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WASH Sustainability check in Ethiopia

IRC
IRC

WASH sustainability check results (by Marieke Adank and Ryan Schweitzer) sharing the findings of sustainability checks undertaken in Ethiopia in 2015 including the work of Aguaconsult for USAID with a rural focus and by IRC to support the DFID/ UNICEF ONEWASH Plus Programme in small towns. Presented during the The 7th Annual WASH Ethiopia Multi-Stakeholder Forum (MSF) held from 16-17 December 2015.

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WASH Sustainability checks in
Ethiopia
Marieke Adank (IRC) and Ryan
Schweitzer (AguaConsult)
National WASH Multi-Stakeholder Forum 7
Hilton Hotel, December 16-17, 2015
Sustainability checks
Sustainability checks provide insight into
• Status of service provision: Is service provision in line
with norms and standards?
• Sustainability: Are the conditions for sustainable WASH
service provision in place?
The presentation: Findings from two sustainability checks
Overview: Two Sustainability Assessments
ONEWASH Plus
(2014-2018)
Your Health is in Your Hands
(2009-2013)
Assessment
Approach*
UNICEF’s Sustainability
Check
USAID’s WASH Sustainability Index
Tool (SIT)
Focus Small town and
surrounding rural areas
Rural areas (kebeles/kushets)
Intervention
types
Water supply
Sanitation
Institutional WASH
Water supply (handpumps/springs)
CLTS-H
Institutional sanitation
Location 7 towns and surrounding
rural areas
12 woredas
Regions Amhara, Oromia , Tigray,
Somali
Amhara, Oromia, Tigray, SNNPR
Status water
services 12 119
2
Community
Handpumps (CHP)
Springs (SPO)
Interventions
Functional Non Functional
12% no improved access
88% access to improved water supplies48% improved access, but water use <20 lpcd
32% improved, water use at least 20 lpcd,
but unreliable, not within 500 m or
unacceptable quality
8% improved access with water use at least 20 lpcd
of reliable water of acceptable quality within 500m.
7 small towns (Source: One WaSH Plus survey for UNICEF/DFID)
Source: Survey by Tetra Tech / Aguaconsult for USAID
Rural water interventions (YHYH)
Town water services (ONEWASH Plus)
Functionality rate public taps: 68%
2% improved access with water use in line with
GTP2 within 250m.
Status sanitation
services
Households with latrine: 76%
However,
− Households with well-maintained
latrine: 25%
− Households with latrine with water
and soap: 12%
Schools with improved latrines: 71%
However,
− Schools with with appropriate
number of holes for males and
females: 12%
− Schools with clean, safe, private
sanitation: 11%
Status institutional
WASH
2 11
1 5
9
2
12
31
mmunity
pumps (CHP)
Springs (SPO) Institutional
Sanitation Facilities
(INS)
Community Led Total
Sanitation and
Hygiene (CLTSH)
Functional
Non Functional
ONEWASH Plus towns:
YHYH:
Source: Survey by Tetra Tech /
Aguaconsult for USAID
7 small towns (Source: One WaSH Plus survey for UNICEF/DFID)
ODF
Not ODF
Sanitary latrines
Unsanitary latrines
Sustainability
Sustainability Factors:
• Institutional (and
management)
• Technical
• Financial
• Social
• Environmental
Levels:
• National level
• “Service authority” level
(woreda, zone, region)
• Service provider level
(WASHCo, TWU,
institutions, sanitation
service providers)
Scoring: On indicators related to sustainability factors at
different levels from 0-100

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WASH Sustainability check in Ethiopia

