Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities in  schools Designing for and  with children
<ul><li>Facilities in schools and healthy children go hand-in-hand </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities show and teach children ab...
<ul><li>Traditionally: Designs choices based on:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the available financial resources,  </li></ul></ul...
The  minimal package  of facilities needed in any school <ul><li>Toilets and urinals (for both girls and boys) for safe ex...
Encourage hygienic behaviour 1
Hygienic behaviour = several small activities If it is difficult, complex or time consuming to undertake these “activities...
 
Are designed with involvement of the users  2
<ul><li>Work through elected committees </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the stakeholders about the sequence of the process </li><...
 
 
<ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate dimensions and adjustments for children </li></ul></ul></ul>3
<ul><li>Children are smaller and less strong than adults! </li></ul><ul><li>Height of seats  </li></ul><ul><li>Height of u...
 
 
Enough capacity and minimal waiting time. 4
<ul><li>How many girls/how many boys?  </li></ul><ul><li>Are children allowed to use the toilets during classes or only du...
<ul><ul><li>Needs and roles of girls </li></ul></ul>5
<ul><li>Location of facilities: safety and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual hygiene and management </li></ul><ul><li>Di...
<ul><li>Wash-room  to change or clean themselves </li></ul><ul><li>squat holes are slightly bigger  so girls can urinate w...
 
<ul><ul><li>Special needs of children with disabilities </li></ul></ul>6
<ul><li>About one in five of the world's poorest is disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations for: </li></ul><ul><li>Blind c...
 
Stimulate children’s learning and development in an age-appropriate way. 7
Environmental development:  by seeing, smelling, hearing and touching and using this information for their intellectual de...
 
Appropriate locations for toilets, water supply and hand wash facilities. 8
<ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility in all weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Mon...
 
<ul><ul><li>Lowest-cost solutions without compromising quality. </li></ul></ul>9
Good quality, sustainable facilities Good materials and improved designs (sometimes standardised) Composting and re-use of...
Design details matter… unhygienic hygienic
Create no contrasts School building School toilets
Do not harm the environment. 10
Sensitisation of children on environmental issues Prevent negative impact on environment Promote water conservation If pos...
 
<ul><ul><li>Have operation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and maintenance plans. </li></ul></ul>11
Good O&M Plan: Involves children, teachers, parents and community Is developed before the facilities are completed Defines...
<ul><ul><li>Financial means to keep it clean and in good shape </li></ul></ul>12
<ul><li>Financial sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Stop full subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>If subsidies, only subsidise the...
<ul><li>Possible funding options: </li></ul><ul><li>contributions from parents </li></ul><ul><li>donations </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
 
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Faithin water presentation a_mooijman

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Presentation by A. Mooijman for Faith in Water, July 2009.

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Faithin water presentation a_mooijman

