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Understanding household water in northern Ghana from a user's point of view

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A consortium of partners, including Antenna, IRC, WHO, and the Swiss Ministry, among others, are exploring ways to scale up household water treatment and storage (HWTS) globally under the Safe Water Programme Phase II mechanism.
In 2010, Marion Kyomuhendo conducted an assessment of the HWTS landscape in Ghana, and in 2015, Roshini George conducted a market assessment of HWTS options in Ghana. According to Antenna, both of these studies are more “top down,” and there is a need to better understand the knowledge, attitude, and practices of users bottom-up.

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Understanding household water in northern Ghana from a user's point of view

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING HOUSEHOLD WATER IN NORTHERN GHANA FROM A USER’S POINT OF VIEW
  2. 2. THE PROJECT TEAM LILIANA SALAZAR Design Researcher and Strategist ABIGAIL NYDAM Project Director, iDE Global Initiatives CONSOLATA DASSAH Program Coordinator, iDE Ghana Coordination and Research VALERIE LABI Program Director, iDE Ghana BRIAN KIGER Country Director, iDE Ghana Research Support and Translation YI WEI Director, iDE Global WASH
  3. 3. THIS REPORT The following pages explore and answer the following questions: •  Ultimately, is there a market for HWTS technologies for rural Ghana right now? •  Do people have awareness of HWTS solutions? •  If so, what are the current solutions and what are users doing, or not? •  Are they currently paying, if so for what and how much? •  For example, we know that people are buying water sachets. Are they doing this because they think it’s safe, or because it’s the only or most cost effective option? •  At what price point would they be willing to access HWTS solutions?
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 5 OUR APPROACH 8 THE CONTEXT 14 USER INSIGHTS 21 DESIGN PRINCIPLES & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES 74 NEXT STEPS 88
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTS RECOMMENDATIONSTHE CONTEXTINTRODUCTION NEXT STEPS
  6. 6. DRINKING WATER IN GHANA STATISTICS DUE TO DRINKING CONTAMINATED WATER, DIARRHEAL DISEASE IS THE 3RD MOST COMMONLY REPORTED ILLNESS AT HEALTH CENTERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. 1 IN 10 CHILDREN WILL DIE BEFORE THEIR FIFTH BIRTHDAY DUE TO WATER- RELATED ILLNESSES. IS WHAT OVER A QUARTER OF THE POPULATION STILL LIVES ON PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS. $1.25/DAY COMPARED TO THE REST OF THE COUNTRY, THE THREE NORTHERN REGIONS OF GHANA ARE PARTICULARLY DEPRIVED OF CLEAN DRINKING WATER AND IN THE MAIN NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA ALONE, 32% OF THE 2.5 MILLION RESIDENTS LACK ACCESS TO IMPROVED* WATER SOURCES. 6 1  "2015 Ghana Millennium Development Goals Report". UNDP in Ghana 2  "Ghana - Where We Work - WaterAid America". www.wateraid.org 3 "WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (2008). A Snapshot of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Africa." www.unicef.org 1 2 3 *IMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCES: HOUSEHOLD CONNECTION BOREHOLE PROTECTED DUG WELL PROTECTED SPRING PUBLIC STANDPIPE UNIMPROVED DRINKING WATER SOURCES: RIVERS OR PONDS BUCKET UNPROTECTED WELL UNPROTECTED SPRING VENDOR-PROVIDED WATER TANKER TRUCK WATER BOTTLED (SACHET) WATER
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION AN OPPORTUNITY AND A CHALLENGE A consortium of partners, including Antenna, IRC, WHO, and the Swiss Ministry, among others, are exploring ways to scale up household water treatment and storage (HWTS) globally under the Safe Water Programme Phase II mechanism. In 2010, Marion Kyomuhendo conducted an assessment of the HWTS landscape in Ghana, and in 2015, Roshini George conducted a market assessment of HWTS options in Ghana. According to Antenna, both of these studies are more “top down,” and there is a need to better understand the knowledge, attitude, and practices of users bottom-up. INTRODUCTION 7
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION OUR APPROACH OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTS DESIGN PRINCIPLES NEXT STEPS 8 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  9. 9. OUR APPROACH WHAT IS HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN? Human-Centered Design (HCD) is a leading innovation methodology that maximizes the likelihood of adoption, long-term sustainability, and scalability of a market-based solution. It is used to design and deliver holistic offerings – usually a combination of product(s), service(s), marketing, financing, and distribution.   HCD utilizes an ethnography-like approach to deeply understand latent user and stakeholder needs, and combines this with design methods and expertise from product design, industrial design, business design, service design, and marketing strategy. The result is a market-based solution that is desirable, accessible, usable, maintain-able, and affordable to consumers, in addition to being technically feasible and economically viable for stakeholders in the market- system. HCD is a best practice amongst the world’s largest (market-based) consumer goods and services firms, and has gained recent credence in the development sector as a means to improve the ROI (return on investment) as well as the probability of scale and sustainability of market- based initiatives. OUR APPROACH 9
  10. 10. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? The goal of HCD Research is not the information itself, but what to do with the information. The Human Centered Design Research goal is an enabler. It enables the transformation of information into ideas. The goal of HCD research is to inspire new ideas (new products, communication proposals, etc).   Since the goal is to "enable new ideas", the focus is not only on identifying major common behavioral patterns, but also on looking for "unique" individuals who are doing "unique" activities, and can be a source of inspiration (example: the majority of retailers complain about how difficult it is to load heavy materials onto trucks, and one person has created a new strategy to load heavy materials in a very ingenious way. In this particular case, the need is "load-unload", but the inspiration comes from one person). The approach is both analytical and creative.   In HCD Research, unlike in market research, the role of researchers and the role of managers are blurred. Researchers are involved in idea generation (new ideas on strategies, actions, products, etc.), while strategists are also involved in the investigation.   OUR APPROACH 10
  11. 11. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? (cont.) SPECIFIC TECHNICAL DIFFERENCES IN EACH STEP: Qualitative Market Research v. Human-Centered Design Research   Team definitions: - Qualitative Market Research will have only researchers in the team. Most of the time, those researchers won't be involved in later on decisions. - Human-Centered Design Researchers will include the people who will use that information afterwards (managers, designers, strategists..)   Defining the tools to be used: In both cases, the researchers use observation and conversations as their main tools. In both cases, researchers have "guidelines" instead of closed questionnaires. In both cases, the researchers try to understand people's realities by connecting with them at a personal level. Some qualitative market researchers also use "ethnographic" approaches to their research (ethnography= context based research) and in-depth interviews, even though the majority tend to use "focus groups" (groups conversations).   OUR APPROACH 11
