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Report on Redox Flow Batteries – Power sector
June 2014
Future demand assesment & emerging trends
Report by Mr. Irish Pereira
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
2
RFB being a modular and highly flexible technology with very rapid
response, little environmental impact…
3
 A flow battery is an electrochemical device that
converts the chemical energy in the electro-active
materials directly to electrical energy and is similar to a
conventional battery and fuel cells
 The electro-active materials in a flow battery however
are stored mostly externally in an electrolyte and are
introduced into the device only during operation
 Flow batteries are classified into redox flow batteries
and hybrid flow batteries
 In Redox Flow Batteries (RFB) - two liquid electrolyte
dissolutions containing dissolved metal ions as active
masses are pumped to the opposite sides of the
electrochemical cell e.g. Vanadium-vanadium,
Vanadium-bromine, Polysulfid-bromine, Iron-chrome
 In a hybrid flow battery (HFB) - one of the active
masses is internally stored within the electrochemical
cell, whereas the other remains in the liquid electrolyte
and is stored externally in a tank. E.g. Zinc-bromine,
Zinc-cerium, Lead-acid
 Of various types of flow batteries, Vanadium and zinc
flow batteries are mostly adopted technologies
Source: Flow Batteries report by by Trung Nguyen and Robert F. Savinell &
Redox Flow Battery by FRAUNHoFER-INSTITUT FÜR CHEmISCHE TECHNologIE ICT Report tIled „Status and Potential of Redox Flow Batteries”
Schematic of a redox flow battery system
… huge potential for cutting costs and hence are emerging as a very
promising option for stationary storage in general…
4
Vanadium redox battery (VRB) offers significant
benefits over Lithium-ion battery which is currently
the most used storage battery worldwide
 Independent system design for power and capacity
 Output Power Range: kW -- MW;
 Energy Storage Capacity : kWh -- 10MWh
 High efficiency (>75%)
 Long lifetime
 Deep discharge ability, Low self-- discharge, fast
response
 Environmental friendly
 Operation safety
Advantages of Redox Flow Battery
Source: DICP CAS report titled “Redox Flow Battery Technology for Electricity Storage “ &
Energy & Capital report
 Poor electrolyte stability and less solubility lead to low
energy density
 Low selectivity to the vanadium ions lead to the
Unbalance of vanadium ions and water , and the
capacity degradation after long operation time
 Low rated operation current density lead to high
material cost
 High cost of the ion exchange membrane
Challenges of VRB for commercialization
…and for renewable applications in particular
55
UPS
Load
balancing
Power
conversion
Stand-alone
power system
Electric
vehicles
Major
Applicatons –
Redox Flow
Battery
 Where the battery is
connected to an electrical
grid to store excess electrical
power during off-peak hours
and release electrical power
during peak demand
periods.
 Storing energy from
renewable sources such as
wind or solar for discharge
during periods of peak
demand
 As flow batteries can be
rapidly "recharged" by
replacing the electrolyte,
they can be used for
applications where the
vehicle needs to take on
energy as fast as a
combustion engine vehicle
 Currently used in telecom
industry for use in cellphone
base stations where there is
no grid power available.
 The battery can be used
alongside solar or wind
power sources to
compensate for their
fluctuating power levels and
alongside a generator to
make the most efficient use
of it to save fuel
 As the voltage of the battery
is proportional to the
number of cells used the
battery can therefore act as a
very powerful DC/DC
converter. In addition, if the
number of cells is
continuously changed (on
the input and/or output side)
power conversion can also
be AC/DC, AC/AC, or DC/AC
with the frequency limited
by that of the switching gear
Source: Wikipedia and others
 where the battery is used if the main power fails to provide an uninterrupted supply
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
6
With a humble beginning of adoption since late 2000’s, the flow
battery technology…
Source: International Energy Agency Report titled “Energy Storage Technology Roadmap - Technology Annex ” dated 19 March 2014
International Energy Agency (IEA) positions the Flow Battery Technology at Early “Demonstration to
deployment” phase in their Energy Storage technology maturity curve
Maturityofenergystoragetechnologies
… is expected to be significantly adopted technology by 2025
8
In ESS (Energy Storage System) technologies, flow battery technology shows high potential and is expected to
be applied in various application markets in the future
Source: Sino-report ESS market Research Center Report titled “Analysis of ESS Business - Flow Battery Tech. & Market” dated May 2014
 About 85 flow batteries (small-scale
batteries excluded) were installed in the
world until 2012 which is above 343MWh
in capacity
 The installation market for flow battery is
becoming more active in recent years.
