Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics

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Presentation I Gave at I-Semantic 2010 in Graz on September 3rd. The related paper is available on my website at http://iricelino.org/publications.

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Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics

  1. 1. Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics Paper Authors: Irene Celino Francesco Corcoglioniti CEFRIEL – ICT Institute Dip. Di Elettronica e Informazione Politecnico di Milano Politcnico di Milano Via Fucini 2 Via Ponzio 34/5 20133 Milano, Italy 20133 Milano, Italy irene.celino@cefriel.it corcoglioniti@elet.polimi.it Presenter: Irene Celino http://swa.cefriel.it http://iricelino.org Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics I-SEMANTICS – 6th International Conference on Semantic Systems – Graz, 1st-3rd September 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  2. 2. Agenda Background Problem statement Our approach STAR:ship and STAR:dust ontologies STAR:chart framework Case study and evaluation Challenges and evolutions Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 2 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  3. 3. Background Two trends: Semantic Portals Long-lasting trend in Semantic Web research (from early 2000) Reuse data semantics to create hyperlinks and navigation paths Increasing attention on Visualization Engaging, emotional and/or natural information visualization “User-friendly” interfaces and intuitive representations Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 3 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  4. 4. Problem statement and motivation I know what my data are about I know how to design a Data manager Web application Web designer Data knowledge Web knowledge Mmmh… I think the Web design doesn’t reflect the meaning of my data. Can you make my data Sigh… I made my best to present the data, but they Web presentation more effective and meaningful? are hard to understand for me. Can you better explain to me what they mean and your expectations? I don’t want to deal with technical details… And I don’t want to learn all data details… Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 4 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  5. 5. Cherry picking from today solutions Web 2.0 and user experience Interaction Patterns categorizations “Fruition modalities”, i.e. how interaction patterns on the Web impact modalities user navigation Web engineering Web Information Architecture and “sitemaps” Model-driven Web engineering and Semantic Web Semantic Web technologies and knowledge modeling Ontologies, mapping and rules Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 5 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  6. 6. Domain knowledge vs. Interaction knowledge Traditional approaches ?!? domain some portal ?!? ontology ontology M Data manager Web designer Our approach to “fill the gap” domain STAR:ship ontology ontology M1 Data manager Web designer M2 STAR:dust ontology Conceptualization of Web Conceptualization of applications structure interaction patterns Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 6 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  7. 7. STAR:chart foundations – high level Data knowledge STAR:chart Web knowledge framework STAR:chart is a framework to develop knowledge-intensive Web applications that reduces the gap between data managers’ point of view and Web designers’ one, by letting data managers express their requirements in a more straightforward way and by helping Web designers to deal only with design-related issues. issues domain STAR:ship ontology ontology M1 Data manager Web designer Declaratively defined M2 by the Data Manager STAR:dust ontology (by using STAR:dust) Semi-automatically generated by STAR:chart based on “fruition modalities” patterns Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 7 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  8. 8. STAR:ship ontology Conceptualization of the Web structural and visual elements that constitute the elementary building blocks of a Web page organization Specification of the primitives to model the structure of a Web application, i.e. its sitemap in terms of areas, pages, "units" or "widgets" and links It reflects the Web designer mindset # STAR:ship namespace declaration @prefix ss: <http://swa.cefriel.it/ontologies/starship#> . # definition of the widget class ss:Widget a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf ss:Unit . # definition of the event class ss:Event a owl:Class . # definition of the triggersEvent property ss:triggersEvent a owl:AnnotationProperty . # example of widget definition ss:SearchFormWidget a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf ss:Widget ; ss:hasJavaClass "it.cefriel.swa.star.widgets.SearchFormWidget"^^xsd:string ; ss:triggersEvent ss:submitSearchEvent . http://swa.cefriel.it/ontologies/starship# Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 8 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  9. 9. STAR:dust ontology Specification of the different roles the data should play in a Web application Definition of the "fruition modalities", i.e. the possible interaction styles of the final users with the presented information (searching, browsing, detail viewing, tagging, editing, rating, etc.) It expresses the best practices to access and interact with the data # STAR:dust namespace declaration @prefix sd: <http://swa.cefriel.it/ontologies/stardust#> . # definition of the PresentationProperty class sd:PresentationProperty a rdfs:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf rdf:Property . # definition of some presentation properties sd:RelevantProperty a sd:PresentationProperty . sd:SortableProperty a sd:PresentationProperty . sd:EditableProperty a sd:PresentationProperty . http://swa.cefriel.it/ontologies/stardust# It represents the data expert's point of view it can be used in the mapping to domain-specific ontologies Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 9 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  10. 10. Mapping M1 Mapping between domain ontology and STAR:dust whenever a Web user interface is built on top of a new kind of dataset It does not require dealing with fine-grained specification of data selectors and content formatting It can be directly operated by the data expert, without the need of a specific knowledge about Web design and development The structure of this mapping is part of the STAR:dust ontology # definition of mapping in STAR:dust domain sd:PresentationMapping a owl:Class . ontology M1 # class and properties connected via a mapping sd:onClass a owl:ObjectProperty ; rdfs:range rdfs:Class . STAR:dust ontology sd:mappingSource a owl:ObjectProperty ; rdfs:domain sd:PresentationMapping ; rdfs:range rdf:Property . sd:mappingDestination a owl:ObjectProperty ; rdfs:domain sd:PresentationMapping ; rdfs:range sd:PresentationProperty . http://swa.cefriel.it/ontologies/stardust# Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 10 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  11. 