  12. 12. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? (cont.) The main difference is that Human-Centered Design Research approach is based on observing the context and individual stories. From this perspective, HCD Research tries to avoid "focus groups", as it is a tool that is not connected with the context where people live and work, (Focus Groups make sense mainly for validation, or to get a sense of general opinions about a subject). Another difference is that HCD Research approach is more visual than text based, relying more heavily on visual observations and visual means of data analysis.   Samples and profiles definition: - Qualitative Market Research pre-defines variables that are fixed and need to be targeted, as it looks for different responses of the pre-defined criteria: % males vs females / % users vs non-users.    - HCD Research will also take into account some initial variables at the start of the research, but will change the criteria and the target profiles based on findings.   OUR APPROACH 12
  13. 13. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? (cont.) Quantifying the samples: - Qualitative Market Research methodologies go as follow: for each variable to compare you need 2 focus groups of at least 6 people. If we want to compare male opinions with female opinions we will have at least 4 focus groups, 2 males groups and 2 females groups. It also goes with a minimum of 12 profiles that responds to the same variable. It is important for market research to have a consistent definition of the number of people interviewed for each variable, since the answers will be compared.   - HCD Research learns by doing. The design researchers mindset is "learning", which is slightly different than "obtaining information”. After a certain number of interviews the learning curve goes down and the number of new nuances learned is less. At this point, no more interviews are done. Even if the HCD Researcher has a target number of interviews in mind, this may increase of decrease based on the learning curve (We are hearing completely new stories every new interview vs. We are hearing pretty similar stories every new interview - time to stop). One interview can be very rich and another one can be very vague, which is why the number of interviews associated with each variable is less important than the richness of each interview.         OUR APPROACH 13
  14. 14. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? (cont.) Analysis: - As qualitative Market Research looks for patterns and information, they understand the "raw" material as something to be analyzed with a "desk based" approach. The main focus is organizing the information in a way that is easy to read and communicate on paper. Market Research analysis is sometimes done individually or by splitting tasks into groups, mostly as an analytical activity.   - HCD Research: The analysis is not "desk based”. Instead, pictures from the field covers the walls of the office and researchers connect their own personal experiences with conversations and what they directly observed in the field. During this process, potential ideas / solutions will come out. Research and creation goes hand-by-hand. The separation between investigation and creation is blurred. Both analytical and creative minds are required.   Transformation: - Qualitative Market Research doesn't transform their findings into solutions, as this lies outside of its scope. Thus, this step doesn't exist. Market Researchers organize the information in order to make final reports easy to understand. Market Researchers would incorporate final summaries of the information into reports.     OUR APPROACH 14
  15. 15. OUR APPROACH HOW DOES THIS DIFFER FROM OTHER QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS? (cont.) - HCD Research: The "transformation process" is where the value of HCD Research mainly lies. The HCD Researcher's main focus is not only to create text based reports but also tools that can be easily used to generate ideas. Therefore, the main approach is making both the information and the guidelines visual. The usage of pictures and attractive images is oriented to keep empathy with the users alive and to inspire creativity during the next stages of the process (generating ideas, fine-tuning, etc).             OUR APPROACH 15
  16. 16. OUR APPROACH 2 WEEKS IN GHANA – IN-FIELD FIELDWORK 1 NORTHERN REGION ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS FIELDWORK 2 UPPER WEST REGION ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS FIELDWORK 3 UPPER EAST REGION ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS REVISITS IN ALL REGIONS IDEATION METHODS AREAS OF FOCUS WATER COLLECTION WATER ACCESS WATER STORAGE WATER TECHNOLOGIES TESTING RESEARCH ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS TIMELINE Desk Research Research Guidelines and Design Stakeholder Interviews Current product mapping In-field interviews Unstructured, informal field interviews Device Testing User Journeys Emerging Themes User and Actor Insights 16 IDEATION Design Principles Recommendations Straw Man Business Model Purchase Process
  17. 17. EXPERTS USERS ACTORS 3185 iDE GHANA Val Labi Program Director, WASH UNICEF Regional Representative PURE HOME WATER (Kosim Filter) Country Representative WHO GHANA Batsirai Majuru Roshini George BoP Water Expert – West Africa • Current HWTS users • Ex HWTS users • Non HWTS users + TWO SCHOOLS WERE VISITED • Vendors • HWTS Technology Manufacturers WHO WE SPOKE TO OUR APPROACH 17
  18. 18. OUR APPROACH OUR RESEARCH FOCUS* OUR APPROACH 18 NORTHERN REGION Urban, Peri Urban and Rural Users UPPER EAST REGION Urban, Peri Urban and Rural Users UPPER WEST REGION Urban, Peri Urban and Rural Users This report defines the following target geographies as follows: Urban: Users located within a district capital Peri Urban: Users located less than 10 minutes from the district capital Rural: Users located more than 10 minutes from the district capital *Due to timing and budget, only Northern regions were included in this study. And in order to fully understand the BoP Ghanaian household water context, additional study in other areas is required.
  19. 19. THE CONTEXT OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 19 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  20. 20. THE CONTEXT THE CONTEXT WATER COLLECTION AND THE FAMILY WATER COLLECTION IS GENDER SPECIFIC AT THE HOUSEHOLD LEVEL Women and children mainly collect water, usually in the morning or evening to avoid the heat. Some boys collect water, too, as it is hard work -- it is laborious to pump and carry water but this is more rare. At schools, students mainly (both boys and girls) collect the school drinking water with the supervision of the staff.   20 “I usually go with my 3 daughters down to the river, the youngest one makes up for not being able to carry anything filled by taking all the empty containers there.” -Aberenge, Rural User, Upper East Region “I’m too old to go to pump at the borehole, my boys like to go, especially the youngest one, he sees it as exercise...they usually go in the morning before they go to school or in the evening to avoid the heat…” - Philip, Peri-Urban User, Northern Region
  21. 21. THE CONTEXT THE CONTEXT WHERE ARE PEOPLE COLLECTING THEIR DRINKING WATER? 21 RURAL PERI-URBAN URBAN People living in remote areas suffer from a general scarcity of water and having had much less access and exposure to piped water are more preoccupied with supply rather than the quality of the water. Their sources for both drinking water and household usage are wells, rivers and rainwater. They also fetch water for their livestock. Water kiosks were not observed in northern rural Ghana. People residing in peri urban or urban centres have had more access to piped water and therefore have developed a dependence and preference for it. When it is available they use it 100% of the time for all household use and consumption. When not available, they will use the next best source for drinking water accessible (considering first and foremost their finances and proximity). There will usually be taps, river dams or boreholes within the area (but usually further away) that they will either walk to or pay for a collection service. Water kiosks were not observed in the peri-urban and urban areas in which this research was conducted. However, these do exist in peri-urban, urban areas of Ghana.