Flow batteries are mainly used for
 Load levelling,
 Renewable capacity firming,
 Micro grid system,
 UPS
 Frequency regulation
 In 2012 the flow battery (redox flow
batteries and hybrid flow batteries)
occupied approximately 0.5% of the ESS
market however Sino-report expects the
market to increase to 25% by 2020
Flow Battery Market Demand Forecast (MWh)
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
9
Lithium-ion batteries which dominated the power applications
market till 2012…
10
Lux research predicts increased adoption of Redox Flow Batteries in grid-scale energy storage till 2017 namely
vanadium redox batteries (VRB) and zinc bromine flow batteries in particular
Global Grid-scale batteries Market Demand Forecast
33%
19%
15%
19%
13%
1%
Vanadium Redox
Batteries
Sodium Sulfur
Sodium Nickel Chloride
Zinc Bromine Flow
Batteries
Li- ion Batteries
Flywheel Batteries
 Lux Research report predicts that annual
global demand for grid-scale energy
storage will reach an astounding 185.4
gigawatt- hours (GWh) by 2017 and
represent a $113.5 billion market
 Li-ion batteries for power applications
account for around 80% of the market in
2012 are expected to quickly fade as
cheaper molten-salt and flow batteries
become available in the ensuing years
 Currently, Li-ion batteries are sought-after
due to their availability and proven
performance.
 Flow batteries and molten salt batteries,
both of which perform well for longer
discharge applications, have shown
comparable performance to Li-ion
batteries at a fraction of the cost and are
currently limited by their availability and
proven reliability
Source: Lux Research Report titled “"Grid Storage under the Microscope: Using Local Knowledge to Forecast Global Demand” dated 2012
…is expected to lose its share to Vanadium Redox Batteries till 2017
11
Redox flow battery – Applications in grid-storage (Power sector)
Source: Springer Report titled “Redox flow batteries: a review” dated July 2011
Sumitomo Redox battery - Japan
Enervault Redox battery - US
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
12
Lux Research report 2012 states that Japan, China…
13
Japan – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
China – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
Sr. No Project Name Technology Type
Rated Power
(kW)
Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model
1
Sumitomo Densetsu
Office
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery 3000 Operational Electric Bill Management
Osaka Kansai Customer-Owned
2 Yokohama Works Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery 1000 Operational
Onsite Renewable Generation
Shifting, Electric Supply
Capacity
Yokohama Kanagawa Customer-Owned
3 Tomamae Wind Farm Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery 4000 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift
Totomamae Hokkaido Prefecture Utility-Owned
4
Minami Hayakita
Substation Vanadium
Redox Flow Battery
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery 15000 Announced
Renewables Capacity Firming,
Renewables Energy Time Shift,
Voltage Support
Abira Hokkaido Utility-Owned
Sr. No Project Name Technology Type
Rated
Power (kW)
Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model
1
Zhangbei National
Wind and Solar Energy
Storage and
Transmission
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
2000 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift,
Renewables Capacity Firming,
Frequency Regulation, Ramping
Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned
2
Prudent Energy
Corporation/CEPRI
Vanadium Redox
Battery Energy Storage
System
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
500 Operational
Renewables Energy Time Shift,
Renewables Capacity Firming,
Load Following (Tertiary
Balancing), Voltage Support
Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned
Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
…State of Arizona – United States along with the United Kingdom…
14
US – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
Sr. No Project Name Technology Type
Rated Power
(kW)
Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model
1 Prudent Energy VRB-ESS®
- Gills Onions, California
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
600 Operational Grid-Connected Commercial
(Reliability & Quality)
Oxnard California Third-Party-Owned
2
Primus Power
Corporation Wind Firming
EnergyFarm™
Zinc Chlorine
Redox Flow
Battery
25000
Under
Construction
