What is Society ?
• “Society is
a large group of people who live together in
an organized way, making decisions about how to
do things and sharing the work that needs to be
• All the people in a country, or in
several similar countries, can be referred to as a
Ideal /“Utopian” Society
An ideal or Utopian society is Based on notions
Economic Prosperity and
• Utopian is a Combination of two Greek words
that literally means “No Place”.
• When pronounced in Latin , means “Good
• Combination of these two meanings informs
us the way we currently view the word :
• “A place that doesn’t exist and an ideal place
that we can create.
Matter Of Perception
• It is a matter of perception .No TWO people think
the same on all issues, so while I have one view
of ideal, you surely have a different one.
Therefore, even if I could remove all the ills as I
perceive them I still would not have an ideal
• Many people have had opinions on this, ranging
from Karl Marx to Ayn Rand.
Ideal Types Of Societies
• The origin of the concept of Ideal Types was created
to the German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920).
• Several sociologists have used the concept of ideal
types to compare and contrast difference societies.
Here are Some of Social Scientists with their Idea of
Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936)
• He created two ideal types of societies
• called Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
• The Gemeinschaft was a traditional,
• rural society, characterized by a strong
• sense of community with many primary
• The Gesellschaft was an industrial, urban
• , dynamic society in which secondary relationships
• He was an American sociologist. He created
• two ideal types of societies Folk and urban
• The Folk Society is a small society which is
• physically and culturally isolated from other
• societies. This society is stable and has a
• simple division of labor.
• The Urban Society is a large, dynamic and complex society
with a heterogeneous population.
Howard Becker (1899-1960)
• He developed the concepts of the Secular
• Society and the Sacred Society.
• The Sacred Society is an isolated society
• with a high degree of "supernaturalism"
• and strong kinship ties.
• The Secular Society is a society based on
• science, characterized by formal laws and
• a lack of strong kinship ties.
Emil Durkheim (1858-1917)
• He looked at ideal types of societies by
• examining the forces which held the
• society together. Durkheim called the
• force which held society together
• Durkheim's two ideal types of solidarity
• are Mechanical Solidarity and Organic
• Mechanical Solidarity was found in a society
characterized by a simple division of labor that is
held together by similar values and beliefs.
• Organic Solidarity was found in a modern society
that has a complex division of labor that is held
together by the member's dependency on one
I think that a truly ideal society would have
neither laws, nor any need for laws
Liberal Democratic Theory
• Democracy has many forms from ancient times to
• The idea of democracy is shaped in different times
in different forms which are sometimes
Forms of Democracy
Liberal Democratic Theory
Liberalism +Democracy = Liberal Democracy
Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded
on ideas of liberty and equality.
Is a Government
For people (Abraham Lincoln)
• Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of
government in which representative democracy operates
under the principles of liberalism.
• It is characterized by fair, free, and
competitive elections between multiple distinct political
• a separation of powers into different branches of
government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of
an open society,
• and the equal protection of human rights, civil
rights, civil liberties, and political freedoms for all
• “Liberal democratic theory is the ideological
face of capitalism. Its top function is to justify
the distribution of property and power which
permits a minority of men to develop and
dominate the lives of the majority.”
• Liberal Democracy is a phrase often used to describe Western democratic political
systems, such as Australia, the United States, Britain, New Zealand, Canada and
It refers to political systems in which there are attempts to:
defend and increase civil liberties against the violation of governments, institutions
and powerful forces in society
restrict or regulate government intervention in political, economic and moral
matters affecting the citizenry
increase the scope for religious, political and intellectual freedom of citizens
question the demands made by vested interest groups seeking special privileges
develop a society open to talent and which rewards citizens on merit, rather than
on rank, privilege or status
frame rules that maximize the well-being of all or most citizens
A liberal democracy may take various
constitutional forms: it may be
A constitutional republic (France, India, the United States)
A constitutional monarchy(Canada, Japan, the United
Kingdom). It may have a
A Presidential system(Indonesia, the United States),
A semi-presidential system (France, Taiwan), or
A parliamentary system (India, Italy, the United Kingdom).
A Brief Overview
1902 48 Nations
1st World War 65 Nations 22 Liberal
30% of World
At last an ideal society can be concluded as a society having.
Equality and equal rights/No gender or Racial discrimination.
Freedom of Media /Link between public and leaders.
Rule of law /According to rule.
Freedom of Speech Action and Thought.
Social harmony .
Good /Proper Education System.
Fearless Society /Safe Society.