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  1. 1. Joaquin Earl R. Tamayo III-Redhood Mrs. Yolanda Dekapia
  2. 2. PLANT
  3. 3. WHAT IS PLANT? Plant is a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site. PLANT PARTS AND FUNCTIONS The Root The root is the part of the plant that takes in water and minerals for the plant. Roots have root hairs that increase the surface area for more water absorption. The Stem The stem has vessels that transport sap and water throughout the plant. Sap is a nutrient-rich fluid that contains a lot of sugar. The Leaf Two Functions of the Leaf Photosynthesis is the process when leaf cells containing chlorophyll take in carbon dioxide and water and using sunlight, make sugar and oxygen. Transpiration is the loss of water from the leaf. This helps to draw water up through the plant from the roots. The Flower The flower is the organ of reproduction in flowering plants. The male part of the flower is the stamen (composed of the anther where pollen is made and the thin filament). The female part of the flower is the pistil (composed of the stigma, the thin style and the ovary). Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred by insects or wind from the anther to the stigma. Chemicals called enzymes 'drill' a channel down through the style to the ovary where the egg is. Fertilisation occurs when the pollen joins with the egg. After this, a seed forms inside a fruit. Germination is the process when a seed grows into a seedling.
  4. 4. USES OF PLANTS Food -> Starches and sugars, the foods that plants make and store for their own growth, are also the fundamental nutrients that humans and other organisms need in order to live. Clothing -> Much human clothing is made from material that comes directly from plants. Cotton is the principal plant used for clothing manufacture. Artificial textile fibers, such as rayon, are manufactured chiefly from cellulose, which is found mainly in the cell walls of plants. Linen is obtained from the flax plant. Paper -> Plant fibers are placed in water and reduced to a pulp. The water is sieved off, and the pulp is pressed Shelter -> in many parts of the world is made from wood. Plant materials appear in a number of places in human dwellings. Medicine -> people have found that certain plants could be used to relieve their aches and pains. Most medicine men and physicians in ancient cultures were experts on plants. In fact, the study of botany in Europe and America had its beginnings in medicine, when doctors searched for herbs to cure disease. PLANT PROPAGATION is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings, bulbs and other plant parts. Plant propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of plants. Sexual propagation (seed) Seeds and spores can be used for reproduction (through e.g. sowing). Seeds are typically produced from sexual reproduction within a species, because genetic recombination has occurred. A plant grown from seeds may have different characteristics from its parents. Some species produce seeds that require special conditions to germinate, such as cold treatment. The seeds of many Australian plants and plants from southern Africa and the American west require smoke or fire to germinate. Some plant species, including many trees do not produce seeds until they reach maturity, which may take many years. Seeds can be difficult to acquire and some plants do not produce seed at all. Asexual propagation Plants have a number of mechanisms for asexual or vegetative reproduction. Some of these have been taken advantage of by horticulturists and gardeners to multiply or clone plants rapidly. People also use methods that plants do not use, such as tissue culture and grafting. Plants are produced using material from a single parent and as such there is no exchange of genetic material, therefore vegetative propagation methods almost always produce plants that are identical to the parent. Vegetative reproduction uses plants parts such as roots, stems and leaves. In some plants seeds can be produced without fertilization and the seeds contain only the genetic material of the parent plant. Therefore, propagation via asexual seeds or apomixes is asexual reproduction but not vegetative propagation.
  5. 5. MEDICINAL PLANTS Akapulko (scientific name: Cassia alata) - a shrub known to be a diuretic, sudorific and purgative. The medicinal uses of akapulko are to treat fungal infection of the skin and for the treatment of ringworms. English name: ringworm bush. Ampalaya (scientific name: Momordica charantia) - a vegetable used to treat diabetes (diabetes mellitus) it is now commercially produced in tablet form and tea bags. English name: bitter melon and bitter gourd. Atis (scientific name: Anona squamosa L.) - a small tree used as a medicinal herb. The leaves, fruit and seeds are used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and fainting. English name: Sugar apple and Sweet sop. Banaba (scientific name: Lagerstroemia speciosa) - a tree found throughout the Philippines. The leaves, roots, fruit and flowers all have medicinal uses. It is used in the treatment of diabetes and other ailments. It is a purgative and a diuretic. Bawang (scientific name: Allium sativum) - a specie of the onion family. English name: Garlic. It is used to reduce cholesterol in the blood and thus helps lower blood pressure. Bayabas (scientific name: Psidium guajava) - more popularly known as guava, bayabas is a small tree whose boiled leaves are used as an disinfectant to treat wounds. The decoction is also used as a mouth wash to treat gum infection and tooth decay. The bark is also used in children with chronic diarrhea.