Renewables Capacity Firming
Modesto California Utility-Owned
3
National Grid Distributed
Energy Storage Systems
Demonstration, Everette,
MA
Zinc Bromine
Redox Flow
Battery
500 Contracted
Electric Energy Time Shift
Everett Massachusetts Utility-Owned
4
City of Painesville
Municipal Power
Vanadium Redox Battery
Demonstration
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
1080 Contracted
Load Following (Tertiary
Balancing)
Painesville Ohio Utility-Owned
5
Fort Sill - U.S. Army
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
250 De-Commissioned
Renewables Capacity Firming
Fort Sill Oklahoma Customer-Owned
6
Illinois Institute of
Technology RDSI Perfect
Power Demonstration
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
250
Under
Construction
Black Start
Chicago Illinois Customer-Owned
7
Port Hueneme Naval
Facility
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
25
Under
Construction Renewables Capacity Firming
Port Hueneme California Customer-Owned
8
Pualani Manor
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
60 Operational
Renewables Capacity Firming
Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned
9
San Nicholas Island Naval
Facility
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
500
Under
Construction Renewables Capacity Firming
San Nicholas
Island
California Customer-Owned
10
St. Petersburg Solar Parks
Project
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
25
Under
Construction
Electric Bill Management with
Renewables
St. Petersburg Florida Customer-Owned
11 EnerVault Redox Flow
Battery Demo Project
Iron Chromium
Redox Flow
Battery
250 Operational
Electric Energy Time Shift
Turlock California Third-Party-Owned
12
UC San Diego ZBB /
Sunpower Energy Storage
CSI 2
Zinc Bromide
Flow Battery
100
Under
Construction
Electric Bill Management
San Diego California Customer-Owned
Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
…and Germany will be the top five regions for grid storage and…
15
US Continued…
13
Premium Power DESS,
SMUD HQ
Zinc Bromine Redox
Flow Battery
500
Under
Construction Electric Supply Capacity
Sacramento California Utility-Owned
14
National Grid
Distributed Energy
Storage Systems
Demonstration,
Worcester, MA
Zinc Bromine Redox
Flow Battery
500 Contracted
Renewables Energy Time Shift
Worcester Massachusetts Utility-Owned
15
UEP CCNY
Demonstration
Zinc-Nickel Oxide
Redox Flow Battery
100 Operational
Electric Bill Management
New York New York Third-Party-Owned
16
DOD Marine Corps Air
Station Miramar
Microgrid Energy
Storage System
Zinc Bromine Redox
Flow Battery
250
Under
Construction
Renewables Capacity Firming
San Diego California Customer-Owned
17
Crescent Valley
Project
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
250 Operational
Electric Energy Time Shift
Moab Utah Utility-Owned
18
PV and EV Charging
Systems at Sporting
Venue
Zinc Bromide Flow
Battery
25
Under
Construction
Onsite Renewable Generation
Shifting
Phoenix Arizona Customer-Owned
19
Joint Base Pearl
Harbor Hickam
(JBPHH) U.S. Military
Base
Zinc Bromide Flow
Battery
125
Under
Construction
Black Start
Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned
20
VISA (Data Processing
Center)
Zinc Bromide Flow
Battery
25 Operational
On-Site Power
Ashburg Virginia Customer-Owned
21 Bainbridge Island
Storage Project
Zinc Bromine Redox
Flow Battery
500 Contracted
Stationary
Transmission/Distribution
Upgrade Deferral
Bainbridge Island Washington Utility-Owned
22
MCAS Miramar
Microgrid
Zinc Bromide Redox
Flow Battery
250 Announced
Electric Bill Management with
Renewables
San Diego California Third-Party-Owned
23
Wind-Firming Energy
Farm
Zinc Bromide Redox
Flow Battery
28000 Announced
Renewables Capacity Firming
Modesto California Third-Party-Owned
24
Energy Storage for
Demand Response
(Seattle)
Zinc Bromide Redox
Flow Battery
500 Announced
Transportable
Transmission/Distribution
Upgrade Deferral
Seattle Washington Utility-Owned
Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
…collectively account for about 58% of global demand in 2017
16
US Continued…
Europe – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
25
American Vanadium
Corp. MTA CellCube
Installation
Vanadium Redox
Flow Battery
90
Under
Construction
Grid-Connected Commercial
(Reliability & Quality)
New York New York Customer-Owned
26
Premium Power DESS,
SMUD Anatolia
SolarSmart Homes
Project
Zinc Bromide Redox
Flow Battery
500
Under
Construction
Renewables Energy Time Shift
Rancho Cordova California Utility-Owned