  • 1. WASH Sustainability checks in Ethiopia Marieke Adank (IRC) and Ryan Schweitzer (AguaConsult) National WASH Multi-Stakeholder Forum 7 Hilton Hotel, December 16-17, 2015
  • 2. Sustainability checks Sustainability checks provide insight into • Status of service provision: Is service provision in line with norms and standards? • Sustainability: Are the conditions for sustainable WASH service provision in place? The presentation: Findings from two sustainability checks
  • 3. Overview: Two Sustainability Assessments ONEWASH Plus (2014-2018) Your Health is in Your Hands (2009-2013) Assessment Approach* UNICEF’s Sustainability Check USAID’s WASH Sustainability Index Tool (SIT) Focus Small town and surrounding rural areas Rural areas (kebeles/kushets) Intervention types Water supply Sanitation Institutional WASH Water supply (handpumps/springs) CLTS-H Institutional sanitation Location 7 towns and surrounding rural areas 12 woredas Regions Amhara, Oromia , Tigray, Somali Amhara, Oromia, Tigray, SNNPR
  • 4. Status water services 12 119 2 Community Handpumps (CHP) Springs (SPO) Interventions Functional Non Functional 12% no improved access 88% access to improved water supplies48% improved access, but water use <20 lpcd 32% improved, water use at least 20 lpcd, but unreliable, not within 500 m or unacceptable quality 8% improved access with water use at least 20 lpcd of reliable water of acceptable quality within 500m. 7 small towns (Source: One WaSH Plus survey for UNICEF/DFID) Source: Survey by Tetra Tech / Aguaconsult for USAID Rural water interventions (YHYH) Town water services (ONEWASH Plus) Functionality rate public taps: 68% 2% improved access with water use in line with GTP2 within 250m.
  • 5. Status sanitation services Households with latrine: 76% However, − Households with well-maintained latrine: 25% − Households with latrine with water and soap: 12% Schools with improved latrines: 71% However, − Schools with with appropriate number of holes for males and females: 12% − Schools with clean, safe, private sanitation: 11% Status institutional WASH 2 11 1 5 9 2 12 31 mmunity pumps (CHP) Springs (SPO) Institutional Sanitation Facilities (INS) Community Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) Functional Non Functional ONEWASH Plus towns: YHYH: Source: Survey by Tetra Tech / Aguaconsult for USAID 7 small towns (Source: One WaSH Plus survey for UNICEF/DFID) ODF Not ODF Sanitary latrines Unsanitary latrines
  • 6. Sustainability Sustainability Factors: • Institutional (and management) • Technical • Financial • Social • Environmental Levels: • National level • “Service authority” level (woreda, zone, region) • Service provider level (WASHCo, TWU, institutions, sanitation service providers) Scoring: On indicators related to sustainability factors at different levels from 0-100
  • 7. MSF 7 Maksegnit Abomsa Sheno Welenchiti Kebridehar Adishihu Wukro Average Roles for cleaning and minor maintenance of institutional latrines 90 86 85 100 0 100 100 80 Roles and responsibilities with regard to pit emptying/desludging OR decommissioning/reconstruction? 100 100 80 100 0 100 100 83 Cleaning programme for sanitation facilities 48 38 41 45 0 66 65 43 Availability of sufficient and appropriately equiped sanitation facilities including hand washing 0 3 4 13 0 0 6 4 Menstrual hygiene 5 13 7 10 0 6 10 7 Septic tank emptying practices 0 0 14 15 0 13 5 7 Payment for water services 10 38 29 50 25 13 20 26 Financing of capital maintenance of sanitation facilities 40 63 32 50 0 47 44 39 Distance between latrines and water source (hand dug well / borehole / spring) 89 100 100 100 na 100 95 97 Open defecation free environment 20 63 43 60 0 88 85 51 S Social inclusion of latrine facilities 25 25 29 40 0 50 53 32 Maksegnit Abomsa Sheno Welenchiti Kebridehar Adishihu Wukro Average Clarity on roles and responsibilities related to supporting institutional WASH 50 25 75 na 50 75 75 58 Local government capacity to provide support institutional sanitaion 75 75 75 NA 25 75 25 58 Formalisation of pit and septic pit empties 100 100 50 100 0 100 100 79 Monitoring of sanitation facility use and maintenance and follow- up support provided by woreda/other support institution from zonal/regional level 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Effective support to institutions related to their WASH facilities 25 25 25 25 75 75 25 39 Availability of septic tank empiers 50 50 50 50 0 