The Nature of Dyslexia Students


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  • JAY Consultancy 07
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  • People with dyslexia may have difficulty with finding their way around buildings etc but it also applies to finding their way around a book etc. They may also have difficulty with directional words.
  • The Nature of Dyslexia Students

    1. 1. Module 1 Identification, Assessment and Intervention for Pupils with Dyslexia Specialist Dyslexia Training for Teachers CPD 4518 Edge Hill University
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The nature of dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of learners with dyslexia in the classroom </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    3. 3. Why specialist teachers? <ul><li>no to failure - Jack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge Hill University </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Activity <ul><li>What do you know about Dyslexia? </li></ul><ul><li>True or False </li></ul>Inclusion Development programme Edge Hill University
    5. 5. <ul><li>In groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you agree on a definition of dyslexia . </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    6. 6. Definitions Edge Hill University psychology linguistics neurology education opthalmics biology Psycho-linguistics
    7. 7. Definition <ul><li>Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skill involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia occurs across a range of intellectual abilities </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    8. 8. Definition cont. <ul><li>It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut off points </li></ul><ul><li>Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor coordination , mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these themselves are not markers of dyslexia </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    9. 9. Definition cont . <ul><li>A good indication of the severity and persistence of dyslexic difficulties can be gained by examining how the individual responds or has responded to well founded intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Advisory Group </li></ul><ul><li>Rose 2009 :30 </li></ul><ul><li>Rose, J. Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties (2009)Nottingham :DCSF </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    10. 10. <ul><li>Discuss EAG definition </li></ul><ul><li>Consider there are many other definitions </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    11. 11. BDA Definition (2009) <ul><li>Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly </li></ul><ul><li>affects the development of literacy and language </li></ul><ul><li>related skills. It is likely to be present at birth and to be life-long in its effects. It is characterised by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities. It tends to be resistant to conventional teaching methods but its effects can be mitigated by appropriately specific intervention, including the application of information technology and supportive counselling. </li></ul><ul><li> accessed 25 th October 2010 </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    12. 12. Causal Model of Dyslexia (based on Frith 1997) Ref. Morton, J and Frith, U. (1995)Causal Modelling:A structured Approach to Developmental Psychopathology in Ciccehtti D and Cohen DJ( eds) Manual of Developmental Psychopathology pp357-390. Wiley Edge Hill University Biological Cognition Behaviour
    13. 13. Causal Model of Dyslexia (based on Frith 1997) Edge Hill University Biological Genetic Brain differences Cognition Skills Automatisation Phonological Processing Working memory Behaviour Difficulty in learning to read Difficulty in rhyming
    14. 14. SEN code of practice (2001) Edge Hill University
    15. 15. <ul><li>Watch the video of a pupil with dyslexia in a primary school. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>What was his experience like? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think children have this kind of experience in schools today? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the biggest effect on him? </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    16. 16. <ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>cat </li></ul><ul><li>c-a-t </li></ul><ul><li>Polysyllabic words </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>Segmenting and blending words </li></ul><ul><li>Word finding </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Poor decoding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mis-reading small words </li></ul>Edge Hill University Recognising Difficulties .
    17. 17. <ul><li>Short Term Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Copying from the board </li></ul><ul><li>Having correct books / equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering facts / formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering instructions/ messages </li></ul><ul><li>Making notes / taking dictation </li></ul><ul><li>Times tables </li></ul><ul><li>Messy work environment </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    18. 18. Activity <ul><li>Copy the image below </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    19. 19. Information Processing System Long Term Memory Edge Hill University
    20. 20. Edge Hill University
    21. 21. <ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering what event follows another </li></ul><ul><li>Muddled order in words, sentences, stories </li></ul><ul><li>Following instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Telling stories/jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion with days of the week/months of the year </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    22. 22. <ul><li>Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with up/down, under/over, left/right </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with finding their way around a building </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    23. 23. <ul><li>Co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing, especially buttons and laces. </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing, catching, hopping, skipping, jumping </li></ul><ul><li>Colouring, tracing, drawing </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    24. 24. <ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Short attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness / restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor auditory discrimination </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    25. 25. <ul><li>Emotional and behaviour difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Low self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Shy/introverted </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    26. 26. Recognising Strengths <ul><li>A Dyslexic pupil may have strengths in some aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>Good spatial awareness and visualising skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Good oral skills </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude for constructional or technical toys </li></ul><ul><li>Good at lateral thinking and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative </li></ul><ul><li>All Dyslexic pupil have strengths – it is important to identify these strengths. </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    27. 27. Edge Hill University
    28. 28. More famous people with dyslexia...... <ul><li>xtraordinary people </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    29. 29. Edge Hill University
    30. 30. Checklist <ul><li>Look at checklists. Do any pupils spring to mind. </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    31. 31. Co-morbidity co-occurring symptoms Edge Hill University
    32. 32. Co-morbidity Edge Hill University
    33. 33. Crystal Model of Dyslexia <ul><li>The Crystal Model </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    34. 34. Incidence of comorbidity <ul><li>Angold et al (1999) cited in Snowling and Hulme (2009) showed that comorbidity between many developmental disorders, often tend to occur in the same child </li></ul><ul><li>Erklani and Rutter (1991)cited in Snowling and Hulme (2009) showed that comorbidity between many developmental disorders occurs much more frequently than expected by chance given the rate of occurrence of the different disorders of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Talcott (2009) says that the overlap between dyslexia and other learning difficulties is much greater than previously predicted and the single phenotype of dyslexia is the exception. </li></ul><ul><li>Snowling and Hulme (2009) higher incidence of comorbidity than in general population </li></ul><ul><li>Muter ( 75% ) % have comorbidity </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    35. 35. Labelling <ul><li>How can we be sure that we have correctly identified the pupil? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    36. 36. Edge Hill University So far
    37. 37. References <ul><li>Rose J (2009) Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties. Nottingham, DCSF Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Ref. Morton, J and Frith, U. ( 1995)Causal Modelling:A structured Approach to Developmental Psychopathology in Ciccehtti D and Cohen DJ( eds) Manual of Developmental Psychopathology pp357-390. Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>DfeS (2001)The SEN Code of Practice. Nottingham: DFeS Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Talcott, J.(2009) Relationship between dyslexia and other reading disorders. BDA Conference. Oxford </li></ul><ul><li>Snowling, M.J and Hulme.C Developmental Disorders of Language , Learning and and Cognition (2009) Chichester : Blackwell </li></ul>Edge Hill University
    38. 38. TASK <ul><li>Identify a pupil who has Literacy Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a pupil between 7 and 14 and who has no other difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Best if child has not been assessed in the past 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Rose report pages 48-52 </li></ul>Edge Hill University