11. STAR:chart framework foundations interaction patterns STAR:dust STAR:dust is the Web presentation and ontology interaction conceptual model The mapping definition is the artifact – by the mapping data manager – that expresses the role of the definition M1 data in the final Web application; it puts in relation the data ontology with the STAR:dust ontology The widgets are the software components that widgets implement the presentation and interaction patterns defined in the STAR:dust ontology Web appl. patterns STAR:ship is the Web sitemap structure STAR:ship conceptual model ontology The sitemap specification is the artifact – semi- automatically produced by the framework itself – sitemap that specifies the actual structure of the Web specification M2 application in terms of widgets; it is expressed in terms of the STAR:ship ontology Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 11 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  12. 12. STAR:chart framework architecture STAR:dust widgets STAR:ship ontology ontology ** framework portal pages core generation mapping definition * sitemap * specification * ** config. time run-time domain ontology datasource Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 12 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  13. 13. The project “Service-Finder is a platform for service discovery in which Web Services “Service-Finder is a platform for service discovery in which Web Services are embedded in a Web 2.0 environment” are embedded in a Web 2.0 environment” http://demo.service-finder.eu The domain ontologies describe Web services and their characteristics The portal allows users to search and navigate through the service data and interact with the data in a Web 2.0 fashion We mapped Service-Finder (SF) ontologies to the fruition modalities of the STAR:dust ontology We expressed the sitemap in terms of the basic elements of the STAR:ship ontology to describe the pages and their navigation We employed the STAR:chart framework to realize the SF portal Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 13 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  14. 14. “Behind the scenes” of the SF Interface Mapping between SF ontologies and STAR:dust Service-Finder mapping STAR:dust ontologies definition ontology C sfo:Service dc:title P P sfo:hasName P sfo:rating SD:RelevantProperty P C sfo:Endpoint SD:DetailProperty P P sfo:availabilityLastMonth :sampleServiceMapping a SD:PresentationMapping ; SD:onClass sfo:Service ; SD:mappingSource sfo:hasName ; SD:mappingDestination dc:title ; mappings.n3 SD:mappingDestination SD:RelevantProperty ; SD:isMultiValue "false" ; rdfs:label "Name" ; SD:noValueText " - " . Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 14 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  15. 15. “Behind the scenes” of the SF Interface Service-Finder portal sitemap Service details page TabWidget LoginWidget PropertyWidget RatingWidget AddTagWidget AddCategoryWidget Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 15 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  16. 16. “Behind the scenes” of the SF Interface Widgets’ configuration STAR:dust SELECT ?r WHERE{ SD:RatingProperty P <x> a Class ; RatingProperty ?r. RatingWidget (Java class) } HTML mapping definition template :m1 a SD:PresentationMapping ; Rating: SD:onClass sfo:Service ; SD:mappingSource sfo:rating ; SD:mappingDestination SD:RatingProperty . SELECT ?r instance of WHERE{ RatingWidget <s> a sfo:Service ; on sfo:Service sfo:rating ?r . } Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 16 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  17. 17. “Behind the scenes” of the SF Interface Widgets’ execution RatingWidget (Java class) HTML instance of SELECT ?r template RatingWidget WHERE{ on sfo:Service <s> a sfo:Service ; Rating: sfo:rating ?r . } ?r Triples in the datasource “3.5” HTTP Request :ServiceX a sfo:Service ; sfo:rating “3.5” ; ... Service details page on :ServiceX HTTP Response generated Service details page HTML Rating: fragment on :ServiceX Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 17 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  18. 18. Evaluation Usability questionnaires Usability survey about the Service-Finder portal http://service-finder.cefriel.it/ Average score: 73.3 (range: 0-100, average “good” values: 65-70) Implicit user feedbacks Portal logs leads to insights on usage wrt the fruition modalities A special kind of widgets logs users’ click stream Internal evaluation 6 persons involved in the portal development Flexibility and extendibility (beta approach) Missing “user-friendly” support to mapping Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 18 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  19. 19. Challenges and evolutions (1/2) Open Linked Data movement and Linked Data Cloud open and decentralized knowledge-intensive sources new links and connections emerge over time data schemata are never complete, but "fluid" and possibly fluid continuously changing the more the data grows, the easier to find data inconsistencies Challenge: presenting linked data to the human user Linked Data Browsers generic but with limited capabilities need for a broader approach keeping into account the basic rules of Interaction Design to improve the usability of such tools Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 19 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  20. 20. Challenges and evolutions (2/2) Challenge: unavailability of a complete schema of data to be displayed define a "default" visual representation default retrieve not only the (linked) data, but also their expected visualization (metadata about the linked data), similarly to the vOID vocabulary or the SPARQL endpoint Service Description Challenge: editing and cleansing of linked data “collective intelligence”: engaging the final user in editing, editing correction and enrichment linked data are not enough, other context data are needed (e.g. source or timestamp) consequent challenges: what is the best and more natural way to present provenance or time information to the user? what are the correct interaction patters to be employed to support user editing? Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics 20 Graz, September 3rd 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010
  21. 21. Thanks for your attention! Any question? Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics Paper Authors: Irene Celino, Francesco Corcoglioniti Contact: Irene Celino – Semantic Web Practice CEFRIEL – ICT Institute, Politecnico di Milano email: irene.celino@cefriel.it – web: http://swa.cefriel.it personal website: http://iricelino.org phone: +39-02-23954266 – fax: +39-02-23954466 slides available at: http://www.slideshare.net/iricelino Towards the Formalization of Interaction Semantics I-SEMANTICS – 6th International Conference on Semantic Systems – Graz, 1st-3rd September 2010 – © CEFRIEL 2010

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