  22. 22. THE CONTEXT THE CONTEXT WATER IS NOT SHARED EVERYONE FOR THEMSELVES Each family collects and stores their own water; the water that is used for washing and bathing is usually left out in basins in the courtyards of homes. Drinking water, however, is hidden away in private rooms or refrigerators (when owned) to avoid misuse by neighbors and children and to keep cool. Depending on the family unit and distance between homes, polygamous marriages may or may not share their water. Usually a family unit within the same household will have 2 or 3 women (eg. sister wives, daughters, daughter-in-laws etc) that will do the collection for the entire family. The water is not typically shared within communities, although it is common practice to pay their neighbours to use private water source if theirs is not accessible.   22
  23. 23. THE CONTEXT THE CONTEXT WATER COLLECTION IS NOT SHARED EVERYONE FOR THEMSELVES   23 “Our tap has been closed for the last week and we have to beg our neighbours to use their polytank...we pay them...I go very early in the morning to avoid the line-ups, it can take a long time as there are many people waiting…” - Cynthia, Urban, Upper East Region “I usually go with my son’s wife and his second wife first thing in the morning, we do about 4 or 5 trips so we have enough water for the day...we are a polygamous family, we collect for the whole family, there’s 20 of us.” - Ushama, Rural, Northern Region “I put the jerry can in my room so that the neighbours or the children misuse it, I mean don’t use the drinking water for washing clothes or bathing...also this way it stays cold.” - Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region
  24. 24. WATER IS NOT FREE. Users must pay for the water they collect from all sources except surface water. Prices depend on location and source. Not only do users pay for the water they collect but they often pay for the transportation back to their households once collected. IN FACT, USERS OFTEN PAY THEIR NEIGHBORS FOR WATER AT PRIVATE BOREHOLES, TANKS OR WELLS IF MUNICIPAL SOURCES ARE NOT FUNCTIONING/LOW. SOME USERS SELL/TRANSPORT WATER AS A SOURCE OF INCOME FOR THEIR HOUSEHOLD PARTICULARLY WATER SACHETS. 24
  25. 25. THE CONTEXT THE CONTEXT WHAT ARE PEOPLE PAYING FOR WATER? 25 URBAN USERS SACHET WATER ~3 Ghana Cedis per pack. Each pack contains 30 sachets. Each sachet costs 20 Pesawa. PUBLIC TAP ~3 Ghana Cedis per drum/barrel Average household expenditure per month: 200 Ghana Cedis PERI URBAN AND RURAL USERS SACHET WATER ~3 Ghana Cedis per pack PUBLIC TAP ~3 Ghana Cedis per drum/barrel Average household expenditure per month: 100 Ghana Cedis PRIVATE BOREHOLE ~6 Ghana Cedis per drum/barrel with transport DAM ~.20 Ghana Cedis per jerry can ~3 Ghana Cedis per drum/barrel 1 Ghana Cedi = $.25 USD
  26. 26. USER INSIGHTS THE HOUSEHOLD WATER JOURNEY OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 26 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  27. 27. 27 RISK OF CONTAMINATION PAID SERVICE EMPTY CONTAINER FULL CONTAINER LEGEND ¢ THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SOURCE - COLLECTION - POINT OF USE - STORAGE - TREATMENT – USAGE- MAINTENANCE USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* TAP RIVER/DAM BOREHOLE WELL SURFACE WATER RAINWATER
  28. 28. 28 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – TRANSPORT TO WATER SOURCE USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 1. Transport to water source: Most people collect water first thing in the morning to avoid the sun and will do 4-6 consecutive trips to have enough water to last for the day (or 2). Depending on their family size, need and season, they will repeat in the evening.   THERE ARE 6 MAIN TOUCH POINTS: transport of containers to the water source, collection at water source, transport of the filled containers back to home, pooling and division of water into larger containers for i) household consumption and ii) household usage (washing clothes, bathing and cooking), dispensing and refilling.
  29. 29. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 29 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – COLLECTION AT THE WATER SOURCE USER INSIGHTS 2. Collection at the water source: Most people rely entirely on tap water if they have access. However, as taps are commonly closed or don’t flow freely, people require a backup plan and use a variety of other sources for drinking water and household usage. People commonly prefer to drink tap, borehole, or treated river water for drinking water (if they have access and/or can afford it) and use well, river and rainwater for other purposes.    
  30. 30. 30 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – TRANSPORT BACK FROM WATER SOURCE USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 3. Transport back from the water source: Depending on their access and distance to a water source, they will walk or pay men with tricycles or donkey carts to take their containers and bring them back filled. In the latter case, they buy a bulk amount to last them for the week to compensate for the cost of transport. The only water source not requiring transport is the collection of rainwater, which is done by leaving polytanks, iron pots and basins uncovered alongside rooftops.  
  31. 31. 31 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – POOLING AND DIVIDING THE WATER USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 4. Pooling and dividing the water: into larger containers for storage of i) household consumption and ii) household usage (washing clothes, bathing and cooking). About 4 jerry cans usually fill an earthenware pot, this is the preferred recipient of choice for storing household drinking water as the material naturally keeps it cool. They are also covered with a wooden plank or zinc shingle to protect it from debris. People without refrigerators (esp. rural) store these pots in the shade or in private rooms in jerry cans, while the other plastic drums and iron pots used to pool the water for household usage is kept outside and sometimes uncovered. People who own a refrigerator transfer the drinking water to smaller plastic recipients like jugs and recycled PET bottles and store them in fridges that are usually kept in private rooms (of head of household or wife) or under awnings; this water is usually only shared with those in the same household.  
  32. 32. 32 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – DISPENSING USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 5. Dispensing: Each adult in the household has their own plastic cup, kept in their room, by the kitchen or in the fridge. There are usually not enough cups for all the children and they often share with their parents. At schools, children often drink from the cup, rinse it with water and pass it to the student next to them.  
  33. 33. 33 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY SIX MAIN TOUCH POINTS – REFILLING USER INSIGHTS TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 6. Refilling. Pails, often left outside stacked on the floor, are used to transfer water from a drum or large container to the point of use (container or filter). These are sometimes rinsed out with water before been dipped into the drums, however, soap is not used and hands are usually not washed within the household and so this water can be easily contaminated.
  34. 34. USER INSIGHTS WATER SOURCES OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 34 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  35. 35. IN ALL AREAS, THERE IS NO GUARANTEED SOURCE FOR HOUSEHOLD WATER DUE TO POOR MAINTENANCE AND SEASONALITY. 35