Sr. No Project Name Technology Type
Rated
Power
(kW)
Status Application/ Usage City Country Ownership Model
1
CENER VRB
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
50 Operational
Electric Energy Time Shift
Sarriguren Spain Customer-Owned
2
RISO Syslab Redox Flow
Battery
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
15 Operational
Renewables Capacity Firming
Kongens Lyngby Denmark Third-Party-Owned
3
PVCROPS Evora
Demonstration Flow
Battery Project
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
5 Operational
Renewables Capacity Firming
Valverde Portugal Customer-Owned
4
Gigha Wind Farm Battery
Project
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
100 Announced
Renewables Energy Time Shift
Gigha United Kingdom Customer-Owned
5
ENEL Vanadium Redox
Battery Testing Station
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
10 Operational
Renewables Capacity Firming
Livorno Italy Third-Party-Owned
6
Tetiaroa Brando Resort
Zinc Bromide Flow
Battery
1000
Under
Construction Renewables Capacity Firming
Tetiaroa French Polynesia Customer-Owned
7
SmartRegion Pellworm
(Vanadium Redox Flow)
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
200 Operational
Renewables Energy Time Shift
Island Pellworm Germany Utility-Owned
8
Fotonenboer 't Spieker
Dairy Farm
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
10 Operational
On-Site Power
Vierakker Netherlands Customer-Owned
9
Swiss Dual-Circuit Redox
Flow Battery
Vanadium Redox Flow
Battery
10
Under
Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift
Martigny Switzerland Customer-Owned
Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
17
Innovations in chemistry, design and engineering could decrease costs
further making all future grid-scale energy storage to adopt redox flow
18
The redox flow batteries market is currently dominated by vanadium
redox flow batteries
US based Prudent Energy dominates the redox flow battery field for
larger projects and largest operational facility is currently a mere
4MW
The Redox flow projects are getting ambitious in terms of capacity and
chemistry. Two large projects -28MW project has been announced in
Modesto California US & Minami Hayakita Hokkaido Japan is planning
15MW storage. Both projects are using Zinc as key electrolyte
Focus is on developing alternative to Vanadium due scarce supply and
monopolistic ownership with China
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has developed a battery
that used laminar flow to keep its electrolytes separate, thus avoiding
the need for a membrane, which is often the most costly part of a
redox flow system thereby increasing its adoption
Vanadium
dominates Redox
Batteries currently
Key Technology
Vendor
Increasing Redox
flow batteries
capacities
Alternative to
Vanadium
Membrane Free
system to avoid
cost
Redoxflowbatteriesforenergystorage
Source: Energy Storage Report dated 11 June 2014
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS
 Way forward…
 Bibliography
Table of Contents
19
Bibliography
Databases/Reports
 Flow Batteries report- https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/fal/fal10/fal10_p054-056.pdf
 FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUTE - http://www.ict.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ict/en/documents/brochures/Redox-flow-battery.pdf
 Energy & Capital website - http://www.energyandcapital.com/articles/the-best-thing-since-lithium/1531
 DICP CAS report - http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/releases/pdf/Chinese_Academy_of_Sciences/Huamin_Zhang.pdf
 Sino – Report - http://www.sino-report.com/b/dianzi/dianchijiyuanliao/20130407/1236.html
 IEA Report - http://www.iea.org/media/freepublications/technologyroadmaps/AnnexA_TechnologyAnnexforweb.pdf
 Energy Storage Report - http://energystoragereport.info/redox-flow-batteries-for-energy-storage/
 Springer report - http://ecpower.utk.edu/Publications/docs/Redox%20flow%20batteries%20a%20review.pdf
Websites
 Lux Research -
http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2012/04/gridscale_energy_storage_lux_predicts_1135_billion_in_global_demand_by_2017.html
 DOE Global Energy Storage Database http://www.energystorageexchange.org/
 Enervault - http://www.nanalyze.com/2014/06/worlds-largest-iron-chromium-flow-battery-from-enervault/
 Sumitomo - http://global-sei.com/president_blog/2012/08/completion_of_demonstration_fa.html
20

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Redox flow battery - Power Sector

