Word borrowings in english


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Préstamos a la lengua de base anglosajona, procedentes de otras lenguas, hasta conformar la lengua que hoy en día conocemos como inglés. Estos préstamos se instalaron e influyeron en la creación del inglés. en función de la importancia que tuviera la cultura de la que provenían. Estos préstamos son de origen: celta, escandinavo, griego, del latín y por supuesto del francés. En un fenómeno que no deja de estar vivo, encontramos influencias, del americano, del japonés,del árabe, lenguas asiáticas...

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Word borrowings in english

  1. 1. 1. CELTIC BORROWINGS Pre-settlement Celtic borrowings These took place on the continent of Europe, before the Germanic tribes settled in England. - rice (kingdom)[bishopric] - dun(hill, mountain) [‘down’] (as inPortsdown Road) Celtic borrowings on-settlement Confined to a mere handful, since the original native Celts were displaced or suppressed by the Germanic invaders. Names of places, hills, rivers: Avon, Thames, Londinium - dun, bard, galore - coomb, Exe-(ter), Cam-(bridge), Devon, Kent 2. SCANDINAVIAN BORROWINGS Two major invasions of the Vikings : (i) from 750 to the 9th c., (ii) from the 9th until the beginning of the 11th c. Three periods of Scandinavian influence 1. 750 –1016 750 –1016 . Not too many borrowings, because the English and the Scandinavians were hostile to each other. 2. 1016 – 1050.Very much the same as above. Also, because Alfred the Great had subdued the Scandinavians and encouraged the development of English
  2. 2. 3. 1050 – 1480. After the Norman Conquest, the English and the Scandinavians come together and interact with each other more closely. Therefore, a massive influence of the Scandinavian languages on English, in both grammar andvocabulary (over 1,800 words). The Impact on English Scandinavian influence on English great, but not EXPERIENCED as very dramatic. For all intents and purposes, therefore Scandinavian words may be taken as core, native-type words. They have the same quality, texture as Anglo-Saxon words. Examples: bag, dirt, fog, knife, flat, low, odd, ugly, want, trust, get, give, take, raise, smile, they, them, their, though.Also, the verbare(to be) Reasons: The same Germanic racial, cultural and linguistic stock originally. Their language, therefore, shared common grammatical features and words. But changes had occurred in the languages during the couple of centuries of separation of the two sets of people. The Scandinavians came to settle, not conquer, pillage, etc. They lived alongside the Anglo-Saxons on more or less equal terms. Under the Norman French, particularly, the two different groups fashioned a common life together as subjects. For these reasons, the impact on the word stock was often not simply in terms of borrowings but in other ways too. Examples: (a) The English word displaces the cognate Scandinavian word: fisk - fish gayte - goat (b) The Scandinavian word displaces the cognate English word: egg - eyren (c) Both remain, but with somewhat different meanings: skirt - shirt skiff - ship scrub - shrub (d) The English word remains, but takes on the Scandinavian meaning dream (originally ‘joy’, ‘mirth’, ‘music’, ‘revelry’) (e) English words that were becoming obsolete were given a new lease of lifedale, barn 3. FRENCH BORROWINGS 1066. The impact of the Norman Conquest Three-fold division of labour among languages 1. LATIN: Lang.of learning and Church 2. FRENCH: Lang. of prestige, administration and polite social intercourse of society/civilisation. Develops into Anglo-Norman FR. 3. ENGLISH: Low level lang. of menials, in backwoods Centripetal force towards French - Dominance and prestige of French - Norman French introduced a radically new social system: new institutions, relationships and practices, and a massive change of outlook, a fundamentally different view of reality. - France on the verge of a great cultural renaissance, the emergence of a very sophisticated, elegant, graceful, courtly kind of culture, based on elaborated hierarchy, rank. - Fundamentally different in quality, texture, spirit from the old heroictype of culture. - Therefore, LOSS of Old English heroic word stock, while the words that were retained from there were reinterpreted according to the new spirit of the times. egKing, queen, earl - MASSIVE ALTERATION of the nature of the English word stock which now loses its fundamental all-encompassing Germanic character for the FIRST time and begins to become the mixed language it is today. Three periods of French borrowings I.1066-1250: height of Norman power The language of the King’s court, the nobles’ castles, the courts of law in which Norman French was the language of honour, chivalry and justice - reflecting the dominance of the Normans in powerful institutions such as the royal court and the church. 1263: Mathew of Westminster: ‘Whoever was unable to speak French was considered a vile and contemptible person by the common people.’