  36. 36. 36 “We don’t have pipep water, we don’t have the option, what can we do, we have to drink the water from the river, or the well…” -Aberengue, Rural, Upper East Region “Oh, that was when we used to live out of the city, we used to drink rainwater then...we’ve had tap for a long time now.” -Peace, Urban, Northern Region "But sometimes the tap doesn't work for 30 days at a time and we have to go to the borehole.” -Osman, Peri Urban, Upper West Region THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY THE WATER SOURCE, NO GUARANTEES USER INSIGHTS "We have a tap but sometimes it doesn't work for days at a time.” - Lydia, Peri Urban, Upper East Region
  37. 37. TRANSPORTTRANSPORT COLLECTION 4-6 X DAY ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢* 37 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY PERCEPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE WATER SOURCE USER INSIGHTS A user’s decision to use one source over another is driven by price, availability, labor intensity, distance and taste preference. Taste preference is related to a user’s current and past water access & experience.     PRICE AVAILABILITY LABOUR INTENSITY DISTANCE TASTE
  38. 38. USERS BELIEVE THAT SAFE DRINKING WATER IS WORTH PURCHASING IF THEY HAVE NO ACCESS TO CLEAR WATER OR KNOW OF OTHER SOURCES IN THEIR PROXIMITY. 38
  39. 39. THE BIGGEST PAIN POINT IS WHEN TAP WATER IS NO LONGER ACCESSIBLE (I.E. LOW WATER TABLE OR TAP IS TURNED OFF). PEOPLE WHO HAVE ACCESS TO A PIPE NEXT TO THEIR HOME BECOME 100% RELIANT ON IT BUT LOOK TO OTHER MEANS WHEN IT’S NOT AVAILABLE. THOSE THAT HAVE NEVER HAD PIPED WATER ASPIRE TO HAVE IT BUT ARE CONTENT WITH CLEAR, RIVER OR BOREHOLE WATER. . 39
  40. 40. CLEAR WATER EQUALS CLEAN WATER AND PEOPLE ARE NOT TREATING THEIR WATER. Many assume that clear water - especially sachets, groundwater and piped water is safe even when this may not be the case. Current users of HWTS products stop using them when a pipe is installed in their proximity. Further, boreholes and pipes are not always properly excavated and maintained, and groundwater in certain areas may contain elements like Arsenic and Fluoride due to the nature of the geological rock formation. All of these aspects can cause serious health issues. 40
  41. 41. PHYSICAL QUALITIES ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT SIGNS OF POTABLE WATER. Clear, not turbid, no visible particles are the main signals for users in all areas, even for educated people who may be more aware of water-borne bacteria and diseases. SENSORIAL QUALITIES: TASTELESS AND ODOURLESS. “Sweet” but not “salty” taste. Sometimes people like to smoke palm nuts to give the water a nice scent TEMPERATURE IS VERY IMPORTANT - DRINKING WATER MUST BE COLD, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE WEATHER IS HOT. 41
  42. 42. THE WATER SACHET IS DEEPLY ENGRAINED IN USERS’ BEHAVIORS AND PROVIDES SERIOUS COMPETITION TO SAFE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT SOLUTIONS. USERS BUY MORE SACHETS DURING DRY SEASON DUE TO SCARCITY OF WATER (SEPTEMBER-MARCH). SACHETS ARE CONVENIENT FOR USERS ON THE THE GO OR AT SCHOOL/WORK, EVEN THOSE WHO FILTER WATER. USERS BELIEVE THAT SACHET WATER IS CLEAN EVEN IF AND WHEN IT IS NOT. 42
  43. 43. 43 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY PERCEPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE WATER SOURCE USER INSIGHTS USERS ASPIRE AND PREFER TO DRINK CLEAR WATER, therefore, they prefer to drink water from the following sources:     + - o  Clear (more or less) o  Low cost o  Laborious to pump o  Further from home (5-10 minute walk) SOURCE WATER SACHET o  Clear o  Presumed as clean and safe – high quality o  Easy, on-the-go, availability, convenient o  Expensive o  Small quantities only TAP o  Convenience o  Low labour intensity o  Close proximity to home o  Perceived as safest and most desireable (“clearest, treated, tasteless”) o  Unreliable BOREHOLE TREATED RIVER WATER OR DAM o  To offset transport costs, house holds buy in bulk o  Clear, tasteless o  Distance (usually far from house hold) o  Cost to pay for transport back to house hold
  44. 44. 44 THE HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT JOURNEY PERCEPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE WATER SOURCE Cont. USER INSIGHTS + - o  Clear (more or less) o  Low cost o  Laborious to pump o  Further from home (5-10 minute walk) SOURCE WELL o  Easier to access than river during rainy season (when river is too high) o  Low cost o  Quality may be affected by contamination o  Supply is limited RAIN WATER o  Close in proximity o  Free o  No transportation is needed o  Low labour intensity o  Unreliable and scarce o  Perceived as not so clean (dirt, particles) – used mostly for other household needs (washing, cooking) o  Only used for drinking if household has very little access/income BOREHOLE SURFACE WATER o  Free o  Turbid o  Labor intensive to collect and transport
  45. 45. USER INSIGHTS A DESIRE FOR CLEANER WATER? OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 45 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  46. 46. 46 A DESIRE FOR CLEANER WATER? LACK OF AWARENESS OF WATER QUALITY AND PRECEIVED NEED USER INSIGHTS LACK OF AWARENESS AND PERCEIVED NEED ALL AROUND Due to people’s past and present experience with water scarcity in the northern regions, people are content with the water they can access and have upgraded over the years from river or well to borehole to tap water; they perceive the water they access has Relatively improved over their lifetime and is acceptable. As such, people display a high tolerance for water turbidity and may have built up an immunity as well over the years. People do not perceive the health risk or financial impact that water safety is having or could have in their ability to go to school or work. "Sometimes you vomit after drinking water but the effect is too little, you are not really sick..." -Luis, Urban, Upper East Region THE INVISIBLE CULPRIT Due to the invisible nature of bacteria and viruses, there is no proof that the water is the culprit for the upset stomach they sometimes experience. IF IT’S CLEAR, IT’S SAFE TO DRINK (esp. tap). “The water can give the children disease but I can't tell whether it's really the water or another source." -Cynthia, Urban, Upper East Region WATER SOURCE CURRENTLY USED INDICATES LIKELIHOOD OF PERCEIVED NEED OF A SOLUTION People mainly using a river source and lacking nearby access to improved water sources (eg. piped or borehole) or living in rural settings with the least awareness and previous experience with HWTS s are unlikely to perceive a need to use HWTS. Low-income households having little to no cash on hand for their top priorities are unlikely to invest in solutions.
  47. 47. BUT ULTIMATELY, DRINKING WATER SAFETY IS JUST NOT A SPENDING PRIORITY FOR USERS. 47
  48. 48. USER INSIGHTS THE CHALLENGES WITH KEEPING CLEAN WATER CLEAN OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 48 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  49. 49. 49 KEEPING CLEAN WATER CLEAN POOR SANITATION AND HYGIENE HABITS USER INSIGHTS “Even where potable water exists, recontamination occurs at a very high rate due to low sanitation levels in Ghana. This happens in both rural and urban areas.” -UNICEF Representative SHARING Children often share cups with their parents and at school children pass their cups to one another after drinking without washing them; person to person infection is still possible. “Each adult keeps their cup in their room or by the fridge, the children don’t have their own, they share with their parents.” Ushama, Rural, Northern Region TOUCH POINTS & POOR HYGIENE HABITS Within the household people do not generally wash their hands with soap, they only rinse their hands with water if at all before collecting water. High risk of contamination between point of contact (poc) at home and at point of use (POU) due to contact with dirty hands, debris and animal faeces. Due to this lack of hand hygiene, contamination occurs when collecting and transferring water.
