Industrialization

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World History Industrial Revolution Project

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Industrialization

  1. 1. Steam, Coal, Oil<br />The Revolution of Energy andTransportation<br />By Sarah Lewis, Garrett Eucker, Irene Zhang, <br />and Rachel Eisen <br />
  2. 2. Energy and Transportation<br />Change in sources of energy<br />How this led to changes in transportation<br />Rise of coal, oil industries and steam power<br />Invention of steam engine, railroad, and automobile<br />Impact upon the Industrial Revolution<br />
  3. 3. The Industrial Revolution<br />18th, 19th, early 20th centuries<br />1850-1900s- Second Industrial Revolution<br />Began in England, spread to Europe and America<br />Period of great change in:<br />Agriculture<br />Manufacturing<br />Economic policies<br />Social structure<br />Energy and transportation<br />https://ir-newspaper.wikispaces.com/file/view/300_18445.jpg/43370021/300_18445.jpg<br />
  4. 4. Changes in Energy<br />Sources of energy and power before 18th century:<br />Human labor<br />Animals<br />Wood<br />Sources of energy emerging from Industrial Revolution:<br />Coal<br />Steam power<br />Oil<br />
  5. 5. Steam Power<br />The Steam Engine<br />Early Influence<br />Ancient Greek <br /> mathematician Hero<br />A toy<br />Thurston, Robert H. "A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine." D. Appleton And Company, 1878. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C006011/english/sites/link.php3?link=http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/thurston/1878/>. <br />
  6. 6. Evolution of Steam EngineThomas Savery<br />17th Century<br />Coal Mines<br />Published Book<br />Engine involved<br /> crude work<br />http://library.thinkquest.org/C006011/english/jsites/steam_thomas_savery.php3?v=2<br />http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/thurston/1878/pp31.gif<br />Collier, James Lincoln. Steam Engines. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark,<br /> 2006.Questia. Web. 3 Apr. 2010.<br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>1712
  8. 8. Atmospheric engine
  9. 9. Coal mines </li></ul>http://www.cottontimes.co.uk/cottonpix/newomen%20engine.jpg<br />http://www.cottontimes.co.uk/cottonpix/Fulton%20Robert.jpg<br />Collier, James Lincoln. Steam Engines. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark,<br /> 2006.Questia. Web. 3 Apr. 2010.<br />Evolution of Steam EngineThomas Newcomen<br />
  10. 10. Evolution of Steam EngineJames Watt<br />1763 <br />Greater efficiency and power<br />Patented<br />Founded “Boulton & Watt”<br />Used in factories, etc.<br />http://www.nndb.com/people/531/000050381/james-watt.jpg<br />Collier, James Lincoln. Steam Engines. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark,<br /> 2006.Questia. Web. 3 Apr. 2010.<br />
  11. 11. Impact of Steam Engineon the Industrial Revolution<br />Bettered:<br />Coal<br />Factory<br /> production<br />Travel<br />Railways<br />Trade<br />
  12. 12. Coal and Steam Power<br />Savery and Necomen<br />Used high amounts of coal<br />Watt<br />Greater fuel efficiency <br />Encouraged greater affordability where coal was expensive<br />Used to produce iron<br />Replaced charcoal to smelt the ore <br />Better quality <br />"Coal Mines in the Industrial Revolution." Industrial Revolution. History Learning Site, n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <o http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/coal_mines_industrial_revolution.htm>. <br />
  13. 13. Origins of Oil<br />1850s- Crude oil discovered<br />1859- Edwin Drake drilled first successful oil well <br />First used as lubricant<br />Later refined into kerosene<br />Internal-combustion engine invented<br />Demand for gasoline<br />http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/odnr/oil+gas/eldrake.jpg<br />Olson, James S. "Petroleum." Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. Print.<br />http://patentpending.blogs.com/patent_pending_blog/images/capture718200573353_pm.jpg<br />
  14. 14. The Oil Industry<br /><ul><li>Primary energy source in late Industrial Revolution
  15. 15. Replaced coal
  16. 16. Oil industry boomed with popularity of automobiles
  17. 17. Attracted investors and businessmen
  18. 18. John D. Rockefeller</li></ul>Olson, James S. "Petroleum." Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. Print.<br />http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/images/Standard_Oil.jpg<br />
  19. 19. John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)<br />Oil baron<br />1870- founded Standard Oil Company<br />Expanded Standard Oil across America<br />Ruthless business practices<br />Monopoly <br />World’s first billionaire <br />Philanthropist<br />http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2009/08/john_d_rockefeller_1885.jpg<br />Dvorak , Ken, and William Grant. "John D. and Standard Oil." The American 1890s: A Chronology. Bowling Green State University, 2000. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/rockefeller/bio2.htm>. <br />