  • 1. Report on Redox Flow Batteries – Power sector June 2014 Future demand assesment & emerging trends Report by Mr. Irish Pereira
  • 2.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 2
  • 3. RFB being a modular and highly flexible technology with very rapid response, little environmental impact… 3  A flow battery is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy in the electro-active materials directly to electrical energy and is similar to a conventional battery and fuel cells  The electro-active materials in a flow battery however are stored mostly externally in an electrolyte and are introduced into the device only during operation  Flow batteries are classified into redox flow batteries and hybrid flow batteries  In Redox Flow Batteries (RFB) - two liquid electrolyte dissolutions containing dissolved metal ions as active masses are pumped to the opposite sides of the electrochemical cell e.g. Vanadium-vanadium, Vanadium-bromine, Polysulfid-bromine, Iron-chrome  In a hybrid flow battery (HFB) - one of the active masses is internally stored within the electrochemical cell, whereas the other remains in the liquid electrolyte and is stored externally in a tank. E.g. Zinc-bromine, Zinc-cerium, Lead-acid  Of various types of flow batteries, Vanadium and zinc flow batteries are mostly adopted technologies Source: Flow Batteries report by by Trung Nguyen and Robert F. Savinell & Redox Flow Battery by FRAUNHoFER-INSTITUT FÜR CHEmISCHE TECHNologIE ICT Report tIled „Status and Potential of Redox Flow Batteries” Schematic of a redox flow battery system
  • 4. … huge potential for cutting costs and hence are emerging as a very promising option for stationary storage in general… 4 Vanadium redox battery (VRB) offers significant benefits over Lithium-ion battery which is currently the most used storage battery worldwide  Independent system design for power and capacity  Output Power Range: kW -- MW;  Energy Storage Capacity : kWh -- 10MWh  High efficiency (>75%)  Long lifetime  Deep discharge ability, Low self-- discharge, fast response  Environmental friendly  Operation safety Advantages of Redox Flow Battery Source: DICP CAS report titled “Redox Flow Battery Technology for Electricity Storage “ & Energy & Capital report  Poor electrolyte stability and less solubility lead to low energy density  Low selectivity to the vanadium ions lead to the Unbalance of vanadium ions and water , and the capacity degradation after long operation time  Low rated operation current density lead to high material cost  High cost of the ion exchange membrane Challenges of VRB for commercialization
  • 5. …and for renewable applications in particular 55 UPS Load balancing Power conversion Stand-alone power system Electric vehicles Major Applicatons – Redox Flow Battery  Where the battery is connected to an electrical grid to store excess electrical power during off-peak hours and release electrical power during peak demand periods.  Storing energy from renewable sources such as wind or solar for discharge during periods of peak demand  As flow batteries can be rapidly "recharged" by replacing the electrolyte, they can be used for applications where the vehicle needs to take on energy as fast as a combustion engine vehicle  Currently used in telecom industry for use in cellphone base stations where there is no grid power available.  The battery can be used alongside solar or wind power sources to compensate for their fluctuating power levels and alongside a generator to make the most efficient use of it to save fuel  As the voltage of the battery is proportional to the number of cells used the battery can therefore act as a very powerful DC/DC converter. In addition, if the number of cells is continuously changed (on the input and/or output side) power conversion can also be AC/DC, AC/AC, or DC/AC with the frequency limited by that of the switching gear Source: Wikipedia and others  where the battery is used if the main power fails to provide an uninterrupted supply
  • 6.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 6
  • 7. With a humble beginning of adoption since late 2000’s, the flow battery technology… Source: International Energy Agency Report titled “Energy Storage Technology Roadmap - Technology Annex ” dated 19 March 2014 International Energy Agency (IEA) positions the Flow Battery Technology at Early “Demonstration to deployment” phase in their Energy Storage technology maturity curve Maturityofenergystoragetechnologies