  50. 50. 50 KEEPING CLEAN WATER CLEAN POOR SANITATION AND HYGIENE HABITS Cont. USER INSIGHTS MANY DIFFERENT CONTAINERS ARE USED During the processes of filling, dispensing and refilling many different containers are used and this increases the chances of recontamination as they may be left uncovered or stacked on the ground in courtyards collecting debris or other dirt when unused. Plastic pails are only rinsed with water (not with detergent) before used to transfer safe water to other recipients used for drinking. CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE OF CONTAINERS People may not use designated sponges and cleaning materials solely for the purpose of cleaning containers (or filters, when found) which may also contaminate the container and the water. “When we go to the communities, we have to spend at least 30 minutes to 1 hour with people, to explain good hygiene to them, people sometimes use the brush we give them to clean the filter to clean their shoes and wash…” -Home Pure Water representative AWARENESS VS BEHAVIOUR CHANGE USERS DO NOT SEEM TO BE AWARE OF PROPER HAND WASHING PROCEDURES - the need for soap to remove germs. Those who know soap is needed may still not wash their hands (i.e. not an established habit, lack of interest, inconvenience or impatience). “We have a health educator at the school I teach at, she teaches the kids how to wash their hands. But the school may not invest enough in soap I guess, because there is not enough for everyone to use...so the children usually just rinse their hands with water before fetching the water.” -Osman, Peri Urban, Upper West Region
  51. 51. USER INSIGHTS HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT SOLUTIONS OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 51 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  52. 52. HOW WERE THESE SOLUTIONS CHOSEN? o  Availability/Access in the Ghana marketplace o  Affordability o  Varying form factors, mechanisms, materials and shelf life METHODOLOGY o  Households ranged from urban to rural and all had different and varying access to water. o  Households tested included current users of water treatment technologies, ex-users, and users with no experience in water filtration technologies. o  Contextual interviews were initiated along with active observations with users using the presented technologies. o  Technologies were left with five different households after six days to two weeks, the households were revisited and asked to share their experiences and usage with the Research team along with their desired purchased process. Revisits were unannounced in order to avoid triggering or influencing user behavior. WHY DID WE PROBE WITH REAL PRODUCTS? o  Probing with real technologies was done in order to observe the level of interest and to understand what aspects were important to users during the selection/purchase process. Set up & usage were also important factors in order to gain insight in to true, viable consumer-desired/friendly products. 52 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THREE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS USER INSIGHTS
  53. 53. IT WAS EXTREMELY CHALLENGING FOR THE PROJECT TEAM TO FIND THREE SEPARATE, COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES TO TEST. IN THE NOTHERN REGIONS, THERE ARE NO DEDICATED RETAIL OUTLETS OR OBVIOUS SALES CHANNELS FOR HWTS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER WHICH IS MANUFACTURED AND SOLD LOCALLY IN TAMALE. FURTHER, CHLORINE TABS ARE NOT READILY AVAILBALE AND SOLD ONLY IN CERTAIN PHARMACIES. THEREFORE, WERE NOT TESTED WITH RESPONDENTS. THE HWTS MARKET IN NORTHERN GHANA IS ESPECIALLY IMMATURE.53
  54. 54. 54 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THREE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS USER INSIGHTS THE CRYSTALPUR FILTER PUMP Availability: it was available for purchase in Ghana – although there are no obvious point of purchase/retail outlets. Exact availability is unknown. Gyapa Enterprises was unreachable for further data. Cost: $10 (40 Cedis) Capacity: Provides 7,000 liters of clean drinking water in the product life cycle (1 year). Supply Chain: Was manufactured and distributed locally by Gyapa Enterprises (gyapa.com), although the enterprise seems to now be defunct. Effectiveness: 99.9% of bacteria and pathogens. Tested internationally.
  55. 55. 55 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THREE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS USER INSIGHTS THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER Availability: Available for purchase in Northern Ghana, although retail outlets, sales channels are unclear to users. Cost: $25 (100 cedis) includes: ceramic pot, plastic container, spigot and metal stand Capacity: 10 liters of water per filtration. Supply Chain: Locally manufactured, sold and distributed in Tamale, Northern Ghana Effectiveness: Peletz’s and Johnson’s research determined the effectiveness of the Kosim filter at mitigating diarrhea in Northern Region, Ghana. Peletz determined that the use of the Kosim filter reduced the risk of diarrhea by 42% for children under five (Peletz, 2006).
  56. 56. 56 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THREE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS USER INSIGHTS STEEL GRAVITY FILTER WITH CERAMIC CANDLE Availability: Available for purchase in Accra at home water care shops. Cost: $105 (420 Cedis) includes: steel container and ceramic filtration candle. Capacity: 10 liters of water per filtration. Supply Chain: Manufactured abroad, distributed by Water HealthCare: Accra and Kumasi. Effectiveness: Ceramic candles are effective in bacteria, pathogens and turbidity from water (99.9%). It also removes some viruses and iron and taste, smell and color of water are improved. The effectiveness of the filter also depends on the production quality, the initial water quality, and the handling practices of users.
  57. 57. GUIDANCE Rural dwellers have a special need for guidance during setup and use of technology solutions to ensure proper use and safe storage. Some adults may not be able to read the instructions for setup and maintenance of a new product and may rely on their children to do so. However, regardless of geography and community most users displayed a lack of knowledge, familiarity and misunderstanding of hwts products and will need demos, thorough instruction and monitoring to avoid misuse. THE OLD WITH THE NEW First-time users perceived the technologies as novelty but did not display a great difference in their ability to setup and use the system appropriately compared to long-time users of other filter products. All users whether they had used a filter technology before or not, required thorough instructions and clarifications for the proper use of new filters and were observed to make errors in the setup and maintenance. PEOPLE EXPECT HWTS PRODUCTS TO BE FREE Household and school users who took part in ngo or public sector hwts initiatives over the last 10 years have developed a dependence on donors to supply the technologies and replacement parts free of charge. Some users stop using these technologies when a part breaks and is not replaced by the donors. Users seem to make little effort to obtain replacements and when they have tried, they were not readily available. These past experiences have instilled a general lean-back attitude in users when it comes to clean water technologies. 57 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES GENERAL FINDINGS USER INSIGHTS
  58. 58. HOUSEHOLD KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER USERS SHOWED A STRONG RELIANCE on the filters they had been using over the last 8-10 years. They all continued using the filters (despite its slow performance) because they perceived its effectiveness in improving the water quality and in turn, their health. PERFORMANCE OF TECHNOLOGIES IS A MUST FOR SCHOOLS Schools, on the other hand, were likely to stop using HWTS filters once they had acquired access to a tap, as the slow performance (i.e. slow flow rate) rendered far too little water for their basic needs (to serve a great number of children). SLOW FLOW RATE THE BIGGEST PAIN POINT FOR ALL USERS Although households using the Kosim filters did not stop using the devices, the slow flow rate was always the first thing both household and school users complained about. MOST PEOPLE HAVE NEVER USED OR EVEN SEEN A CLEAN WATER TECHNOLGY PRODUCT (other than the guinea worm filter) and therefore represents a new technology that they are unfamiliar with and require guidance to be used appropriately. Even those familiar to filters still require clarification; for example, long-time Kosim users were continuing to use them beyond 6 years, highly surpassing their 3-year life span. 58 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USAGE | PERCEPTION OF HWTS TECHNOLOGIES BY CURRENT & PAST USERS USER INSIGHTS
