profile of each guest would also be kept private as this canhelp promote safety. The chief engineering is the one responsible for the overall mechanicalsystems involved in running the hotel and restaurant. Health and safety is at its best when everysystem is properly monitored and checked regularly. This can help prevent power outage or anydamage that can result to harmful incidents such as fire. The finance and account controllerdepartment manages the financial input and out flows. Vital and private records are also beingkept and this promotes privacy and safety on the part of the service users. The human resourcemanager and the training manager are all responsible for the worker trainings, provision of skillupgrades through seminars and screening of qualified applicants in accordance to therequirements needed by the hotel e.g. health related issues (contagious disease free employees).The executive secretary on the other hand communicates every concern through centralization,decentralization or upward information relay. Everything communicated by the general managerto the subordinates or vice versa has to be recorded by the executive secretary including otherlegal or non-legal concerns. Implementation of safety is primarily on the confidentiality issues.Word count: 552 6
  7. 7. Answer to Question 1 – 1.4Basing from the given scenario, the health, safety and security priorities rests on the issuesregarding the accident prone zones, loss of private things owned by the clients, unsecureinstitution, unclear fire exists, malfunctioning fire alarms, breach of nosocomial control,unequipped and uncompetitive health workers. All of these priorities, however, must be attendedaccording to prioritization. In here, the disease outbreak within the hospital is the primaryconcern since this doesn’t only harm the workers but including the health service users. Properattention must be given to this by changing and reforming policies to make it more affective.Hygiene, sanitation and infection control procedures must altogether be used as a change agent.Next priority must be given to the unskilled health workers. This means that proper trainingsand seminars shall be provided. If health workers lack the ability to provide efficient care to itsservice users then there’s no sense in making institutional reforms since this alone is alsodependent on the involved stakeholders.The third important issue is the accident prone zones. Tips and falls are small avoidableincidents that are totally preventable; such problems can be solved immediately by improvingcommunication systems among the health workers in each department. Placing signage andimmediate referrals are among the common and simple activities that can help preventoccurrence of health threatening accidents. Next in line are the security issues and safety ofclient’s belongings. There must be a reform in hospital security policies by controlling thenumber of visitors per patients, implementing strict visiting hours and keeping a log book forevery outsider who wish to visit a certain client. Service users must also be informed andreminded regarding the non-accountability of the institution with regards to such events and theymust always be made aware of their personal belongings.Regular upgrades and maintenance must be implemented not only for the fire alarms and fireextinguishers but including the equipments needed for the hospital day-to-day use. Specific areareconstruction can be done in order to enhance the proper exit routes and a generic signage canbe followed in order to help both clients and workers be guided in case of emergency. 7
  8. 8. Word count: 362Answer to Question 2 – 2.1Risk assessment is an effective tool in determining care plans. It is also a perfect basis fororganisational decision making for formulation of institutional policies and procedures. Theinformation gathered through risk assessment can identify the areas which are in need of actionor change. Care plans are designed to help identify the activities suited for each objective. Acare plan needs to contain elements such as: assessment, diagnosis, objective/goal,implementation and evaluation. Assessment or risk assessment, as you can see, is part of thecare plan itself, which is why risk assessments are necessary. One good example for this is theneed for manual handling of patients, safety, health issues and security.Diagnosis is based from the data coming from the assessment area; in this section all of theproblems are being listed. The objectives or goals are then determined according to thepresented problems. In this area, the changes that an individual wants to achieve must beenumerated. The activities that are helpful in acquiring the goals will then be placed under theimplementation section. The evaluation part will then determine the things that an individualwants to see after such identified activities have already taken place. This is how valuable riskassessment is especially as a part of the care plan for individuals, this technique is applicable forboth health related and non-health related workers.For organisational policies and procedures, risk assessments still possess a significant role.Without risk assessments, the institution will never be able to determine areas in need of achange. There will never be room for improvements since in order for an organisation to decidefor a change or enhancement, there must always be a basis. From the given scenario, thehospital’s identification of setbacks is one form of risk assessment. Due to the gatheredinformation coming from the risk assessment, the need for policy reform was greatly realized bythe institution. Regular monitoring and evaluation are then adopted by the hospital in six monthstime. 8