  1. 1. Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities in schools Designing for and with children
  2. 2. <ul><li>Facilities in schools and healthy children go hand-in-hand </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities show and teach children about good hygiene behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and safe facilities in schools will motivate children to promote for latrines in their own community or construct latrines when they are grown-ups themselves </li></ul>Facilities: the importance
  3. 3. <ul><li>Traditionally: Designs choices based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the available financial resources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio/economic circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child-Friendly designs address the specific needs of children and stimulate hygienic behaviour. </li></ul>Designs
  4. 4. The minimal package of facilities needed in any school <ul><li>Toilets and urinals (for both girls and boys) for safe excreta and urine disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Water provision for drinking water, handwashing, flushing and cleaning, school meal preparation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>System for solid waste collection and safe disposal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Encourage hygienic behaviour 1
  6. 6. Hygienic behaviour = several small activities If it is difficult, complex or time consuming to undertake these “activities” then children will skip some of those activities taking potential health risks.
  7. 8. Are designed with involvement of the users 2
  8. 9. <ul><li>Work through elected committees </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the stakeholders about the sequence of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Also involve children in the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for an open dialogue on sanitation.. It is a sensitive subject! </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate presentation techniques </li></ul>Considerations
  9. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate dimensions and adjustments for children </li></ul></ul></ul>3
  10. 13. <ul><li>Children are smaller and less strong than adults! </li></ul><ul><li>Height of seats </li></ul><ul><li>Height of urinals </li></ul><ul><li>Height of hand washing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between the footrests of squatting platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Doors, taps etc which are easy to open </li></ul>
  11. 16. Enough capacity and minimal waiting time. 4
  12. 17. <ul><li>How many girls/how many boys? </li></ul><ul><li>Are children allowed to use the toilets during classes or only during breaks? </li></ul><ul><li>How many breaks? </li></ul><ul><li>Do all classes begin and end at the same time? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the number of students expand considerably in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there users with disabilities? </li></ul><ul><li>Do female/male teachers prefer to have their own facilities with sufficient privacy? </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><ul><li>Needs and roles of girls </li></ul></ul>5
  14. 19. <ul><li>Location of facilities: safety and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual hygiene and management </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue on feminine hygiene </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Wash-room to change or clean themselves </li></ul><ul><li>squat holes are slightly bigger so girls can urinate whilst defecating. </li></ul><ul><li>Urinals with a door to allow for privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rain water is being collected from the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Water and soap is provided within the wash-room </li></ul>Girl-friendly Design
  16. 22. <ul><ul><li>Special needs of children with disabilities </li></ul></ul>6
  17. 23. <ul><li>About one in five of the world's poorest is disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations for: </li></ul><ul><li>Blind children and children with poor vision: special grips and guiding systems as well as proper lighting for the poor-sighted. </li></ul><ul><li>Children in wheelchairs or with crutches: provision of ramps, wider doors, and special grips or foldable seats. </li></ul><ul><li>People with missing or paralyzed arm(s): lids, taps, and knobs that can be opened with one hand or operated with the feet and are not too heavy. </li></ul>
  18. 25. Stimulate children’s learning and development in an age-appropriate way. 7
  19. 26. Environmental development: by seeing, smelling, hearing and touching and using this information for their intellectual development Social development: The layout of spaces and the way they are used can encourage contact with others or offer seclusion. Creative development: giving them the opportunity to make the spaces their own and letting them adapt them to better suit their needs Physiological development: The use of facilities can help to develop necessary motor skills in young children, such as fine-tuning of the physical movements Interactive spaces that stimulate:
  20. 28. Appropriate locations for toilets, water supply and hand wash facilities. 8
  21. 29. <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility in all weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of handwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of groundwater contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate use and vandalism </li></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><ul><li>Lowest-cost solutions without compromising quality. </li></ul></ul>9
  23. 32. Good quality, sustainable facilities Good materials and improved designs (sometimes standardised) Composting and re-use of pits Separate collection of cleansing materials Good operation & maintenance
  24. 33. Design details matter… unhygienic hygienic
  25. 34. Create no contrasts School building School toilets
  26. 35. Do not harm the environment. 10
  27. 36. Sensitisation of children on environmental issues Prevent negative impact on environment Promote water conservation If possible, recover and recycle nutrients and organic matter
  28. 38. <ul><ul><li>Have operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and maintenance plans. </li></ul></ul>11
  29. 39. Good O&M Plan: Involves children, teachers, parents and community Is developed before the facilities are completed Defines responsibilities Non-discriminatory, no child labor Is linked to other efforts Ensures an open and ongoing dialogue
  30. 40. <ul><ul><li>Financial means to keep it clean and in good shape </li></ul></ul>12
  31. 41. <ul><li>Financial sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Stop full subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>If subsidies, only subsidise the initial costs and make arrangements of cost-sharing or cost-recovery before implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate all aspects.. Including hygiene education, teachers support, cleaning materials, small repairs etc. </li></ul>
  32. 42. <ul><li>Possible funding options: </li></ul><ul><li>contributions from parents </li></ul><ul><li>donations </li></ul><ul><li>use of the general school maintenance budget </li></ul><ul><li>contribution from teachers </li></ul><ul><li>use of fees </li></ul><ul><li>headmasters fund </li></ul><ul><li>Village Committees </li></ul><ul><li>School Management Committee contribution </li></ul><ul><li>organization of income generating activities </li></ul>
  33. 46. Thanks!

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