  • 8. … is expected to be significantly adopted technology by 2025 8 In ESS (Energy Storage System) technologies, flow battery technology shows high potential and is expected to be applied in various application markets in the future Source: Sino-report ESS market Research Center Report titled “Analysis of ESS Business - Flow Battery Tech. & Market” dated May 2014  About 85 flow batteries (small-scale batteries excluded) were installed in the world until 2012 which is above 343MWh in capacity  The installation market for flow battery is becoming more active in recent years. Flow batteries are mainly used for  Load levelling,  Renewable capacity firming,  Micro grid system,  UPS  Frequency regulation  In 2012 the flow battery (redox flow batteries and hybrid flow batteries) occupied approximately 0.5% of the ESS market however Sino-report expects the market to increase to 25% by 2020 Flow Battery Market Demand Forecast (MWh)
  • 9.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 9
  • 10. Lithium-ion batteries which dominated the power applications market till 2012… 10 Lux research predicts increased adoption of Redox Flow Batteries in grid-scale energy storage till 2017 namely vanadium redox batteries (VRB) and zinc bromine flow batteries in particular Global Grid-scale batteries Market Demand Forecast 33% 19% 15% 19% 13% 1% Vanadium Redox Batteries Sodium Sulfur Sodium Nickel Chloride Zinc Bromine Flow Batteries Li- ion Batteries Flywheel Batteries  Lux Research report predicts that annual global demand for grid-scale energy storage will reach an astounding 185.4 gigawatt- hours (GWh) by 2017 and represent a $113.5 billion market  Li-ion batteries for power applications account for around 80% of the market in 2012 are expected to quickly fade as cheaper molten-salt and flow batteries become available in the ensuing years  Currently, Li-ion batteries are sought-after due to their availability and proven performance.  Flow batteries and molten salt batteries, both of which perform well for longer discharge applications, have shown comparable performance to Li-ion batteries at a fraction of the cost and are currently limited by their availability and proven reliability Source: Lux Research Report titled “"Grid Storage under the Microscope: Using Local Knowledge to Forecast Global Demand” dated 2012
  • 11. …is expected to lose its share to Vanadium Redox Batteries till 2017 11 Redox flow battery – Applications in grid-storage (Power sector) Source: Springer Report titled “Redox flow batteries: a review” dated July 2011 Sumitomo Redox battery - Japan Enervault Redox battery - US
  • 12.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 12
  • 13. Lux Research report 2012 states that Japan, China… 13 Japan – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries China – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Sumitomo Densetsu Office Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 3000 Operational Electric Bill Management Osaka Kansai Customer-Owned 2 Yokohama Works Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 1000 Operational Onsite Renewable Generation Shifting, Electric Supply Capacity Yokohama Kanagawa Customer-Owned 3 Tomamae Wind Farm Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 4000 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Totomamae Hokkaido Prefecture Utility-Owned 4 Minami Hayakita Substation Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 15000 Announced Renewables Capacity Firming, Renewables Energy Time Shift, Voltage Support Abira Hokkaido Utility-Owned Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 2000 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift, Renewables Capacity Firming, Frequency Regulation, Ramping Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned 2 Prudent Energy Corporation/CEPRI Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 500 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift, Renewables Capacity Firming, Load Following (Tertiary Balancing), Voltage Support Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  • 14. …State of Arizona – United States along with the United Kingdom… 14 US – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Prudent Energy VRB-ESS® - Gills Onions, California Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 600 Operational Grid-Connected Commercial (Reliability & Quality) Oxnard California