  9. 9. Word count: 334Answer to Question 2 – 2.2Dilemmas that may arise include the resistance of care workers to change, culture shock, serviceuser’s inability to follow new set of guidelines, expenses needed to achieve change, resistance ofold workers to undergo trainings and seminars and lack of information delivery. These problemsare commonly seen on institutions that lack the ability to recognize its employees’ needs,concerns and thoughts. Before new policies and procedures take place, meetings must be held inorder to allow proper information dissemination and brainstorming of ideas. The employeesmust always be considered because they are the ones who will strongly be affected. To avoidresistance, workers must also be educated with regards to the need of the change and its purpose.Culture shock is also one form of hindrance to change progress since adjustments takes time. Itwould be hard to alter a work environment, proper time allowance must be given to theemployees.Service users are sometimes unable to comprehend the need for a company’s change since theyare the external part of the stakeholders. Institutions sometimes forget the significance of havingthe aims and purposes of such change communicated to the service users. Loyal consumers canbecome used to the old and usual way of doing transactions with the institution and might getconfused and irritated for such change to instantly occur. If change is urgent, this can be solvedby appointing employees responsible in assisting service users e.g. customer servicerepresentatives. Another major dilemma is the source of budget and other resources, aninstitutional reform can become very costly especially those which demand great change fromthe policy, equipments and down to the whole system itself. This problem can be addressed byasking for support funding coming from government organisations. Proper budgeting and aserious resource allocation to those which are only necessary are also needed.The worker’s resistance to change can be changed by givingemployees with enough time foradjustments and bombarding them with information. The information must not only contain theprobable gains of the institution, it must also include the benefits of the care workers both 9
  10. 10. monetary and nonmonetary gains e.g. skill upgrades. Information delivery on the other hand is avery important method for institutions to acquire favor from the employees. The changes mustbe communicated very well by implementing a general gathering and reevaluations must alsoinclude the stakeholders. Possible rewards and recognition must also be given to the employeessince this can increase their confidence and they can reap encouragements out of this.Word count: 421Answer to Question 2 – 2.3In my experience, I can say that health and safety policies both affect the service consumers andthe workers since both need to abide with the standing rules and regulations implemented by theinstitution. On the part of the service consumers, health and safety policies can protect themfrom any danger and threats that they can possibly acquire the moment they choose to indulge onthe services offered by a certain institution. In a hospital, health and safety policies include thepresence of isolation wards, protective gears, visiting hours, and the signage that discourageshealth service users to be lenient with regards to the security of their personal belongings. Thesepolicies are all for the purpose of the client’s welfare.Moreover, on the part of the health workers, policies intended for them can include the basicrules which involve handling patients up to the professional issues e.g. chain-of-command. Thepolicies that are present on the hospitals are followed for the purpose of organisation andprotection. The imposed standard procedures e.g. use of gloves and reporting of needle prickaccidents are all for the benefit of the worker’s condition. The seminars which are beingsponsored by the institution are part of the policies (the need to provide growth of knowledge) isboth for the purpose of helping the workers increase its own learning and at the same time for theemployer to make use of its newly acquired skills. However, this does not only benefit theemployers and employees alone because the service consumers can also get a taste of the productof the new skills and knowledge held by the health workers themselves. The importance of theworker’s compliance to the regulations identified by the hospital is also the harmony andcooperation it creates. All, if not, most of the institutions have existing policies and procedures 10
  11. 11. which are for the purpose of creating unification of the entire workforce. The intentions of theemployers must also obviously flow on how they handle the health workers.Word count: 334Answer to Question 2 – 2.4A healthy, safe and secure environment is something that every human being yearns for. Inwork, this accounts for a big chunk of responsibility but they are all attainable. Knowing thevarious benefits and advantages that policies and laws can give to the workers can empower theemployees. In my own experience as part of kitchen staff, I am exposed to several health threatse.g. corrosive chemicals, handling and cleaning unclean surfaces and etc. Due to the kind ofwork nature I have, I am also concern of my own well being. Exposure to corrosive chemicalscan burn my skin without proper protective gears. Frequent handling of dirty things can increasemy chances of acquiring infection and other diseases. I used to be tolerant on these things since Ihave no idea on the things that I can do to protect myself and I admit my lenient attitude towardswork safety despite my awareness. After knowing the lessons in this subject, I realized that thereis actually no need for me to sacrifice my well being for the sake of my job since I can fulfill myduties and be at my best health at the same time.I raised up the issue to our kitchen head and she gladly fulfilled her duty in providing us moreprotective equipments and proper training. I am glad that I wasn’t only able to help myself butthe entire workforce benefited from the voiced out concern. Everyone in our work place tookpart of one’s own and each other’s responsibility in maintaining health, safety and security in ourenvironment. Out from this learning, I also realized the need of each worker to be educated ontheir rights, responsibilities and benefits. Information dissemination must be made since this cangreatly help on each employee’s wellbeing as a worker and a contributor of the economy’sgrowth.Word count: 315 11