  59. 59. 59 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES PERCEPTION OF HWTS TECHNOLOGIES BY CURRENT & PAST USERS USER INSIGHTS “We stopped using it (biosand filter) because it was so slow….the pipe it comes out of is too small...” -World Vision guards, Urban "I keep using it because I can see the debris in the ceramic filter so I don't want to use tap water anymore...I can see the difference. You can feel you're taking in good water." -Peace, Urban, Northern Region “It’s very slow, sometimes it takes all day and even til the next day for it to filter one full pot but it’s really ok because we are only 4 people. It’s good, we don’t have anymore stomach troubles like before….But if you had a bigger family, you would need several to have enough water.” -Peace, Urban, Northern Region "I inherited from my father, I didn’t know about the health benefits until my sister told me about it. I even like dispensing from it...It has never broken because we are very careful with it. Only my wife, mother-in-law and I handle it." -Osman, Peri Urban Upper West Region
  60. 60. GENUINE OPENNESS TO FILTERING WATER. Most of the first-time users were curious to see if it had worked and immediately started using the product and they continued to use it and expressed an interest in doing so. Even those filtering clear (tap or borehole water) perceived a need and a difference in the quality and seemed to have quickly adopted it to their daily routine. “I started using it the next day...of course I will keep using it, how could I stop now, I have been using it everyday!” -Cynthia, Urban, Upper East Region “Tap water is treated and is safe but when you collect the water, wind is blowing, leaves and things can get in your bucket and contaminate the water." -Nayimah, Peri Urban, Upper West Region SENSITIZATION WORKS. Ultimately, people are unaware of water safety but if they are informed, they are interested in improving and maintaining the quality of their water and in turn, their quality of life. “The health of my family is important, this is good to protect us against water-borne illness.” -Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region “I can’t really see the difference because we get clear water from the borehole...but I can definitely taste it, it must be the clay or maybe the medicine you said is inside it (colloidal silver).” -Ushama, Rural, Northern Region 60 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USAGE | GENERAL PERCEPTIONS OF TESTED HWTS TECHNOLOGIES BY NEW USERS USER INSIGHTS
  61. 61. THE PROOF IS IN THE SENSES. TASTE IS THE ULTIMATE SIGN OF APPROVAL. Regardless of whether the users tried filtering turbid or clear water, both showed approval and satisfaction with the results. Users filtering turbid water were clearly able to tell that the filter was successfully removing debris, and those filtering clear (tap or borehole) water were satisfied with the improved taste. “It tastes good, the kids love it, they say it tastes like clay and it’s cold.” -Ushama, Rural, Northern Region FILTERING IS A NOVELTY SO ANYTHING GOES. As it was the first time using a filter for most users, they were quite happy to try any product and were accepting of products that were slow (Kosim ) or not their first choice. When asked if they would prefer another one upon revisit, they said that they were happy with the one they had (seeming reluctant to say anything critical as though we would take the product back). “I wanted the bigger one (Kosim) but actually, I wouldn’t trade it now, I like the way this one works, I can taste the difference and it gives enough water for my family.” -Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region 61 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USAGE | GENERAL PERCEPTIONS OF TESTED HWTS TECHNOLOGIES BY NEW USERS USER INSIGHTS
  62. 62. BEHAVIOUR CHANGE OBSERVED Most users were observed to quickly adopt the HWTS technology and found it easy to setup and use. Further, some positive latent behaviours were observed; some water sources that were previously accessible but not perceived safe for consumption (eg. rainwater) were used for the first-time with the filter for drinking water. As this occurred only after its use, they could articulate this on the second visit, and were starting to perceive the filter as a MONEY-SAVER for them. ANOTHER POSITIVE OUTCOME IS THAT PEOPLE SHARED THE WATER THEY FILTERED WITH THEIR FAMILIES AND NEIGHBOURS. 62
  63. 63. “I stopped buying the Nabogo dam water, it can save me money.” 63 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USAGE | GENERAL PERCEPTIONS OF TESTED HWTS TECHNOLOGIES BY NEW USERS USER INSIGHTS “I don’t know what it tastes like yet...I usually only use it (rainwater) for washing, bathing and cooking...but it finally rained last night so I’m filtering it now...I will drink it.” -Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region “I shared it with the family and my neighbour, they all liked it, I’m leaving it here out in the open, so people can come and try it.” -Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region
  64. 64. IMPROPER USAGE OF HWTS IS HIGHLY LIKELY Though time was taken to explain how to clean the filter technology for the first time, setup and maintain it, users did not always retain the information or misconstrued the instructions, sometimes resulting in improper use of the products. This was a lot of information for users to take in at once and misuse or recontamination is likely. 64
  65. 65. USER INSIGHTS THE CRYSTALPUR WATER PUMP OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 65 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  66. 66. FAMILIARITY / TEMPERATURE. Users are familiar with the plastic materials of pump and like that they can use their own receptacles for filtering and collection. There is no change in the temperature after filtering and users must rely on their own methods to cool the filtered water. CAPACITY. Can be used with large containers and any receptacle they own and be moved to others. At first sight, people think that the capacity is very small and it filters the amount fitting only in the outer casing. PRICE. Affordable to most people at $5. BREAKABILITY / REPLACEABILITY. The pump lasts about one year and then will need to be replaced. FLOW RATE / PERFORMANCE. At first sight, people think it will filter very slowly due to its small size. When explained or observed that it has a relatively fast flow rate (2-6 L/hr), this becomes their first HWTS choice. 66 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USER PERCEPTIONS | THE CRYSTALPUR WATER PUMP USER INSIGHTS
  67. 67. REQUIRES PROPER EXPLANATION AT THE POP DURING PURCHASE PROCESS It is commonly misunderstood - at first sight, people think that it has a small capacity, only able to filter the water held in the filter casing. Users think it appears slow due to its small size and assume they must continue pumping to get water filtered when see the hand pump (semiotics). “It seems tedious, the other one I can just leave it like the Kosim.” -Philip, Peri Urban, Northern Region HIGH PROBABILITY OF MISUSE Requires demo. Following explanation and written instructions: one user took the filter out of its casing (cloth and plastic cover). It is also not obvious when it will have to be replaced or how to clean it. 67 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES OBSERVATIONS | THE CRYSTALPUR WATER PUMP USER INSIGHTS
  68. 68. USER INSIGHTS THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 68 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  69. 69. FAMILIARITY / TEMPERATURE. Users were drawn to the ceramic filter because of its (cultural) familiarity (locally made material). Users also liked the fact that it would keep the water cold. CAPACITY. The right size for a household of 13-20 people. PRICE. At the higher end of price ($25) but still seen as reasonable by users. BREAKABILITY / REPLACEABILITY. A major disadvantage as people can imagine their children knocking it over and then not knowing how they could replace it. “The kids sometimes tilt it to get more water, and so it can easily break.” - Teacher, Upper East Region FLOW RATE / PERFORMANCE. At first sight, non-users assumed it would filter quickly because of the filter size, while a few users wondered if it could filter at all. First-time users were satisfied even with a slow flow rate as they had no prior experience with other filters and were content with the novelty of filtered water. Current and past users of HWTS found it was too slow but not slow enough to slow using it because they saw the difference in the filtered water and had become dependent on the filter. 69 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USER PERCEPTIONS | THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER USER INSIGHTS
  70. 70. FUNDAMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS: PERFORMANCE. Increased flow rate . AVAILABILITY. Making ceramic filters, plastic housing containers, taps and all replacement parts locally available for easy and low cost replacement. Provide instruction manuals and demos and follow up with monitoring due to the high probability of misuse, poor hygiene and maintenance practices. -  Users are likely to keep using it past the product’s life cycle (3 – 7+ years in some cases) INCREMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS: Improved dispensing mechanism. One user recommended making the dispensing mechanism “turn like a tap” as the current mechanism “seems like it will break easily” and is not easy enough for small children to dispense. 70 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USER RECOMMENDATIONS | THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER USER INSIGHTS