Third-Party-Owned 2 Primus Power Corporation Wind Firming EnergyFarm™ Zinc Chlorine Redox Flow Battery 25000 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Modesto California Utility-Owned 3 National Grid Distributed Energy Storage Systems Demonstration, Everette, MA Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Electric Energy Time Shift Everett Massachusetts Utility-Owned 4 City of Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 1080 Contracted Load Following (Tertiary Balancing) Painesville Ohio Utility-Owned 5 Fort Sill - U.S. Army Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 250 De-Commissioned Renewables Capacity Firming Fort Sill Oklahoma Customer-Owned 6 Illinois Institute of Technology RDSI Perfect Power Demonstration Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 250 Under Construction Black Start Chicago Illinois Customer-Owned 7 Port Hueneme Naval Facility Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Port Hueneme California Customer-Owned 8 Pualani Manor Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 60 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned 9 San Nicholas Island Naval Facility Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming San Nicholas Island California Customer-Owned 10 St. Petersburg Solar Parks Project Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Electric Bill Management with Renewables St. Petersburg Florida Customer-Owned 11 EnerVault Redox Flow Battery Demo Project Iron Chromium Redox Flow Battery 250 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Turlock California Third-Party-Owned 12 UC San Diego ZBB / Sunpower Energy Storage CSI 2 Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 100 Under Construction Electric Bill Management San Diego California Customer-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  • 15. …and Germany will be the top five regions for grid storage and… 15 US Continued… 13 Premium Power DESS, SMUD HQ Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Electric Supply Capacity Sacramento California Utility-Owned 14 National Grid Distributed Energy Storage Systems Demonstration, Worcester, MA Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Renewables Energy Time Shift Worcester Massachusetts Utility-Owned 15 UEP CCNY Demonstration Zinc-Nickel Oxide Redox Flow Battery 100 Operational Electric Bill Management New York New York Third-Party-Owned 16 DOD Marine Corps Air Station Miramar Microgrid Energy Storage System Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 250 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming San Diego California Customer-Owned 17 Crescent Valley Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 250 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Moab Utah Utility-Owned 18 PV and EV Charging Systems at Sporting Venue Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Onsite Renewable Generation Shifting Phoenix Arizona Customer-Owned 19 Joint Base Pearl Harbor Hickam (JBPHH) U.S. Military Base Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 125 Under Construction Black Start Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned 20 VISA (Data Processing Center) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Operational On-Site Power Ashburg Virginia Customer-Owned 21 Bainbridge Island Storage Project Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Stationary Transmission/Distribution Upgrade Deferral Bainbridge Island Washington Utility-Owned 22 MCAS Miramar Microgrid Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 250 Announced Electric Bill Management with Renewables San Diego California Third-Party-Owned 23 Wind-Firming Energy Farm Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 28000 Announced Renewables Capacity Firming Modesto California Third-Party-Owned 24 Energy Storage for Demand Response (Seattle) Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 500 Announced Transportable Transmission/Distribution Upgrade Deferral Seattle Washington Utility-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  • 16. …collectively account for about 58% of global demand in 2017 16 US Continued… Europe – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries 25 American Vanadium Corp. MTA CellCube Installation Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 90 Under Construction Grid-Connected Commercial (Reliability & Quality) New York New York Customer-Owned 26 Premium Power DESS, SMUD Anatolia