  3. 3. The impulse continues for a while but during this first period there was only a trickle of French borrowings, since English continues be used, largely in its own, low-level arenas. II. 1250 – 1400: English–French bilingualism The trickle of French borrowings becomes a FLOOD as historical circumstances lead English to establish itself in arenas earlier almost exclusively occupied by French. 1204 – Fall of Normandy leading to greater autonomy for England once the dynastic link with Normandy had been broken. RESULT: THE REVIVAL OF ENGLISH (late 14th c.) The Norman French rulers in England (the Capetian dynasty) find themselves saddled with a socially inferior variety of French, as Parisian French (the lang. of the Angevian dynasty, now in power) becomes the prestigious language in France. – Decide to be English first and last. 1385 - Richard Pentrich: ‘in all the grammar schools of England, children have abandoned French and construe and learn in English.’ Borrowings of the first two periods These reflect the very different society, views of reality, modes of experience, etc. introduced by French. Rank:OE: king, queen, earl FR:count, countess, sire, madame, duke, marquis, dauphin, viscount, baron, chevalier, servant, master Administration, etc.: Parliament (cf. OE witagenemot) Chancellor, government, country, crown Finance:treasure, wage, poverty Law:attorney, plaintiff, larceny, fraud, jury, verdict War: battle, army, castle, tower, siege, banner Religion: miracle, charity, saint, pardon Morality, emotions, etc.: virtue, vice, gentle, patience, courage, mercy, courtesy, pity Recreation: falcon, covert, scent, chase, quarry Art, fashion, etc.:apparel, costume, gown, art, beauty, colour, image, design, cushion, tapestry Cuisine: stew, grill, roast, . . . (cf. OE: bake, carve) English: boar, calf, cow, deer, ox, sheep, swine French: bacon, mutton, pork, veal, venison Household Relationships: OE: father, mother, brother, sister (Scandinavian form of cognate OE sweoster) FR: uncle, aunt, nephew, cousin III. 1400 – (STILL GOING ON) French borrowings of this period very different from those of the first two in quality, texture, use. - The borrowings of the first two periods tend to be more elegant, sophisticated, etc.; but not too far away from the core. Several quite nativised. dance, April, native, fine, line vs. machine, élite, punish, finish vs. finesse - The borrowings of the third period quite alien, exotic, distant from the core, with attention being explicitly called to their sophisticated, well-bred, cultivated, even arty ‘French’ texture ballet, tableau, statuesque, cliché, motif, format, trousseau, lingerie, souffle, hors d’oevre, rouge, etiquette - By the 16th, & esp. the 17th C. England was establishing itself as a modern nation state, economically viable, self- confident, powerful. No longer needed French words - for special effects. 4. LATIN BORROWINGS
  4. 4. Pre-settlement Latin borrowings These were Latin words borrowed before the Germanic tribes arrived in Britain. Generally reflected the superior material culture of the Roman Empire, which had spread across Europe: street, wall, candle, chalk, inch, pound, port, camp Latin borrowings on-settlement Strangely, the native Celts gave the Germanic settlers several Latin (‘vulgar Latin’) words which they had developed when they were ruled by the Romans: sign, pearl, anchor, oil , chest, pear, lettuce Latin borrowings on the arrival of Christianity AD 597. Christianity arrived from Rome with St Augustine. This coincided with the development for the first time of something like the notion of the state, in the coming together of the warring tribes south of the River Humber in some kind of a loose ‘union’, overseen by the Bretwalda (‘Ruler of Britain’). A state needs a writing system – Christianity had such a system. Therefore, the impact of Latin, the main language of