  12. 12. Answer to Question 3 – 3.1Health and safety policies and practices are all monitored and reviewed for the purpose ofincreasing quality systems and at the same time in response to today’s ever changing world ofhealth care. Monitoring and review are all essential parts of quality assurance. This is done asthe last step to risk assessment. Monitoring and review involves checking the progress on theoutput of the policies and practices implemented, checking developments and even fall backs.This is the easiest and most urgent way in keeping the system up-to-date and making sure thatthe implemented change is not put to waste. If recurrence of problems occurs, these dilemmasare then identified in the earliest time being.The data gathered during the past risk assessment must be reviewed and checked to see ifproblems are still existing. The past risk assessment will then serve as the first attempt and thesecond will be the first monitoring and review done. Take note of any positive or negativeimpacts brought by the implemented change. Everything must be recorded since this willbecome the basis. An exact date must be set and this will serve as the regular system monitoringand review. Aside from reevaluating the previous assessment made, it is also important to takenote on the goals and objectives, planned interventions and evaluations to see if there are thingsthat are not met and also to determine the factors that are successfully attained.After reviewing the data, an overall report to be communicated with the entire stakeholders mustbe spread. This will encourage and motivate the whole team to continue the good performance.However, if the results are terrible, then this will push the whole team to strive for moreexcellence and improvement. It is always helpful to communicate every successful including thenon satisfactoryoutcome since the workers are primarily the big contributors for such results.Word count: 315 12
  13. 13. Answer to Question 3 – 3.2Every working environment has its own health risk to contribute. An office work can pose agreat threat to health in terms of stress and pressure overload. A more physical work e.g.construction and porter men are at risk of hazards and accidents that may lead to disability. TheHealth and Safety Executive (n.d.) annual figures for the year 2008/2009 states that: 1.2 million people who worked during the last year were suffering from an illness (long standing as well as new cases) they believed was caused or made worse by their current or past work. 551 000 of these were new cases.Due to the dangers that are currently causing some strain on the part of the employees andemployers, several regulations have been implemented by the government to increase protection.Other than giving out preventive regulations, health promotive measures were also found to bethe best way to avoid illness and other work related diseases. A press release coming fromtheEuropean Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) by Müller et. al. (2010)recognized the decrease of illness and illness related absence including fruitful and enhanced jobperformance after applying the workplace health promotion programmes. This is a strongevidence implying the effectivity of such adaptation of practice in the working area. This willnot only benefit the employees since the return of efficient work performance will also becomean advantage to the companies.On the other hand, there were negative reports regarding workers who are attempting to use theseprotection regulations as a means of abusing the legislation for one’s own benefit (Turner, 2010).The policies both have a positive and negative effect but the consideration of progressiveoutcomes are obviously much more important. Abuse to the legislation must also be controlledand be eliminated in order to maintain the efficiency of the health and safety policies andpractices.Word count: 314 13
  14. 14. Answer to Question 3 – 3.3Relating to my current job, my own contribution in placing the health, safety and security inother individuals rests on my ability to perform the job well and practicing basic hygienicmeasures especially that I am dealing with the customer’s utensils. Aside from that, I am alsotasked in maintaining proper order on the kitchen area and cleaning the surroundings. Having awork place that is properly sanitized and organised reduces the chances of work related illnesses.Same is true with the service users since any disease outbreaks can make the restaurantaccountable.Many reports have already been released with regards to the food safety handling issues and theinnocent people can be affected with worker’s inability to perform its own job very well. Safetyis also ensured to every worker in the restaurant especially when wet floors are attendedimmediately, dangerous kitchen equipments are properly placed and when every machine isregularly checked. Fire related accidents are very prominent in the kitchen area and it is hard notto take precautionary measures and do standards procedures since this can result to probablehealth hazards.In my second job as a cleaner, students can sometimes become forgetful and they tend to leavetheir personal belongings. I report such circumstances since implementing security must also bepart of my priority. Good health is also promoted by thoroughly cleaning the areas of the schoolsince a dirty environment can become a good place for bacteria to harbor. Safety is furtherimplemented by leaving floors dry after mopped and performing this only when there are nolonger students loitering. Through these ways, other people’s rights to health, safety andsecurity are properly addressed and respected. Recognizing the importance of these elements isessential to having an environment that is a promoter of health.Word count: 300 14
  15. 15. ReferencesHealth and Safety Executive, n.d.Health and safety statistics [Online]. Available at:http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/index.htm [Accessed 2 August 2010]Müller, B., Urrutia, M. & O’Brien, B., 2010.Workplace Health Promotion improves productivityand well-being [Online]. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/workplace-health-promotion-improves-productivity-and-well-being [Accessed 2 August 2010]Purwanto, A., 2009. Hotel Organization Chart [Online]. Available at:http://www.scribd.com/doc/13269637/Hotel-Organization-Chart-Full [Accessed 31 July 2010]Turner, K., 2010. Health and safety used as an excuse, Judith Hackitt warns [Online].Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/press/2010/hse-lordyoung.htm [Accessed 2 August 2010]Bibliography 15
  16. 16. Health and Safety Executive, n.d.Injury analysis – priority programmes: slips and trips[Online]. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/causinj/slips.htm [Accessed 2 August2010]UK National Work Stress Network, 2010.What is work-related stress?[Online]. Available at:http://www.workstress.net/whatis.htm [Accessed 2 August 2010]Appendix 16
  17. 17. HOTEL OGRANISATIONAL CHART(Purwanto, A., 2009. Hotel Organization Chart [Online].) 17