Overview of faecal sludge management challenges and practices

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Presentation by Erick Baetings during the Faecal Sludge Management Lunch Meeting in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 17 April 2014.

This meeting was organised by IRC with support from DGIS.

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Overview of faecal sludge management challenges and practices

  1. 1. Supporting water sanitation and hygiene services for life The Hague, The Netherlands Thursday 17 April 2014 Overview of faecal sludge management challenges and practices Erick Baetings IRC
  2. 2. Index • Context • Rural FSM challenges and practices • Small town FSM challenges and practices • Urban FSM challenges and practices OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  3. 3. Putting it in context | FSM challenges • Most programs focus(ed) on increasing access to sanitation facilities by investing in onsite sanitation systems. • The management of onsite sanitation remains a neglected component of urban (and rural) sanitation. • Result: onsite facilities have become major sources of groundwater and surface water pollution, with significant environmental, public health, and economic impacts. OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  4. 4. 2.4 billion people with access to sewers, 2.6 billion require FSM services, 1.9 billion lack any services Putting it in context | FSM challenges OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES Source: Source: www.worldmapper.org The Boston Consulting Group, December 2012
  5. 5. Putting it in context | FSM challenges Today, ~2.6 billion people worldwide are served by (onsite) sanitation methods1 that need faecal sludge management If current trends persist, by 2030, FSM services may be required by some 4.9 billion people Estimated volume of faecal sludge comes to some 245 billion litres per year with a market potential of $2.3 billion per year (The Boston Consulting Group, December 2012) OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES 1Septic tanks, flush/pour-flush pits, and dry pit latrines
  6. 6. Putting it in context | FSM challenges Key challenges: • Limited awareness of policymakers on FSM • Lack of legal and regulatory framework for FSM resulting in informal and unregulated service provision • Limited performance of existing sanitation technologies • Limited capacity to design, construct, and operate FSM infrastructure • Ignorance on potential of faecal sludge for productive use in agriculture and energy sectors OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  7. 7. FSM practices Faecal sludge service chain The entire chain requires attention and all links needs to be addressed OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES Containment Emptying Transport Treatment Disposal or reuse
  8. 8. FSM | Rural challenges & practices OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  9. 9. FSM practices | Rural challenges & practices • Still relatively problem free but FSM can not be ignored much longer • Manual pit emptying is most common as access to mechanised pit emptying services is limited • Currently there are basically only three options when pit is full: 1) Abandon toilet altogether 2) Empty pit (manually) and dispose sludge in another pit or directly in the environment (fields, open water bodies, etc.) 3) Dig a new pit and build new toilet • Need for compost is high to improve organic composition and structure of the soil BUT sludge is hardly reused OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  10. 10.  Offset latrine with double alternating pits  Double pit composting latrines  Urine diverting dry toilet (UDDT) FSM | Rural challenges & practices OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES • Appropriate sanitation technology options are available:
  11. 11. FSM | Rural challenges & practices • Limited attention to develop viable business models • BRAC WASH programme in Bangladesh is developing and testing faecal sludge productive use business models:  Small-scale businesses: local production of organic fertiliser by making use of micro-enterprises  Large-scale business proposition: digestion of a mix of agricultural waste, chicken manure and faecal sludge to produce 3,000 MWh electricity and about 1,500 tons of organic fertiliser OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  12. 12. FSM | Small town challenges & practices OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  13. 13. FSM | Small town challenges & practices  Smaller towns are likely to have rural characteristics with the same challenges and solutions  Alternative sanitation technologies need to be promoted if population density increases:  Individual septic tanks  Communal septic tanks (e.g. Borda’s DEWATS)  Other?  BMGF’s ‘Reinvent the toilet’ programme is expected to come up with appropriate technologies that are safe (100% removal of pathogens), affordable ($ 0.05/person/day), appealing, user-centred, and sustainable (service providers can recoup all lifecycle costs) OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  14. 14. FSM | Urban challenges & practices OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  15. 15. FSM | Urban challenges & practices • Cities face the biggest problems – biggest challenges! • Problems are most severe in low-income settlements and slums:  Limited space to build individual toilets  Limited access to mechanised pit emptying services  Land tenure issues  Financial constraints  Lack of pro-poor financing mechanisms  Etc. OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  16. 16. FSM | Urban challenges & practices Containment • Most human faeces are not contained safely • So-called ‘septic tanks’ do not function effectively • Faecal sludge finds its way directly into the environment • Need to ensure safe containment of onsite sanitation by setting and enforcing building and emptying regulations OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  17. 17. FSM | Urban challenges & practices Emptying and transportation • Existing services: informal and outside public sector control • Small operators: difficult to run a profitable business • Market: poorly regulated and enforced • Often sludge does not reach official dumping site due to indiscriminate dumping of sludge OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  18. 18. FSM | Urban challenges & practices Treatment and disposal • Only a small % is being treated due to lack of dedicated facilities • Western-style treatment facilities require massive investments • Appropriate sludge treatment plants are needed to ensure a complete and effective sanitation value chain • Limited sludge disposal options OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  19. 19. FSM | Urban challenges & practices Productive use of faecal sludge • Limited successful examples of models that can work at scale • Limited interest from private sector due to lack of profitable business models • Potential business models are being developed to convert human waste (mixed with other waste) to fuel, fertilisers or electricity OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  20. 20. Faecal waste flows in Dhaka, Bangladesh OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES (WSP, March 2014)
  21. 21. References Shrestha, R.R. (October 2013) Urban Sanitation: A Growing Challenge with Opportunities. Available at: http://www.sacosanv.gov.np/userfiles/files/Roshan%20Raj%20Shrestha(1).pdf USAID (January 2010) A Rapid Assessment of Septage Management in Asia: Policies and Practices in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. Prepared by AECOM International Development, Inc. and the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) The Boston Consulting Group (December 2012) Global FSM Market Sizing + Archetypes. Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation WSP (March 2014) The missing link in sanitation service delivery, A review of fecal sludge management in 12 cities OVERVIEW OF FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES
  22. 22. Visiting address Bezuidenhoutseweg 2 2594 AV The Hague The Netherlands Postal address P.O. Box 82327 2508 EH The Hague The Netherlands T +31 70 3044000 info@ircwash.org www.ircwash.org Supporting water sanitation and hygiene services for life

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