What Does Electric Power Look Like?A spinning electric generator Alternating Power Waveformoutputs a waveform like this 1/60th of a second per cycle = 60 Hz Voltage Level (volts) X Current Flow (amps) = Power (watts) If the generator stops spinning the current stops flowing and the lights go out.!
What Are The Parts OfThe Electric Power Grid? Power Generation Plants (power plants) Transmission Networks (wires) Distribution System (wires, transformers, switches)Consumption and Monitoring (loads)
Hard To Remotely Detect FaultsA powercompany maynot know a lineis down untilsomeone callsthem about apower outage
We Have To Build New Capacity To Meet Increasing DemandThe Cost perWatt of Powerfor NewGeneration isGetting MoreExpensive AllThe Time The Output To Meet New Demand Has More Than Doubled in Less Than 20 Yrs
Unused Capacity is a Waste of Money capacityWe spendmoney on asystem that bigenough tohandle thetotal load -which does nothappen all thetime.
Peak Loads Are Rare And The Cost of That Peak Power Source is ExpensiveBecause wewant our powerto always be onwe pay a highprice formeeting peakdemand just afew hours peryear
New Loads Are Going to Impact The Stability of The Electric GridIf there are a lotof plug-in electriccars and everyoneplugs in at thesame time(evening) tocharge up the gridcould beoverloaded.
Cannot Easily Store Electricity For Later UseHave to backup renewablewind andsolar powerwith othersources whichmay be hardto secure.
We Don’t Know Our Personal Fuel MixUsers have noinformation totell them the mixof fuels beingused for theelectricity theyare using whenthey use it.
No Transparency of Real Electric Costs or Shifting of Load Based on Price IncentivesWould peopleuse energydifferently ifthey werecharged what itreally cost inreal time?
How Will The Grid Becomes Smarter EPRI – The Green Grid
A Smarter Grid Will….• Make it easier for people to get information about the electricity they use so they can make better choices about how they want to consume energy.• Make it easier for power providers to know about the health of the grid and take actions to make it more reliable and efficient.• Make it easier to fully integrate the intermittent power production from distributed renewable generation sources.
It’s Time to Think Different• While the Smart Grid will utilize the latest technology to achieve its goals, it is not just about technology.• Implementation of the Smart Grid will require a complete rethinking of the public policy, utility business models, business processes and consumer behavior.• This is a real paradigm shift!
Why All This Interest In Energy?• Electricity is one of the largest and most capital-intensive sectors of the economy. – Total asset value is estimated to exceed $800 billion, with approximately 60% invested in power plants, 30% in distribution facilities, and 10% in transmission facilities.• Annual electric revenues – the Nation’s “electric bill” – are about $247 billion – Paid by America’s 131 million electricity customers, which includes nearly every business and household. – There are more than 3,100 electric utilities and additionally, there are nearly 2,100 non-utility power producers, including both independent power companies and customer-owned distributed energy facilities.• “The grid of the future will require $165 billion over the next 20 years” - EPRI – The benefits to society will be $638 to 802 billion. The cost-benefit is 4 to 1.• There are a lot of risks we face by staying on the current path. – Uncertain access to fuel resources – cost may go out of control – Increasing harm to the atmosphere – global warming may change the planet – Unpredictable power outages – cascading grid failures disrupt commerce – Poor utilization of economic capital – unnecessary cost increases for energy users
What is the Smart Grid?• According to US Department of Energy (DOE): –Smart Grid is the term used for an electricity delivery system that is integrated with modern digital and information technology to provide improved reliability, security, efficiency and ultimately lower cost to the user.
What is the Smart Grid?• According the Federal Energy Regulation Commission (FERC) – “The Smart Grid means a lot of things, but for us, the Smart Grid means a more efficient transmission system that can reduce emissions and increase reliability,” FERC Commissioner Philip Moeller said. “For example, by minimizing line losses, Smart Grid technologies will allow generators to produce less energy and less pollution, while delivering the same amount of electricity to customers.”• According to Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) – The term Smart Grid may be best understood as the overlaying of a unified communications and control system on the existing power delivery infrastructure to provide the right information to the right entity (e.g. end-use devices, T&D system controls, customers, etc.) at the right time to take the right action. – It is a system that optimizes power supply and delivery, minimizes losses, is self-healing, and enables next-generation energy efficiency and demand response applications.
Goals and Characteristics, Which Together Characterize a Smart Grid From: FERC – Smart Grid Policy, March 2009• Integration of “smart” appliances and consumer devices.• Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak- shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and thermal storage air conditioning.• Provision to consumers of timely information and control options.• Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid.• Identification and lowering of unreasonable or unnecessary barriers to adoption of smart grid technologies, practices, and services.
Goals and Characteristics, Which Together Characterize a Smart Grid From: FERC – Smart Grid Policy, March 2009• Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid.• Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber- security.• Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources.• Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources, and energy efficiency resources.• Deployment of “smart” technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation.
Smart Grid Knowledge Domains Energy Advanced Renewable Management Metering portfolio Systems EMS Infrastructure RPS standard AMI Demand Transmission Response and Distribution T&D DR REP Smart C&T Cap and Grid TradeRenewable Energy Payments Home Area HAN DG Distributed Networks Generation EV TOU FERC Federal Electric Time of Use Energy Vehicles Rates Regulatory Commission
Source: NETL – A Systems View of the Modern Grid – Spring 2009Visit our website at www.netl.doe.gov/moderngrid/ to find out how you canbecome more involved in this national effort to modernize the grid.