  6. 6. Carrot (Scientific name: Daucus carota L.) - Carrot (Karot in Filipino) is an outstanding trait of this flowering plant, which belongs to the family ofApiaceae, is that it is self-fertile. By nature, carrot's flowers have both male and female organs, and are usually pollinated primarily by beetles and flies. Gumamela (scientific name: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn) - called China rose or Hibiscus in the West, it is a common ornamental plant in the Philippines. As a medicinal herb, it is used as an expectorant for coughs, cold, sore throat, fever and bronchitis. Lagundi (scientific name: Vitex negundo) - one of the better known of the medicinal plants in the Philippines, lagundi (five-leaved chaste tree) is a shrub with many medicinal uses. It is used for the relief and treatment of coughs, asthma, dyspepsia, worms, colic, rheumatism and boils. The root is known to be an expectorant, tonic and febrifuge. Luya (scientific name: Zingiber officinale) or Ginger. It is botanically not a root but a rhizome of the monocotyledonous perennial plant. It has many uses as a medicinal herb with antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antiviral, diuretic and antiseptic properties. Mabolo (Scientific name: Diospyros blancoi) - is known for its value as an ornament, rather than for its fruit. Its wood is commonly known in the Philippines as kamagong, and it is the fruit that goes by the name of mabolo. Malunggay (scientific name: Moringa oleifera Lam.) - is known to different parts of the world under various names including, but not limited to, horseradish tree, drumstick tree, and dool in some regions.
  7. 7. Makabuhay (Scientific name: Tinospora rumphii Boerl) - is a clinging vine, and the name itself suggests the primary purpose of such plant. Makabuhay is a Filipino translation of the English term ‘pro-life or to give life’. Niyog-niyogan (scientific name: Quisqualis indica L.) - is a vine that is an effective in the elimination of intestinal worms, particularly the Trichina and Ascaris by ingesting its matured dried seeds. Chew (5 to 7 dried seeds for children or 8 to 10 seeds for adults) two hours after eating. Repeat treatment after a week if necessary. Roasted leaves are also used for fever and diarrhea while pounded leaves are used for skin diseases. English name: Chinese honey suckle. Oregano (scientific name: Origanum vulgare) - a perennial herb with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Commonly used for cooking in the West, it is used as a medicinal plant in the Philippines. A decoction of oregano leaves is taken internally for the prevention of degenerative arthritis, relief of cough, osteoarthritis, asthma and upset stomach. Pandan (sientific name: Pandanus tectorius) - is also known as Fragrant Screw Pine. Its trunk bears plenty of prop roots. Its leaves spirals the branches, and crowds at the end. Pansit-Pansitan (scientific name: Peperomia pellucida Linn.) - an herb used to treat arthritis, gout, skin disorders, abdominal pains and kidney problems. It is applied to the skin as poultice or as a decoction when taken internally. Sabila (scientific name: Aloe barbadensis miller liquid) - one of the most common medicinal plants in the Philippines that can be found in many Filipino homes. It is a succulent plant used to treat burns, cuts, eczema and other disorders. Aloe vera has antiviral, antifungal, antibiotic, antioxidant and antiparasitic properties.
  8. 8. Saluyot (Scientific name: Corchorus capsularis L.) - is a green leafy vegetable that is rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium. It has also been determined that 100 grams of saluyot contains an ample amount of Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and is also rich in fiber. Sambong (scientific name: Blumea balsamifera) - a Philippine medicinal plant used to treat kidney disorders, colds, fever, rheumatism, hypertension and other ailments. As a diuretic, it helps in the excretion of urinary stones. A decoction of leaves is taken internally for treatment. It can also be used as an edema. English name: Blumea Camphora. Silymarin (Scientific name: Silybum marianum) - is a flowering plant of Silybum Adans genus, a member of the daisy family (Asteraceae). It grows mainly in North Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East (now also grown in the U.S.) but is marketed and is widely available in the Philippines as a herbal liver supplement (silymarin capsules, trademark: Liveraide). Tanglad (scientific name: Andropogon citratus DC) - is a permanent or perennial plant, and the benefits of which are not restricted to its fragrance. The utility of tanglad basically lies in its leaves, where all the benefits are derived. Tsaang Gubat (scientific name: Ehretia microphylla Lam.) - a shrub prepared like tea, it is now commercially available in tablets, capsules and tea bags. This medicinal herb is effective in treating diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis and other stomach ailments. It has high fluoride concentration making it a good mouth wash for the prevention of tooth decay. English name: Wild Tea. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) - Although not a medicinal plant, VCO is a product of the coconut tree. VCO is one of the more popular alternative medicine widely used in the Philippines today. It is taken internally for various aliments like diabetes to high blood pressure. Topically, VCO is also applied to the skin and scalp to nourish and heal.