  71. 71. USER INSIGHTS STAINLESS STEEL CANDLE FILTER OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 71 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  72. 72. FAMILIARITY / TEMPERATURE. People relate the stainless steel to being high end/luxury (but accessible only to middle –upper class users). CAPACITY. Not perceived as large enough for the average family size and definitely not for a school. PRICE. Out of reach for even middle class users at $105. Expensive to maintain and replace parts. BREAKABILITY /REPLACEABILITY. Most users were concerned about having to replace the candles every 6 months (too often) and their availability and cost. FLOW RATE / PERFORMANCE. Some users thought that because there were 2 candle filters, it would be much slower and were surprised at the flow rate. IDEAL FORM FACTOR People desired a stainless steel filter for its robustness combined with a higher capacity (an amalgamation of Kosim’s size and this filter’s durability). 72 TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USER PERCEPTIONS | STAINLESS STEEL CANDLE FILTER USER INSIGHTS
  73. 73. USER INSIGHTS COMPARING THE THREE OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXT ANNEXINTRODUCTION 73 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  74. 74. TESTING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES USER PERCEPTIONS | OVERALL RATINGS USER INSIGHTS + - CHARACTERISTICS THE CRYSTALPUR PUMP THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER THE STEEL CANDLE FILTER ++ + + + + - - THE CRYSALPUR PUMP: FLOW RATE & CAPACITY THE KOSIM CERAMIC FILTER: FAMILIARITY, CAPACITY vs DURABILITY THE STEEL CANDLE FILTER: DURABILITY vs CAPACITY - ++ + -
  75. 75. PRICE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR WHEN CHOOSING A TECHNOLOGY. Although most users preferred the stainless steel or ceramic filter over the pump initially, once they learned of the prices, the pump immediately trumped the others as it was much more affordable for them. People with a preference for the stainless steel filter lost enthusiasm when learned of its relatively high price and those who preferred the Kosim realised it represented a higher risk due to its breakability and was still perceived to be expensive. The CrystalPur pump became the preferred choice due to its accessible price point and long lifespan. 75
  76. 76. PURCHASE PROCESS TOP CRITERIA USER INSIGHTS 1.  PRICE 2.  CAPACITY & FLOW RATE 3.  DURABILITY / ROBUSTNESS (materials) 4.  LIFESPAN / LONGEVITY (replacing parts became more important during selection process) 5.  MAINTENANCE / TEDIOUSNESS (refilling, cleaning) COST, LIFESPAN AND AVAILABILITY ARE THE BIGGEST CONCERNS. Generally, people did not know what to ask due to a lack of experience with water filtration or products, however, most wondered how often they would have to replace the filter or candles and where they would go if the filter didn’t function or broke. The local availability and attributed cost of replacements was also a major factor in their final decision. CAPACITY AND FLOW RATE ARE KEY QUALITIES PEOPLE LOOK FOR IN A HWTS SYSTEM. Independent of price, fast flow rates and high capacity were both must haves. Users expect water to come out immediately in order to supply enough water for their families / students. FLOW RATE IS A MAJOR PAIN POINT FOR USERS OF HWTS. People with large families and schools quit the Kosim filter when they upgraded to piped water due to its slow flow rate and therefore low output (couldn’t cover the basic need / number of people). This was also observed with a biosand filter in an office, the dispensing pipe was too slow and staff stopped using it. However, flow rate should not be too fast or too slow, to be able to give some immediate results to be able to dispense some water but not so fast that it doesn’t seem like it’s effective. CAPACITY TRUMPS DURABILITY. If people have to choose, they prefer to have something with a higher capacity than durable (as it wouldn’t be useful in the first place). High capacity is a must in order to serve a large family.
  77. 77. HWTS ARE PERCEIVED AS A BIG EXPENSE If and when people invest in HWTS systems, they take it seriously. It’s an important purchase for them as it is considered a big expenditure, taking income away from their main priorities. They expect that the product is going to last a long time and give them the highest return possible. USERS WANT ASSURANCE, DURABILITY, AND LONGEVITY (LONG LIFE CYCLE WITH A LOW RISK OF HAVING TO REPLACE IT). 77
  78. 78. DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTSTHE CONTEXTINTRODUCTION DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES NEXT STEPS 78
  79. 79. DESIGN PRINCIPLES A HOLISITCALLY DESIGNED PRODUCT AND SERVICE OFFERING   79 PRODUCT SERVICE AFFORDABLE Must be affordable (between $5-$25) to users with appropriate financing mechanisms. PERFORMANCE High capacity, quick filtering and fast flow rate. VISUAL FEEDBACK When water is ready to drink and when the filter needs to be replaced. EXPLANATION & DEMONSTRATION at the POP (point of purchase). How does it work? How to clean it? How to set up and maintain? Guided explanations and demonstrations. SENSITIZE. INCENTIVISE. PRIORITISE. Build awareness for HWTS, message of water safety and link to financial opportunities (save them money in long-run). PARALLEL SENSITIZATION. Hand hygiene campaigns in order to avoid recontamination, make clean water sustainable. DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  80. 80. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES IDEAL OFFERING – TECHNOLOGY THE MOST APPROPRIATE PRODUCT FOR THE CONTEXT. Considering the main water sources (river, wells, boreholes and taps), water quality (turbidity, most common pathogens), the requirements of users and their habits and what they can afford -- THE CRYSTALPUR PUMP (OR SIMILAR) IS THE MOST VIABLE MARKET OPTION OF THE TESTED PRODUCTS. It is a good size, has a fast flow rate, is effective with turbid water, can be used with any container and is long-lasting (needs replacement after about 1 year) and is affordable*.   80 *UNDERSTAND: *This research is not suggesting this particular brand of filter system but a pump product with similar characteristics: price, flow rate, lifespan and functionality. *The Crystalpur pump was the only available pump type filter mechanism for user testing. *It is unclear if Gyapa, the producers of the Crystalpur pump, are still manufacturing and distributing the technology in Ghana. They were unreachable during and after this research. DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  81. 81. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES IDEAL OFFERING – TECHNOLOGY THE MOST APPROPRIATE PRODUCT FOR THE CONTEXT. While the Crystalpur pump technology was the most desired amongst respondents of this study, further testing is recommended with a larger sample size within other areas of Ghana.   81 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  82. 82. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES IDEAL OFFERING – OTHER CONSIDERATIONS | TECHNOLOGY OTHER TECHNOLOGIES THAT WERE NOT AVAILABLE TO BE TESTED AND MAY BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE NORTHERN GHANA CONTEXT INCLUDE: BIOSAND FILTERS. Equivalent to ceramic filters but not breakable and can be locally manufactured and installed. RAINWATER COLLECTION/HARVESTING. This is already done at the household level. Potential to leverage and form a community business around it. “I have tap water so I don’t drink rain water, but it really should be ok. People say, if the rain falls from the sky, it falls from God. I used to do it a long, long time ago when we didn’t have tap water and we lived far away from here.” -Peace, Urban, Northern Region   82 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  83. 83. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES IDEAL OFFERING | FINANCIAL VIABILITY | PRICE POINT CURRENT EXPENSES AND TOP PRIORITIES. 1.  Family consumption (farming practice - raising crops/food at market) eg. 10-50 GHS every 3 days (Rural). 2.  School fees 3.  Extended family expenses As household water treatment is not a top financial or lifestyle priority for households, users are not yet willing to invest a great deal. There is willingness to pay $5 - $25 for a technology, this is the ideal range for users when asked. Payment in installments make it feasible for people, with flexible price installments because people have little to no disposable cash especially in rural areas.   83 “I would pay but I can give you only what I have at the time. I could pay for it now but I can’t assure I will have the amount every time.” -Cynthia, Urban, Upper West Region DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  84. 84. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES GENERATING AWARENESS AND CREATING A DEMAND 84 GENERAL AWARENESS Raise awareness to unsafe water and the benefits of treating water in order to create demand. SUPPLYING THE DEMAND Supply the demand with a product and service offering that is sustainable for all users/actors, affordable, and available locally. DEMAND INCREASE SUPPLY INCREASE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > AWARENESS Create Demand BUSINESS Create Supply & Incentive DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  85. 85. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES AWARENESS AND EDUCATION– COMMUNICATIONS 85 DEMAND INCREASE SUPPLY INCREASE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > AWARENESS Create Demand BUSINESS Create Supply & Incentive AWARENESS AND EDUCATION People lack knowledge and users need to be informed about: 1.  