HUMANITARIAN REFORM:STRENTHENING HUMANITARIAN REPONSEBUILDING A STRONGER, MOREPREDICTABLE HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE SYSTEM
WHY WAS A HUMANITARIAN REFORM NEEDED? Findings from the 2005 Humanitarian Response Review • Unpredictable capacity and insufficient accountability by humanitarian actors • Erratic coordination, weak partnerships • Long-standing gaps in the humanitarian response, including lack of commitment to recovery interventions at early stage • Donor policies inconsistent
A CHANGING HUMANITARIAN CONTEXT • Diverse group of actors • Increasing number of humanitarian crises • Competitive funding environment • Challenges in maintaining necessary humanitarian space and independence • Increased public scrutiny of humanitarian action
Inter-Agency Standing Committee Full Members and Standing Invitees Full Members Standing Invitees Food and Agricultural International Committee of the Whose reform? Organisation (FAO) Red Cross (ICRC) Office for the Coordination of International Council of Voluntary Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Agencies (ICVA) United Nations Development International Federation of Red Programme (UNDP) Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) American Council for Voluntary International Action (InterAction) United Nations High Comissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) International Organisation for Migration (IOM)Composed of NGO consortia, Red United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Office of the High CommissionerCross and Red Crescent for Human Rights (OHCHR)Movement, IOM, World bank and World Food Programme (WFP) Office of the Special Representative of the SecretaryUN agencies General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons World Health Organisation (RSG on HR of IDPs) (WHO) Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR) World Bank (World Bank)
WHY PARTNERSHIP?Humanitarian agencies acknowledge that no single agency cancover all humanitarian needsPrinciples of Partnership:• Equality• Transparency• Results Oriented Approach• Responsibility• Complementarity
ROLE OF THE HC• Establish and lead Humanitarian Country Team• Facilitate agreement among humanitarian actors on establishment of sectors/clusters and designation of sector/cluster leads• Establish appropriate mechanisms for inter-sectoral coordination• Coordinate needs assessment, strategic planning, response planning, monitoring & evaluation, integration of cross-cutting issues• Advocate for respect for human rights, humanitarian law, humanitarian principles, and access• Coordinate inter-agency resource mobilization efforts, including appeals and requests for CERF funding• Accountable to the Emergency Relief Coordinator
WHAT IS GOOD HUMANITARIAN FINANCING?• Plurality, diversity and complementarity of funding mechanisms (majority of funds are bilateral grants)• Predictable, impartial, equitable, timely• Ensure UN and non- UN have equitable and transparent modalities to obtain funding• Strategies and channels should not inhibit or be to the detriment of partnerships.
THE CLUSTER APPROACH11 Clusters established and endorsed by IASCAt global level:• Clear accountable lead agencies• Stockpiles, surge capacity, and resources• Operational guidance, toolkits and handbooksAt country and field level:• Coherent coordination systems• Less gaps/duplication• Strengthened partnerships and links to government
RESPONSIBILITIES OF GLOBAL CLUSTER LEADS Normative- Standard setting and consolidation of ‘best practice’ Build response capacity- Training and system development at local, regional and international levels- Surge capacity and standby rosters- Material stockpiles Operational Support Emergency preparedness Advocacy, coordination and resource mobilization
COUNTRY LEVELCluster Lead Agencies responsible for ensuring:• Inclusion of key humanitarian partners• Establishment of appropriate coordination mechanisms• Coordination with national/local authorities, local civil society etc.• Participatory and community-based approaches• Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (age, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS etc)• Needs assessment and analysis• Emergency preparedness• Planning and strategy development• Application of standards• Monitoring and reporting• Advocacy and resource mobilization• Training and capacity building• Provision of assistance and services as „provider of last resort‟
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENTICRC• “ICRC is not taking part in the cluster approach”• Coordination between ICRC and the UN continues to the extent necessary to achieve efficient operational complementarityIFRC• “convener” rather than “cluster lead” for emergency shelter in disasters• “not committed to being provider of last resort, nor is it accountable to any part of the UN system”
INCLUSION OF EARLY RECOVERY• Early Recovery is a necessary framework to transition out of humanitarian assistance• Lack of commitment to Early Recovery by development agencies, government and donors• Responding to critical gaps in response addressed by no one else.
PROGRESS TO DATE…• Roles and responsibilities clearer• Partnerships and coherence improved• Fewer response gaps• Engagement with national authorities – or tracking of ...• Convergence on definitions, guidelines, and assessment methodologies• Shift towards a more programmatic, rather than project- based, approach• „Significant potential to enhance overall effectiveness of humanitarian response‟
CHALLENGES REMAIN…• Stronger in-country leadership• Inclusive humanitarian country teams• Preparedness and contingency planning• In-country and regional capacity development• Clearer accountability mechanisms• Sustained political commitment• Government ownership• Demonstrated impact on affected population?
TRANSFORMATIVE AGENDAMain elements constituting the Transformative Agenda:• Etabslishing a mechanism to deploy strong, experienced senior humanitarian leadership at highest levels.• Stengthening of leadership capacities and rapid reployment of humanitarian leaders within the cluster mechanism• Improvement of strategic planning at country level that clarifies the collective results – across and within clusters• Enhancing accountability of the Humanitarian Coordinator and HCT – ensuring achievement of collective results• Streamlining coordination mechanisms – adapting to operational requirements – to better facilitate delivery of results
INTER-CLUSTER COORDINATION OF EARLY RECOVERYExample: Zimbabwe – Context and key challenges