In Eastern Haraghe, more experience growing vegetables (kyat) in backyardIn Eastern Haraghe, more experience in application of wastewater on non-food crops, thereby creating better understanding of nutrient cycleIn East Arsi, plots of land are larger, scattered and more remote;Communities in Eastern Haraghe are known for their open-mindedness and willingness to uptake new interventions
Options for up-scaling greywater reuse in Ethiopia
MUS greywater reuse:Options for upscaling greywater reuse in Ethiopia
3Research Questions• What examples of productive reuse of greywater exist in Ethiopia?• Why is greywater not more widely re-used in this water-scarcecountry?• What is required for successful upscaling?Options for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaResearch Aim• Address critical water problems in water scarce areas bydocumenting in-country examples of productive reuses of greywater
4 Options for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaDefinition of Greywater• Without faecal matter• Water from bathroom and kitchensinks, showers, clothes washing, etc.• Safe and beneficial source forirrigation water for backyardShewa,W.A.,&Geleta,B.G.(2009).Casestudyofsustainablesanitationprojects:Greywatertowerforperi-urbanareas.ArbaMinch,Ethiopia:SustainableSanitationAlliance.
51. The Case of Lege Dini• Pauline Scheelbeek (2005) “2 containers a day; in quest ofenvironmental sustainability & public health for the rural poor – waterquality, multiple use and water division in the Lege Dini Watershedarea in Ethiopia: towards a MUS approach.” MSc.Thesis, Wageningen University & Research• Focused on water sources, water uses and greywater reuse• Irrigation exists only where there is good access to a reliable watersourceOptions for upscaling greywater reuse in Ethiopia
61. The Case of Lege DiniScheelbeek (2005) recorded 2common way of watering plants:(1) Surface irrigation – narrowcanals dug from washing ordrinking water point to field(some GW use)(2) Drip irrigation – tin cans tied tobranch, filled with water thatdrips through holes in bottomof can (some GW use)Options for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaImage: Papaya trees irrigated with water in Lege Dini.Papaya is promoted for high beta-carotene content tolower risk of blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency(Scheelbeek 2005)
72. Keyhole garden• Initiative by Catholic Relief Services(CRS) – most successful in Lesotho• Designed for chronically ill• Soil enrichment• Retention of moisture in arid climate• Labor saving• Year-round vegetable production• Locally resourced materials (in ruralareas)Options for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaCRSHomesteadGardeningHandbook(2008)
2. Keyhole Garden9@ training center, reasons for failure:• Lack of greywater;• Lack of responsible person• Demonstration may have lackedfollow-up;• System is suffering from droughtUptake in Eastern Haraghe moresuccessful: experience in cropproduction + reuse wastewater,mentality/open-mindednessOptions for upscaling greywater reuse in Ethiopia
103. Greywater Reuse TowerOptions for upscaling greywater reuse in Ethiopia• Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa(ROSA – project)• Abra Minch (Ethiopia), Nakuru (Kenya), Arusha (Tanzania), Kitgum(Uganda)• Essentially sub-surface irrigationShewa, W. A., & Geleta, B. G.(2009). Case study of sustainablesanitation projects: Greywatertower for peri-urban areas. ArbaMinch, Ethiopia: SustainableSanitation Alliance.
11DiscussionOptions for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaLege Dini – surface& drip irrigationKeyhole gardenGreywater ReuseTowerScale Rural plot Rural family Urban/peri-urbanCostsIf all locally sourcedmaterials; only costsfor labourIf all locally sourcedmaterials; only costs forlabourEUR10.20BenefitsReuse of runoff fromwaterpoint by nearbyhouseholds;upscaling canalpossibleHigh retention; suitable forwater scarce areas; waistheight; labor saving afterconstructionVertical garden; spaceefficient; gravel column;reuse of materialsRQ1. What examples of productive reuse of greywater exist in Ethiopia?
12DiscussionOptions for upscaling greywater reuse in EthiopiaRQ2. Why is greywater not more widely re-used in this water-scarcecountry?– Perception/cultural resistance to using dirty water„– High faecal content in greywater of pilots in Arba Minch– A regional component?RQ 3. What is required for successful upscaling?– simple to use technology/ easy adoption– successful demonstration/pilot– committed staff with regular follow-up