SolarSmart Homes Project Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift Rancho Cordova California Utility-Owned Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City Country Ownership Model 1 CENER VRB Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 50 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Sarriguren Spain Customer-Owned 2 RISO Syslab Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 15 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Kongens Lyngby Denmark Third-Party-Owned 3 PVCROPS Evora Demonstration Flow Battery Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 5 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Valverde Portugal Customer-Owned 4 Gigha Wind Farm Battery Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 100 Announced Renewables Energy Time Shift Gigha United Kingdom Customer-Owned 5 ENEL Vanadium Redox Battery Testing Station Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Livorno Italy Third-Party-Owned 6 Tetiaroa Brando Resort Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 1000 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Tetiaroa French Polynesia Customer-Owned 7 SmartRegion Pellworm (Vanadium Redox Flow) Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 200 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift Island Pellworm Germany Utility-Owned 8 Fotonenboer 't Spieker Dairy Farm Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Operational On-Site Power Vierakker Netherlands Customer-Owned 9 Swiss Dual-Circuit Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift Martigny Switzerland Customer-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  • 17.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 17
  • 18. Innovations in chemistry, design and engineering could decrease costs further making all future grid-scale energy storage to adopt redox flow 18 The redox flow batteries market is currently dominated by vanadium redox flow batteries US based Prudent Energy dominates the redox flow battery field for larger projects and largest operational facility is currently a mere 4MW The Redox flow projects are getting ambitious in terms of capacity and chemistry. Two large projects -28MW project has been announced in Modesto California US & Minami Hayakita Hokkaido Japan is planning 15MW storage. Both projects are using Zinc as key electrolyte Focus is on developing alternative to Vanadium due scarce supply and monopolistic ownership with China Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has developed a battery that used laminar flow to keep its electrolytes separate, thus avoiding the need for a membrane, which is often the most costly part of a redox flow system thereby increasing its adoption Vanadium dominates Redox Batteries currently Key Technology Vendor Increasing Redox flow batteries capacities Alternative to Vanadium Membrane Free system to avoid cost Redoxflowbatteriesforenergystorage Source: Energy Storage Report dated 11 June 2014
  • 19.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 19
  • 20. Bibliography Databases/Reports  Flow Batteries report- https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/fal/fal10/fal10_p054-056.pdf  FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUTE - http://www.ict.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ict/en/documents/brochures/Redox-flow-battery.pdf  Energy & Capital website - http://www.energyandcapital.com/articles/the-best-thing-since-lithium/1531  DICP CAS report - http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/releases/pdf/Chinese_Academy_of_Sciences/Huamin_Zhang.pdf  Sino – Report - http://www.sino-report.com/b/dianzi/dianchijiyuanliao/20130407/1236.html  IEA Report - http://www.iea.org/media/freepublications/technologyroadmaps/AnnexA_TechnologyAnnexforweb.pdf  Energy Storage Report - http://energystoragereport.info/redox-flow-batteries-for-energy-storage/  Springer report - http://ecpower.utk.edu/Publications/docs/Redox%20flow%20batteries%20a%20review.pdf Websites  Lux Research - http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2012/04/gridscale_energy_storage_lux_predicts_1135_billion_in_global_demand_by_2017.html  DOE Global Energy Storage Database http://www.energystorageexchange.org/  Enervault - http://www.nanalyze.com/2014/06/worlds-largest-iron-chromium-flow-battery-from-enervault/  Sumitomo - http://global-sei.com/president_blog/2012/08/completion_of_demonstration_fa.html 20