KEYNOTE - Moriarty Kampala Uganda symposium

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KEYNOTE - Moriarty Kampala Uganda symposium

  1. 1. Kampala, Uganda, 13 to 15 April 2010International Symposium on Sustainable Rural Water ServicesWhat’s in a service? Using water service ladders in life-cycle cost analysis<br />Dr. Patrick Moriarty<br />IRC, Ghana<br />
  2. 2. Description of programme<br />A five year action research programme. <br />Working in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mozambique and India (Andhra Pradesh).<br />Researching the FULL Life-Cycle Costs (LCC) of providing Rural and Peri-Urban (Domestic) Water and Sanitation Services, and ….<br />Identifying ways in which this information can be used to improve service delivery<br />
  3. 3. Disaggregated Life Cycle Costs<br />Life Cycle Costs Components<br />Capital expenditure (CapEx): hardware and software<br />Operational and minor maintenance expenditure (OpEx)<br />Capital maintenance expenditure (CapManEx)– rehabilitation, replacement<br />Direct support costs – post construction activities, household expenditures<br />Indirect support cost – macro level planning and policy formulation<br />Costs of capital – costs of loans<br />
  4. 4. What is a domestic water service?<br />A water service is the water provided to people… typically defined in terms of:<br />quantity and quality; accessibility and reliability<br />Service ≠ Technology<br />though there are strong links between the two:<br />Hand-pumps normally represent one level of service;<br />Taps in houses another.<br />
  5. 5. Service levels and ladders<br />A service level is a group of indicators that together establish a normative benchmark for service delivery. <br />(e.g. 20l/p/d of WHO quality water within 500m of the dwelling and shared by no more than 300 people)<br />A service ladder is a series of service levels grouped to convey the impression (or intention) of progress from one level to the next.<br />Establishing service levels is a political process.<br />
  6. 6. Water service levels<br />
  7. 7. Existing JMP ladder<br />Piped water on premises: Piped household water connection located inside the user's dwelling,<br />Piped<br />Other improved drinking water sources: Public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs or rainwater collection.<br />Improved<br />Unimproved drinking water sources: Unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, cart with small tank/drum, surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels), and bottled water.<br />Unimproved<br />
  8. 8. The WASHCost Water Service Ladder<br />High service: people access a minimum of 60l/c/d of high quality water on demand<br />High<br />Intermediate service: people access a minimum of 40l/c/d of acceptable quality water from an improved source spending no more that 30 minutes per day<br />Intermediate<br />Basic service: people access a minimum of 20l/c/d of acceptable quality water from an improved source spending no more that 30 minutes per day<br />Basic<br />Sub-standard service: people access a service that is an improvement on having no service at all, but fails to meet the basic standard on one or more criteria<br />Sub-standard<br />No service<br />No service: people access water from insecure or unimproved sources, or sources that are too distant, time consuming or are of poor quality<br />
  9. 9. WASHCost proposed indicators<br />
  10. 10. Service levels in WASHCost countries <br />
  11. 11. Example from Ghana<br />Coverage:<br />Access (population): Yes<br />Access (distance): No<br />Reliability: No??? (none working when visited)<br />Quantity: No/Yes?? <br />(average wet/dry – domestic/non-domestic)<br />
  12. 12. Conclusions and next steps<br />To compare the costs of services it is first necessary to agree on a definition of the service.<br />A generic service ladder has been developed based on examples of norms used in the WASHCost countries and linked to the JMP ladder.<br />The usefulness of the service ladder will be further tested by WASHCost.<br />
  13. 13. For more information:<br />www.washcost.info<br />Working paper no.2<br />Thank You<br />

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