Christianity. Religion:pope, bishop, monk, nun, cleric, demon, disciple, mass,priest, shrine, Learning:circul, not(note), paper, scol (school),epistol The number of borrowings was not as great as might have been expected, however. Reasons: the comparatively limited impact of the spirit of Christianity and the preservation of the heroic spirit in AS poetry Latin borrowings during Norman French times(1580-1660) Difficult to say whether the borrowings were: - Direct borrowings from Latin - Or had come through French Because Latin was the language of learning among the French too French suffixes: - ity( brevity from Latin brevis, passivity from Latin passivus) - ation (consolation , destination) - ance (dalliance,variance) French helped break the resistance of English to foreign (incldg. Latin) borrowings by giving French suffixes to English together with the French words it gave it. These same suffixes were also used by French to assimilate Latin borrowings it made. Once they came into English, they provided a MODEL for English itself to directly borrow and assimilate Latin words in the same way. Latin borrowings since the 15th century Changes the nature of English in a fundamental way A deluge, following the dawn of the modern order of society and the accompanying intellectual / philosophical changes that were taking place. - the rise of PHILOSOPHICAL EMPIRICISM - the Renaissance - Printing New demands on the language - recourse to the western classics to make good the grammatical, lexical and rhetorical deficiencies of the language. Large numbers of words poured in from Latin and Greek - mainly learned words introduced through writing rather than speech – scientific, mathematical, legal, & pertaining to the liberal arts: affidavit, apparatus, caveat, corpuscle, compendium, equilibrium, equinox, formula, inertia, incubate, momentum, molecule, pendulum, premium, stimulus, subtract, vaccinate, vacuum, RESULT: the appearance for the first time of the distinction between the LEARNED and the POPULAR. - No strong sense of the distinction in Shakespeare What hands are these? Ha, they pluck at mine eyes.
  5. 5. Will all great Neptune ‘s ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand ? No; this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine Making a green one red. (William Shakespeare, Macbeth) 5. GREEK BORROWINGS One of the ancient languages of learning, and the Roman Empire learned much from the Greek tradition Pre-conquest: abbot, monk, priest, apostle, devil Through French: agony,aristocracy, enthusiasm, metaphor, Through Latin: ambrosia, nectar, phenomenon, rhapsody Technical terms: anatomy, barometer, microscope, homeopathy General vocabulary: fantasy, cathedral, charismatic, idiosyncracy Renaissance and after - modern COINAGES rather than borrowings: PHOTO- + -graph, -genic, -lysis, -kinesis BIO- + -ology, -genesis, -metry, -scope TELE- + -phone, -pathy, -graphic, -scopic STEREO- + …….. CRYPTO- + . . . . . HYDRO- + . . . . . . HYPER- + . . . . . HYPO- + . . . . . . NEO- + . . . . . . The tendency to borrow rather than create has its social consequences. The Anglo-Saxon habit of word formation kept the meaning of a word transparent and was therefore democratic. You can work out what a new word means because you know the meaning of the parts. Compounding in OE:breakfast (break + fast) holiday(holy + day) woman(wife + man) blackbird(black + bird) Foreign vocabulary has often been used to dominate and mystify. Affixation, compounding and conversion in Modern English: decarbonise(carbon + ise / de+ carbonise) miniaturisation(miniature + ise + ation ) Other borrowings
  6. 6. Primarily a result of EMPIRE and TRADE CONTACTS American: racoon, coyote, prairie, wigwam Australian: wallaby, kangaroo, boomerang Arabic: saffron, sequin, tamarind, alchemy, zenith Persian: naphtha, jasmine, chess, lilac Japanese: samurai, kimono Other Asian regions: avatar, yoga, stupa, karma, curry, bangle,chop, catamaran, mandarin, ketchup, kowtow