The poor quality of local water and the health risk they face and the need for HWTS, and the technology that is accessible to them. 2. The risk of recontaminating water due to poor hygiene and handling habits (especially not washing hands with soap). Evaluations have shown that Hand Hygiene + HWTS interventions have been more effective in reducing morbidity from diarrhoeal diseases than HWTS alone*. An integrated approach is recommended to see a sustained use of HWTS via behaviour change in the population. COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION Spend time at community level to introduce product and good hygiene habits and follow-up at key touch points (eg. early use, mid-term, and long-term) to ensure sustainable use of HWTS technology. Where: commonly frequented locations and media touch points in northern Ghana: radio, media, schools, markets, clinics, and communities *Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 6), 2014 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  86. 86. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES AWARENESS AND EDUCATION COMMUNICATIONS 86 DEMAND INCREASE SUPPLY INCREASE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > AWARENESS Create Demand BUSINESS Create Supply & Incentive KEY MESSAGES DEMYSTIFY THAT CLEAR WATER IS SAFE WATER. Provide statistics of the actual quality of the water from local sources and inform of the risk of water-borne diseases. If possible, show visual proof of the existence of invisible germs in clear water so that people become aware that clear water is not as safe as it seems. Providing tangible proof will help to make an invisible truth believable. CREATE A MENTAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THEIR HEALTH AND WEALTH WITH RELATION TO WATER SAFETY IN ORDER TO MAKE IT A PRIORITY. People lack knowledge and do not necessarily relate their stomach troubles to the unsafe water they drink. People need to be informed that there is a real risk to their family’s health, especially for their children whose immune systems are not as developed. It is important that people begin to see it as a basic need and realize that the time and money they may lose while absent from school and work and invest in medication highly outweighs the cost of a HWTS product. PROMOTE THAT HWTS TECHNOLOGIES ARE ECONOMIC CONVERTERS OF WATER INTO SAFE WATER. HWTS products should be sold as technologies that not only improves the quality of your drinking water but may also save money by being able to use water sources that may have previously not been usable. It should be made clear that the price point and payment plan will be made in such a way as to make it affordable for them (eg. in installments). PROMOTE AND REINFORCE GOOD HYGIENE HABITS. When introducing a HWTS technology and monitoring its usage at the community level, emphasize that without proper hygiene habits (i.e. washing hands with soap before handling water), the filter will not be enough to provide them with safe drinking water. DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  87. 87. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES BUSINESS | CREATE DEMAND AND INCENTIVE | FOCUS ON THE COMMUNITY 87 DEMAND INCREASE SUPPLY INCREASE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > AWARENESS Create Demand BUSINESS Create Supply & Incentive FOCUS ON THE COMMUNITY: LEVERAGE THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY THAT ALREADY EXISTS Introduce business opportunities around HWTS and leverage THOSE WHO ALREADY SELL/TRANSPORT WATER at the community level. For example, identify people at the community level that already sell water (sachets, private boreholes) or would be willing to start a MICRO-BUSINESS advocating safe water and HWTS to their neighbours becoming a WATERPRENUER. THE WATERPRENUER •  Is recruited and offered to purchase the selected HWTS pump device with financing available. •  Trained on usability, troubleshooting and proper maintenance of the HWTS device. •  Trained on the benefits of clean, safe water and that the usual sources are not sufficiently safe. •  Offer HWTS demos on-site at their homes or other locations within the community. •  WATERPRENUER holds stock of HWTS devices and becomes a POP/Sales Agent for the community, PROMOTING and SELLING devices. •  WATERPRENUER becomes the community point person for troubleshooting, replacement and monitoring of sold devices. DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  88. 88. 88 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES BUSINESS | CREATE DEMAND AND INCENTIVE | FOCUS ON THE COMMUNITY DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  89. 89. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES THE IDEAL CUSTOMER PURCHASE PROCESS Location (Option A or B) People were open to both going to a shop or purchasing at the community level. They also liked the idea of going to the market or a local shop to purchase, replace or acquire support. As long as people are aware of the need and availability of the HWTS product, people are willing to go to a site away from their home. 89 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  90. 90. SEEING IS BELIEVING. NEED FOR ASSURANCE TO INVEST. RISK AVERSE. As people generally do not have any disposable income, they are conservative with their purchases and need to be assured that the product is worth buying and functions properly. As such, they ask for demonstrations and want to see the HWTS product working before purchasing. Even long time users of other similar HWTS filters wanted to try the technology before saying they preferred one over another product. LACK OF CONFIDENCE. As water filtration is new to most people, many do not how filters function and are sometimes skeptical and apprehensive to try the product on their own. They asked for a contact number and clear instructions and/or manual in case they were not able to set it up the product or get it to work for them. “Who can I call if something goes wrong?” -Ushama, Rural, Northern Region “I want to make sure I know how to maintain it in case something doesn’t function properly or gets broken.” -Aberengue, Rural, Upper East GENDER ROLES Husbands, as the head of the household, usually decide how the income is spent and expressed that they would be the ones to take the decision on whether or not to purchase a HWTS product. However, during the process of selecting the precise system, the women influenced their husbands and many times were the final decision makers in the process, as they recognised that the women were the main handlers of water for the household and were swayed by their opinions. “I give up, she is the one who deals with the water anyway...let her choose.” -Louis, Urban, Upper East Region ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES THE IDEAL PURCHASE PROCESS 90 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  91. 91. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES BUSINESS | THE PRODUCT, MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY CHAIN 91 DEMAND INCREASE SUPPLY INCREASE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > AWARENESS Create Demand BUSINESS Create Supply & Incentive As the HWTS market in Northern Ghana is extremely immature, both in supply and demand, it will be necessary for there to be a significant amount of investment, set-up, implementation and on-going monitoring done by the intervening party. Additional research is recommended in the southern and central regions of Ghana, as well. THE PRODUCT As per the research, a pump technology solution is by far the most viable option for users’ needs, current water conditions, and behaviors. As such, the intervening party should explore the potential to work with the existing partners who manufacture HWTS pump technologies (Gyapa) in Ghana. If no such partners exist or do not have the capacity, the intervening party will need to procure existing design and engineering documentation for HWTS pump technologies and identify private sector plastics manufacturers located in Ghana* who can produce the technology in mass quantities. In this scenario, simple branding and positioning should be included in the product development. *Local manufacturing is recommended in order to keep the cost of the technology down as shipping and import tax/duty costs can be costly. DESIGNING THE SUPPLY CHAIN If working with an existing HWTS pump producer and distributor or independently with private sector manufacturers, it will be necessary to set up a sustainable supply chain in the Northern regions in order to scale. Currently, this does not exist for a HWTS pump technology. PRODUCER à MAIN DISTRIBUTION CENTER à REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION CENTERS (UE, UW, N) à WATERPRENUERS à USER DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  92. 92. 92 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES BUSINESS | THE PRODUCT, MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY CHAIN DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  93. 93. INTRODUCTION NEXT STEPS OUR APPROACH USER INSIGHTS DESIGN PRINCIPLES NEXT STEPS 93 DP & ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
  94. 94. o  Presentation to Antenna, WHO, IRC, etc. o  Co-Creation Session with Stakeholders/Actors o  Further technology testing within other geographic areas of Ghana     NEXT STEPS PHASE 2 - CREATION NEXT STEPS 94
  95. 95. THANK YOU! 95

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