  20. 20. Standard Oil<br />Established 1870 in Ohio<br />One of the first monopolies<br />Controlled 90% of American oil refiners<br />1882- Became a trust<br />1890- Sherman Antitrust Act<br />1911- Dissolved by US Supreme Court<br />http://www.onepennysheet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/Standard_oil_600.jpg<br />Dvorak , Ken, and William Grant. "John D. and Standard Oil." The American 1890s: A Chronology. Bowling Green State University, 2000. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890s/rockefeller/bio2.htm>. <br />
  21. 21. Standard Oil Today<br />Broke up into separate companies:<br />Exxon (Standard Oil of New Jersey)<br />Mobil (Standard Oil of New York)<br />Chevron (Standard Oil of California)<br />Amoco, Conoco, ARCO<br />"A People’s History of the United States." The Thistle. MIT, January 2001. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://www.mit.edu/~thistle/v13/3/oil.html>. <br />
  22. 22. Why did the primary source of fuel switch from coal to oil in the early 1900s?<br />Easier to transport, cleaner, higher-quality fuel<br />Expansion of oil wells<br />New uses for oil<br />Lubricants, solvents, fuel<br />Rise of Standard Oil Company<br />1900s<br />http://www.thecrosshairstrader.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/oil-barrel.bmp<br />Hillstrom, Kevin. The Industrial Revolution. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 49-50. Print.<br />
  23. 23. http://thegushermarathon.com/images/spindletop.jpg<br />Oil Production: Industrial Revolution<br />Mainly in the US<br />1st major oil-producing state: Pennsylvania<br />Oil fields:<br />Eastern field <br />Mid-Continent field <br />California Field<br />Rocky Mountain Field <br />Gulf Coast Field<br />Olson, James S. "Petroleum." Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. Print.<br />http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist_chart/MCRFPUS2a.jpg<br />
  24. 24. Oil Production Today<br />http://www.manifold.net/gallery/top20oil.png<br />http://www.alt-energy-blog.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/worldproducers.jpg<br />
  25. 25. Natural Gas<br />British manufactured from coal <br />Edwin Drake- hit natural gas and oil<br />1821- First natural gas well<br />Heating and lighting<br />1885- Robert Bunsen invented Bunsen burner<br />No good method of transport <br />Early pipelines inefficient<br />http://www.ems.psu.edu/~pisupati/ACSOutreach/Natural_Gas_files/image004.jpg<br />"History." NaturalGas.org. Natural Gas Supply Association, 2004. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/history.asp>. <br />
  26. 26. Changes in Transportation<br />Previously, people and goods moved by:<br />Foot<br />Animals<br />Wind or oar-powered ships<br />New methods of transportation:<br />Steam-powered ships <br />Automobiles<br />Trains<br />
  27. 27. Evolution of Train<br />Wagonways to Tramways <br />First modern train in 1804 <br />Slow moving <br />Catch Me Who Can<br />Track problems<br />Blucher<br />Adhesion<br />LOCOMOTION No. 1<br />Passengers and goods <br />
  28. 28. Railroads<br />Stockton and Darlington Railway<br />Growth of miles <br />Manchester to Liverpool<br />Public <br />Pacific Railway Act<br />Across US<br />Successful <br />Butler, Chris. "Railroads and Their Impact." The Flow of History. N.p., 2007. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/eme/17/FC112>.<br />
  29. 29. Richard Trevithick<br /><ul><li>Powerful engines
  30. 30. Advanced model
  31. 31. Catch Me Who Can
  32. 32. Thames River </li></ul>"Richard Trevithick-engineer." Cotton Times. Cotton Times, n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <o http://www.cottontimes.co.uk/trevithicko.htm>. <br />
  33. 33. George Stephenson<br /><ul><li>Father of Railways
  34. 34. Inspiration from Trevithick
  35. 35. Blucher
  36. 36. Innovations
  37. 37. Level railways
  38. 38. LOCOMOTION No. 1
  39. 39. Liverpool-Manchester line</li></ul>"George Stephenson: Biography." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <o http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstephensonG.htm>. <br />
  40. 40. Automobiles<br /><ul><li>Traction engine
  41. 41. First car
  42. 42. Benz in 1885
  43. 43. Modern inspiration
  44. 44. Duryea Brothers in Massachusetts
  45. 45. Popularity growth in 1900
  46. 46. Access to middle class
  47. 47. Model T
  48. 48. Inventions before WWII</li></ul>"The History of the Automobile." Colorado.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <o http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/systems/agentsheets/New-Vista/automobile/history.html>. <br />
  49. 49. Henry Ford <br />Ford Motor Company<br />Affordability and wages<br />Assembly line<br />Many inventions<br />Allen, Scott. "Henry Ford - Founder of Ford Motor Company and Assembly Line Innovator." About.com:Entrepeneurs . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/famousentrepreneurs/p/henryford.htmr>. <br />
  50. 50. Impact of Railroads<br />Reduction of travel time<br />Expansion <br />Towns<br />Need for jobs<br />Coal and iron industry <br />Faster communication<br />Culture spread<br />American culture <br />"American Experience: Transcontinental Railroad." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 5 Apr 2010. <o http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/peopleevents/e_impact.html>. <br />
  51. 51. Impact of Automobiles<br />Further expansion <br />No restrictions<br />Suburbia<br />Commuting<br />No isolation<br />Assembly lines <br />

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