50 50 43 Sufficient financing of woreda staff to monitor and follow-up on institutional WASH service provision 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Sufficient logistics for woreda and town staff to monitor and follow-up on institutional WASH service provision 0 25 25 25 0 25 25 18 Safe disposal and / or reuse of sludge in an environmentally sound manner 0 0 25 0 0 0 50 11 Safe disposal and / or recycling of solid waste in an environmentally sound manner 0 0 0 0 25 25 50 14 National monitoring system or database National support to Regional, Zonal and Woreda/service authority, including capacity building training and technical T National/regional standard/guideline/norms for design, management and support of institutional WASH F Availability of national budget related to institutional WASH E National environmental protection standards are established and applied to institutional WASH F E I Service provider Indicator Service authority Indicator National Indicator I T F E I T 75 25 50 25 25 7 small towns (Source: One WaSH Plus sustainability check for UNICEF/UKAid Example: School WASH
  • 8. Example: Water service sustainability Service provider Indicator Score I Well-composed and trained WASHCo 54 41 By laws and legal status of the WASHCo 29 T Presence of WASH artisans in the woreda 0 14Spare part supply 32 Routine (preventive) maintenance 11 F User payment and tariffs 49 43 Financial management 50 Revenue/standard annual expenditure balance 31 E WASHCo Water safety plan 32 28 Sanitary Inspection 25 S Election of WASHCo by entire community 89 64 Women representation in WASHCos 39 Service authority Indicator Score I Woreda WASH Team 50 56 Woreda Water Office 50 Woreda level plan 75 Regional standard WASHCo by laws 50 T Checks on construction quality 100 83 Monitoring of O&M and WASHCo performance 75 Scheme inventory and maintenance plan 75 F Woreda water office annual recurrent budget 0 25 Woreda water office logistics 50 Rural water services around Wukro town National indicator Score I National monitoring system 25 National support to service authority 25 T Norms for rural water services 25 F Availability of national budget 25 E National environmental protection standards 25 0 25 50 75 100 Maksegnit Abomsa Sheno Welenchiti Adishihu Wukro Total Institutional Technical Financial Environmental Social 0 100 200 300 400 500 Maksegnit Abomsa Sheno Welenchiti Adishihu Wukro Total Institutional Technical Financial Environmental Social
  • 9. Example: Overall sustainability scores per level (YHYH) EXAMPLE PRESENTATION TITLE Source: Survey by Tetra Tech / Aguaconsult for USAID
  • 10. Lessons learnt: Main barriers to water service sustainability Rural water: • Preventive maintenance; • Spare part supply; • Gender balanced WASHCo; • Water Safety Plan; • WWO recurrent budget. Urban water: • Asset management; • Town water utility staffing; • Catchment management; • No regulatory agency.
  • 11. Lessons learnt: Main barriers to sanitation service sustainability CLTSH: • Design/construction of latrines; • Availability of low cost sanitation products and microfinance to increase ability of users to pay; • Continued monitoring and support of communities. Urban sanitation: • Access to fund for sanitation service providers; • Sufficient logistics for town staff to monitor and follow-up; • Safe disposal of solid and liquid waste.
  • 12. Lessons learnt: Main barriers to sanitation service sustainability • Menstrual hygiene facilities; • Septic tank emptying practices; • Sufficient logistics for woreda staff to monitor and follow-up; • Safe disposal of solid and liquid waste.
  • 13. Way forward USAID and the WASH Sustainability Index Tool: • Fund/pilot the further refinement of sustainability assessment tools • Adjust implementation approach • Inform development of WASH portfolio UNICEF and ONEWASH Plus sustainability check: • Annual sustainability checks • To inform Sustainability Plans in intervention towns • To adjust project interventions Questions for the way forward: • Development of simplified version, to be applied by (local) government under OWNP? • Integrate sustainability indicators in the national monitoring framework?
  • 14. Thank You Information available: WASH Sustainability Index Tool (SIT): Report can be found at https://dec.usaid.gov/dec Resources on tool: http://www.washplus.org/rotary-usaid ONEWASH Plus: http://www.ircwash.org/projects/onewash-plus?tab=info