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WASH Debate: Building institutional capacity for behaviour change & sanitation programming - Dr. Kamal Kar

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The aim of this WASH debate - jointly organised by IRC and IHE Delft - is to bring greater attention to the variety of behaviours that make up good sanitation, and the range of actors involved in keeping a toilet functional and an environment clean. Specifically it will focus on questions such as:
- How can CLTS be best combined with other sanitation approaches?
- And, in situations where CLTS might be mismatched for local contexts, what alternative methods can be applied to effect change?
- How can the capacity for behaviour change and sanitation programming be institutionalised?

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WASH Debate: Building institutional capacity for behaviour change & sanitation programming - Dr. Kamal Kar

  1. 1. In cooperation with: Dr. Kamal Kar Collective behaviour change: Key to enhance large-scale investment efficiency in sanitation and public health Chairman, CLTS Foundation (India)
  2. 2. Attitude & Behaviour Change CLTS Tools & Techniques Enabling Environment Institutional Professional Personal Triggering Policy Context National Protocol/ Budget Essential Convergence Inter- Institutional Coordination Pre-triggering Post ODF actions Post Triggering Follow-up The key elements of CLTS
  3. 3. 3 Collective Behaviour Change – The Engine Subsidy Free toilet I will be fined and punished There is not enough space to build a toilet Toilets are expensive Safe sanitation is a healthy practice Who will empty the toilet pit? My ration card will be blocked My children will be safe from diarrhoea We are ingesting each other’s shit and that has to be stopped!
  4. 4. 4 We are ingesting each other’s shit and that has to be stopped! Collective Behaviour Change – The Engine Subsidy Free toilet I will be fined and punished There is not enough space to build a toilet Toilets are expensive Safe sanitation is a healthy practice Who will empty the toilet pit? My ration card will be blocked My children will be safe from diarrhoea Collective Behaviour Change
  5. 5. 5 • Behaviour change is a 100% humane element or a thought process. • It cannot be allured / attracted / pushed by free subsidy and pressures of incentives. • It is THIS behaviour change process which is agreed and accepted by all – the main theme of CLTS. • The question of mismatch with local context arises only when there is a policy of large scale subsidy in place. Contd...
  6. 6. 6 Movement along the Sanitation Ladder 6
  7. 7. 7 • It is, however, the other way around. • Other sanitation approaches can take the extra mileage of the opportunity and platform of community empowerment created by CLTS to further the goals. • Piggybacking on the success of CLTS and sense of community solidarity. • Embarking upon “movement along the sanitation ladder”. How CLTS can be best combined with other sanitation approaches and institutionalised?
  8. 8. 8 FINISH Mondial programme in Busia County, Kenya since 2013 – In partnership with Amref, WASTE and Aqua for all; supported by the Dutch MoFA – to scale up the public-private partnership model for moving up the sanitation ladder – has been instrumental in enabling households obtain safe and improved sanitation facilities, paid for through micro-credit initiatives. – The success of the programme is based on the fact that Busia County is the only county in Kenya to be ODF in 2015, the journey of which started with CLTS in July 2010. Examples
  9. 9. 9 CLTS Foundation in Benin (2014-15) – Development support by the Netherlands to the Beninese WASH sector started in 2004 – In 2013, the rural sanitation situation in Benin was dire: it was fourth in the global list of countries ranked by percentage of population defecating in the open – In the period following 2013, CLTS was implemented and it was proved that there were no cultural barriers to CLTS, and a system for developing capacity was created, involving local NGOs and output-based contracting. – In 2016, Benin celebrated its first certified ODF village and 300 ODF localities. Examples
  10. 10. 10 • The success of ODF achievement has remained limited to the village level. • The strength and ability of the village community to be locally empowered to transform the sanitation situation needs to be recognised by higher level institutions. • Political will, capacity of the Government and the enabling environment are major factors driving the journey of ODF achievements from village to nation. • Innovative tools to fast track institutionalization of behaviour change through Institutional Triggering. From Village to Nation
  11. 11. 11 Institutional Triggering is a methodology to trigger institutional actors to take ownership and responsibility for the state of poor sanitation in the country/state/region and mobilise immediate action to support the implementation and scaling up of CLTS in the respective area. • It aims to address limiting factors in the institutional environment that hinder CLTS implementation • This is done through illustration of glittering examples of success within the country where the community members have shown potential for collective behaviour change to achieve tangible health outcomes. Institutional Triggering
  12. 12. 12 • The Dutch WASH policy has so far mostly invested in rural sanitation interventions at the community level. • In order to harness the best health outcomes, the Dutch policy should also focus on institutionalisation of the home-grown success of the local communities to fast track achievement of ODF nations. Potential of the Dutch Policy
  13. 13. 13 “Collective behaviour change brought about by CLTS is the engine which drives the bogies of success of other sanitation programmes”
  14. 14. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ These materials were developed and/or made available under the project Accelerating the Impact of Education and Training on Non- sewered Sanitation (OPP1157500) funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The content is subject to free unlimited access and use, consistent with BMGF’s commitment to ensure the open access to information and knowledge. Therefore, sharing (to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapting (transforming, and building upon the material for any purpose) under condition that appropriate credit to author(s) is provided is allowed. Although care was taken to ensure the integrity and quality of these materials and information, no responsibility is assumed by the author(s) or IHE Delft for any damage to property or persons as a result of use of these materials and/or the information contained herein. Dr. Kamal Kar Thank you! Chairman, CLTS Foundation (India)

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